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  1 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29287884
Autor:Kim BJ; Kim J; Park IY; Jung JY; Suh MW; Oh SH
Dirección:Wide River Institute of Immunology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
Título:Effects of transient auditory deprivation during critical periods on the development of auditory temporal processing.
Fuente:Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 104:66-71, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1872-8464
País de publicación:Ireland
Idioma:eng
Resumen:OBJECTIVES: The central auditory pathway matures through sensory experiences and it is known that sensory experiences during periods called critical periods exert an important influence on brain development. The present study aimed to investigate whether temporary auditory deprivation during critical periods (CPs) could have a detrimental effect on the development of auditory temporal processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve neonatal rats were randomly assigned to control and study groups; Study group experienced temporary (18-20 days) auditory deprivation during CPs (Early deprivation study group). Outcome measures included changes in auditory brainstem response (ABR), gap prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GPIAS), and gap detection threshold (GDT). To further delineate the specific role of CPs in the outcome measures above, the same paradigm was applied in adult rats (Late deprivation group) and the findings were compared with those of the neonatal rats. RESULTS: Soon after the restoration of hearing, early deprivation study animals showed a significantly lower GPIAS at intermediate gap durations and a larger GDT than early deprivation controls, but these differences became insignificant after subsequent auditory inputs. Additionally, the ABR results showed significantly delayed latencies of waves IV, V, and interpeak latencies of wave I-III and wave I-V in study group. Late deprivation group didn't exhibit any deterioration in temporal processing following sensory deprivation. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the present results suggest that transient auditory deprivation during CPs might cause reversible disruptions in the development of temporal processing.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29300752
Autor:Schumacher S; Oe M; Wilhelm FH; Rufer M; Heinrichs M; Weidt S; Moergeli H; Martin-Soelch C
Dirección:Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Título:Does trait anxiety influence effects of oxytocin on eye-blink startle reactivity? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.
Fuente:PLoS One; 13(1):e0190809, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates social behaviors and reduces anxiety. However, effects of oxytocin on startle reactivity, a well-validated measure of defense system activation related to fear and anxiety, have been inconsistent. Here we investigated the influence of oxytocin on startle reactivity with particular focus on the role of trait anxiety. METHODS: Forty-four healthy male participants attended two experimental sessions. They received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in one session and placebo in the other. Startle probes were presented in combination with pictures of social and non-social content. Eye-blink startle magnitude was measured by electromyography over the musculus orbicularis oculi in response to 95 dB noise bursts. Participants were assigned to groups of high vs. low trait anxiety based on their scores on the trait form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: A significant interaction effect of oxytocin with STAI confirmed that trait anxiety moderated the effect of oxytocin on startle reactivity. Post-hoc tests indicated that for participants with elevated trait anxiety, oxytocin increased startle magnitude, particularly when watching non-social pictures, while this was not the case for participants with low trait anxiety. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that effects of oxytocin on defense system activation depend on individual differences in trait anxiety. Trait anxiety may be an important moderator variable that should be considered in human studies on oxytocin effects.
Tipo de publicación:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nombre de substancia:50-56-6 (Oxytocin)


  3 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28993219
Autor:Ma J; Leung LS
Dirección:Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario, London N6A 5C1, Canada. Electronic address: jma2@uwo.ca.
Título:Involvement of posterior cingulate cortex in ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors in rats.
Fuente:Behav Brain Res; 338:17-27, 2018 Feb 15.
ISSN:1872-7549
País de publicación:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumen:The involvement of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) on ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors was investigated in rats. Bilateral infusion of muscimol, a GABA receptor agonist, into the PCC significantly antagonized ketamine-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of a startle reflex (PPI), deficit in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials, and behavioral hyperlocomotion in a dose dependent manner. Local infusion of ketamine directly into the PCC also induced a PPI deficit. Systemic injection of ketamine (3mg/kg,s.c.) induced an increase in power of electrographic activity in the gamma band (30-100Hz) in both the PCC and the hippocampus; peak theta (4-10Hz) power was not significantly altered, but peak theta frequency was increased by ketamine. In order to exclude volume conduction from the hippocampus to PCC, inactivation of the hippocampus was made by local infusion of muscimol into the hippocampus prior to ketamine administration. Muscimol in the hippocampus effectively blocked ketamine-induced increase of gamma power in the hippocampus but not in the PCC, suggesting independent generation of gamma waves in PCC and hippocampus. It is suggested that the PCC is part of the brain network mediating ketamine-induced psychosis related behaviors.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists); 690G0D6V8H (Ketamine)


