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  1 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28339420
Autor:Nylén EC; Lindfors P; Ishäll L; Göransson S; Aronsson G; Kylin C; Sverke M
Dirección:Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
Título:A pilot-study of a worksite based participatory intervention program: Its acceptability and short-term effects on work climate and attitudes in human service employees.
Fuente:Work; 56(4):625-636, 2017.
ISSN:1875-9270
País de publicación:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors, including job demands and poor resources, have been linked to stress, health problems, and negative job attitudes. However, worksite based interventions and programs targeting psychosocial factors may change employees' perceptions of their work climate and work attitudes. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study describes a newly developed worksite based participatory organizational intervention program that was tested in the social service sector. It is evaluated using participants' perceptions of the intervention to investigate its acceptability as a feature of feasibility and its short-term effects on work climate factors (job demands and resources) and work-related attitudes. METHODS: Forty employees of a Swedish social service unit provided self-reports before, during, and after the intervention. RESULTS: As for effects, quantitative role overload and social support decreased while turnover intention increased. Responses to an open-ended question showed that participants considered the intervention program valuable for addressing issues relating to the psychosocial work climate. CONCLUSIONS: Although the findings are preliminary, it was possible to carry out this worksite based participatory organizational program in this particular setting. Also, the preliminary findings underscore the challenges associated with designing and implementing this type of intervention program, thus adding to the methodological discussion on implementation and evaluation.
Tipo de publicación:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28251864
Autor:Chin LJ; Berenson JA; Klitzman RL
Dirección:1 State University of New York College at Old Westbury, USA.
Título:Typologies of Altruistic and Financial Motivations for Research Participation.
Fuente:J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics; 11(4):299-310, 2016 Oct.
ISSN:1556-2654
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Questions arise concerning participants' motives in risky studies, such as HIV vaccine trials (HVTs). We interviewed in-depth 20 gay/bisexual men. Participants described both altruistic and nonaltruistic motives. Altruistic motivations emerged primarily, with nine typologies: (a) cultural, (b) community related, (c) familial, (d) religious, (e) professional, (f) political (e.g., HIV activism), (g) moral (e.g., making up for past wrongs), (h) existential (e.g., providing sense of meaning), and (i) other psychological (e.g., emotional gratification). Views of compensation varied: not a factor (55%), added incentive (25%), main motivator, but in conjunction with altruism (15%), and primary motivator (5%). HVT participants thus often have both altruistic and financial motives, and related typologies emerged. These findings have critical implications for studies on HIV, other conditions, and research ethics.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (AIDS Vaccines)


  3 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28078953
Autor:Corneli A; Namey E; Mueller MP; Tharaldson J; Sortijas S; Grey T; Sugarman J
Dirección:1 FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA.
Título:Evidence-Based Strategies for Shortening Informed Consent Forms in Clinical Research.
Fuente:J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics; 12(1):14-25, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1556-2654
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Long informed consent forms (ICFs) remain commonplace, yet they can negatively affect potential participants' understanding of clinical research. We aimed to build consensus among six groups of key stakeholders on advancing the use of shorter ICFs in clinical research. Partnering with the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), we used a modified Delphi process with semistructured interviews and online surveys. Concerns about redundancy of information were common. Respondents supported three strategies for reducing ICF length: (a) 91% agreed or strongly agreed with grouping study procedures by frequency, (b) 91% were comfortable or very comfortable with placing supplemental information into appendices, and (c) 93% agreed or strongly agreed with listing duplicate side effects only once. Implementing these strategies will facilitate adoption of the proposed changes to U.S. regulations on ICF length, should they be enacted.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27780687
Autor:Armstrong M; Morris C; Abraham C; Tarrant M
Dirección:Peninsula Cerebra Research Unit (PenCRU), University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, UK; NIHR PenCLAHRC, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, UK; Psychology Applied to Health (PAtH) Group, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, UK. Electronic
Título:Interventions utilising contact with people with disabilities to improve children's attitudes towards disability: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Fuente:Disabil Health J; 10(1):11-22, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1876-7583
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Children with disabilities are often the target of prejudice from their peers. The effects of prejudice include harmful health consequences. The Contact Hypothesis has previously shown to promote positive attitudes towards a range of social groups. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for improving children's attitudes towards disability through contact with people with disabilities. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted across multiple databases. Studies were included if it evaluated an intervention that aimed to improve children's attitudes towards disability and involved either direct (in-person) or indirect (e.g., extended) contact with people with disabilities. Data were synthesised in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 found significant effects: six used direct contact, two used extended contact, two used parasocial (media-based) contact and one used guided imagined contact. One parasocial contact intervention found no significant effects. Three meta-analyses showed direct contact (d = 0.55, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.90) and extended contact (d = 0.61, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.07) improved children's attitudes; there was no evidence for parasocial contact (d = 0.20, 95% CI -0.01 to 1.40). CONCLUSIONS: Direct, extended, and guided imagined contact interventions are effective in improving children's attitudes towards disability; there was no evidence for parasocial contact.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  5 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27769758
Autor:Lindsay S; McAdam L; Mahendiran T
Dirección:Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Canada; Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: slindsay@hollandbloorview.ca.