  4 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28745646
Autor:Balderston NL; Hsiung A; Liu J; Ernst M; Grillon C
Dirección:Section on Neurobiology of Fear and Anxiety, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health (NIH); Nicholas.balderston@nih.gov.
Título:Reducing State Anxiety Using Working Memory Maintenance.
Fuente:J Vis Exp; (125), 2017 Jul 19.
ISSN:1940-087X
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:The purpose of this protocol is to explain how to examine the relationship between working memory processes and anxiety by combining the Sternberg Working Memory (WM) and the threat of shock paradigms. In the Sternberg WM paradigm, subjects are required to maintain a series of letters in the WM for a brief interval and respond by identifying whether the position of a given letter in the series matches a numerical prompt. In the threat of shock paradigm, subjects are exposed to alternating blocks where they are either at risk of receiving unpredictable presentations of a mild electric shock or are safe from the shock. Anxiety is probed throughout the safe and threat blocks using the acoustic startle reflex, which is potentiated under threat (Anxiety-Potentiated Startle (APS)). By conducting the Sternberg WM paradigm during the threat of shock and probing the startle response during either the WM maintenance interval or the intertrial interval, it is possible to determine the effect of WM maintenance on APS.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VIDEO-AUDIO MEDIA


  5 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28464002
Autor:Carvan MJ; Kalluvila TA; Klingler RH; Larson JK; Pickens M; Mora-Zamorano FX; Connaughton VP; Sadler-Riggleman I; Beck D; Skinner MK
Dirección:School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America.
Título:Mercury-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in zebrafish.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(5):e0176155, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs]) and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion) in zebrafish, an established human health model. F0 generation embryos were exposed to MeHg (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 nM) for 24 hours ex vivo. F0 generation control and MeHg-exposed lineages were reared to adults and bred to yield the F1 generation, which was subsequently bred to the F2 generation. Direct exposure (F0 generation) and transgenerational actions (F2 generation) were then evaluated. Hyperactivity and visual deficit were observed in the unexposed descendants (F2 generation) of the MeHg-exposed lineage compared to control. An increase in F2 generation sperm epimutations was observed relative to the F0 generation. Investigation of the DMRs in the F2 generation MeHg-exposed lineage sperm revealed associated genes in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and actin-cytoskeleton pathways being effected, which correlate to the observed neurobehavioral phenotypes. Developmental MeHg-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in F2 generation adult zebrafish. Therefore, mercury can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease in zebrafish, which significantly impacts its environmental health considerations in all species including humans.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Methylmercury Compounds)


  6 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29216226
Autor:Finke JB; Larra MF; Merz MU; Schächinger H
Dirección:Institute of Psychobiology, Department of Clinical Psychophysiology, University of Trier, Trier, Germany.
Título:Startling similarity: Effects of facial self-resemblance and familiarity on the processing of emotional faces.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(12):e0189028, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Facial self-resemblance has been associated with positive emotional evaluations, but this effect may be biased by self-face familiarity. Here we report two experiments utilizing startle modulation to investigate how the processing of facial expressions of emotion is affected by subtle resemblance to the self as well as to familiar faces. Participants of the first experiment (I) (N = 39) were presented with morphed faces showing happy, neutral, and fearful expressions which were manipulated to resemble either their own or unknown faces. At SOAs of either 300 ms or 3500-4500 ms after picture onset, startle responses were elicited by binaural bursts of white noise (50 ms, 105 dB), and recorded at the orbicularis oculi via EMG. Manual reaction time was measured in a simple emotion discrimination paradigm. Pictures preceding noise bursts by short SOA inhibited startle (prepulse inhibition, PPI). Both affective modulation and PPI of startle in response to emotional faces was altered by physical similarity to the self. As indexed both by relative facilitation of startle and faster manual responses, self-resemblance apparently induced deeper processing of facial affect, particularly in happy faces. Experiment II (N = 54) produced similar findings using morphs of famous faces, yet showed no impact of mere familiarity on PPI effects (or response time, either). The results are discussed with respect to differential (presumably pre-attentive) effects of self-specific vs. familiar information in face processing.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28601302
Autor:Sackheim AM; Stockwell D; Villalba N; Haines L; Scott CL; Russell S; Hammack SE; Freeman K
Dirección:Department of Surgery, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.
Título:Traumatic brain injury impairs sensorimotor function in mice.
Fuente:J Surg Res; 213:100-109, 2017 Jun 01.
ISSN:1095-8673
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:INTRODUCTION: Understanding the extent to which murine models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) replicate clinically relevant neurologic outcomes is critical for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. We determined sensorimotor outcomes in a mouse model of TBI and validated the use of a standardized neurologic examination scoring system to quantify the extent of injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a lateral fluid percussion injury model of TBI and compared TBI animals to those that underwent sham surgery. We measured neurobehavioral deficits using a standardized 12-point neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging, a rotating rod test, and longitudinal acoustic startle testing. RESULTS: TBI animals had a significantly decreased ability to balance on a rotating rod and a marked reduction in the amplitude of acoustic startle response. The neurologic examination had a high inter-rater reliability (87% agreement) and correlated with latency to fall on a rotating rod (R = -0.809). CONCLUSIONS: TBI impairs sensorimotor function in mice, and the extent of impairment can be predicted by a standardized neurologic examination.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28583912
Autor:Sturm JJ; Zhang-Hooks YX; Roos H; Nguyen T; Kandler K
Dirección:Department of Otolaryngology and.
Título:Noise Trauma-Induced Behavioral Gap Detection Deficits Correlate with Reorganization of Excitatory and Inhibitory Local Circuits in the Inferior Colliculus and Are Prevented by Acoustic Enrichment.
Fuente:J Neurosci; 37(26):6314-6330, 2017 Jun 28.
ISSN:1529-2401
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Hearing loss leads to a host of cellular and synaptic changes in auditory brain areas that are thought to give rise to auditory perception deficits such as temporal processing impairments, hyperacusis, and tinnitus. However, little is known about possible changes in synaptic circuit connectivity that may underlie these hearing deficits. Here, we show that mild hearing loss as a result of brief noise exposure leads to a pronounced reorganization of local excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the mouse inferior colliculus. The exact nature of these reorganizations correlated with the presence or absence of the animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, a commonly used behavioral sign for tinnitus in animal models. Mice with gap detection deficits (GDDs) showed a shift in the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition that was present in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, whereas mice without GDDs showed stable excitation-inhibition balances. Acoustic enrichment (AE) with moderate intensity, pulsed white noise immediately after noise trauma prevented both circuit reorganization and GDDs, raising the possibility of using AE immediately after cochlear damage to prevent or alleviate the emergence of central auditory processing deficits. Noise overexposure is a major cause of central auditory processing disorders, including tinnitus, yet the changes in synaptic connectivity underlying these disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we find that brief noise overexposure leads to distinct reorganizations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and that the nature of these reorganizations correlates with animals' impairments in detecting brief sound gaps, which is often considered a sign of tinnitus. Acoustic enrichment immediately after noise trauma prevents circuit reorganizations and gap detection deficits, highlighting the potential for using sound therapy soon after cochlear damage to prevent the development of central processing deficits.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28483253
Autor:Kim BJ; Kim J; Keoboutdy V; Kwon HJ; Oh SH; Jung JY; Park IY; Paik KC
Dirección:Wide River Institute of Immunology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; The Environmental Health Center(Neurodevelopment), Dankook University Medical Center, Cheonan, South Korea. Electronic address: faye98@snu.ac.kr.
Título:The effects of postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing in rats.
Fuente:Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 97:61-65, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1872-8464
País de publicación:Ireland
Idioma:eng
Resumen:OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during the postnatal critical periods and is shaped by experience and sensory inputs. Phthalate, a known neurotoxic material, has been reported to be associated with attention deficits in children, impacting many infant neurobehaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of neonatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing. METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: The phthalate group (n = 6), and the control group (n = 6). Phthalate was given once per day from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P28. Upon completion, at P28, the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and Gap Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle response (GPIAS) at each gap duration (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 80 ms) were measured, and gap detection threshold (GDT) was calculated. These outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds by ABR showed no significant differences at all frequencies between the two groups. Regarding GPIAS, no significant difference was observed, except at a gap duration of 20 ms (p = 0.037). The mean GDT of the phthalate group (44.0 ms) was higher than that of the control group (20.0 ms), but without statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the phthalate group tended to demonstrate more of a scattered distribution in the GDT group than the in the control group. CONCLUSION: Neonatal phthalate exposure may disrupt the development of auditory temporal processing in rats.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Phthalic Acids); 6O7F7IX66E (phthalic acid)


  10 / 5967 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28419104
Autor:van den Bos R; Mes W; Galligani P; Heil A; Zethof J; Flik G; Gorissen M
Dirección:Department of Animal Ecology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Título:Further characterisation of differences between TL and AB zebrafish (Danio rerio): Gene expression, physiology and behaviour at day 5 of the larval stage.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(4):e0175420, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become popular as model organism in research. Many strains are readily available, which not only differ morphologically, but also genetically, physiologically and behaviourally. Here, we focus on the AB and Tupfel long-fin (TL) strain for which we have previously shown that adults differ in baseline hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI)-axis activity (AB higher than TL) affecting inhibitory avoidance behaviour (absent in AB). To assess whether strain differences are already present in early life stages, we compared baseline HPI-axis related gene expression as well as cortisol levels, (neuro)development related as well as (innate) immune system related gene expression, and light-dark as well as startle behaviour in larvae 5 days post fertilisation. The data show that AB and TL larvae differ in baseline HPI-axis activity (AB higher than TL), expression of (neuro)development and immune system related genes (AB higher than TL), habituation to acoustic/vibrational stimuli (AB habituate faster than TL) and light-dark induced changes in motor behaviour (AB stronger than TL). Our data show that already in larval stages differences exist between zebrafish of the AB and TL strain confirming and extending data of earlier studies. To what extent the mutation in connexin 41.8, leading to spots rather than stripes in TL, but also (possibly) affecting eye, heart and brain function, is involved in the expression of (some of) these differences needs to be studied. These results emphasise that differences between strains need to be taken into account to enhance reproducibility both within, and between, laboratories.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Zebrafish Proteins); WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)



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