Título:Enablers and barriers of men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy transitioning from an adult clinic within a pediatric hospital.
Fuente:Disabil Health J; 10(1):73-79, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1876-7583
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) live into adulthood and need specialized care. However, services for adults are fragmented. We know little about young men's experiences, their parents, and clinicians who support them as they transition to adult care. OBJECTIVE: To explore the enablers and barriers of clinicians, young men, and parents as they transition from an adult DMD clinic within a pediatric hospital to an adult health facility. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 16 participants (7 clinicians, 5 parents, 4 youth). We used an open-coding, thematic approach to analyze the data. RESULTS: Clinicians, youth and their parents experienced several enablers and barriers in transitioning to an adult health care center. Clinicians reported that structural factors including leadership and advocacy supported the transition. Clinicians and parents found that the availability and continuity of care both enabled and hindered the transition. Parents and youth conveyed the difficulties of adjusting to the different model of adult care and also accessing resources. All participants described how relational factors (i.e., effective communication and family involvement) enabled the transition. On an individual level, clinicians, parents and youth viewed transition readiness and other life skill supports as an enabler and a barrier to transitioning. All participants reported the difficulties of maintaining mental health for youth with DMD transitioning to adult health care. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians, youth, and parents experienced several enablers and barriers in transitioning to adult health care. Further work is needed to understand the complex transition needs of youth with DMD.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27756560
Autor:Bagatell N; Chan D; Rauch KK; Thorpe D
Dirección:University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA. Electronic address: Nancy_Bagatell@med.unc.edu.
Título:"Thrust into adulthood": Transition experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy.
Fuente:Disabil Health J; 10(1):80-86, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1876-7583
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: The transition to adulthood, the gradual change in roles and responsibilities, is identified as a challenging time for adolescents and young adults with physical disabilities, including those with cerebral palsy. Health care, education, employment, independent living, and community engagement have been identified as areas of concern. However, relatively little research has been done to understand the experiences, perceptions, and needs of individuals with cerebral palsy as they transition toward adulthood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the transition experiences, perceptions, and needs of young adults with cerebral palsy living in one state in the southeastern United States. METHODS: Focus groups with nine young adults with cerebral palsy (19-34 years) were conducted. The focus group interview explored the preparation for transition and experiences navigating adulthood. The audio-recorded groups were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Young adults with cerebral palsy identified numerous challenges associated with navigating adulthood. The main themes were: 1) being thrust into adulthood; 2) navigating systems and services; 3) understanding and managing my body; and 4) dealing with stereotypes and prejudice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the need for a holistic approach to transition with a focus on building capacity and empowerment. To navigate complex systems of care, "navigators" or "facilitators" are needed. Additionally, practitioners and service providers in adult systems need further education about cerebral palsy.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27687636
Autor:Anderson C; Grant RL; Hurley MV
Dirección:Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, St George's University of London and Kingston University, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK. Electronic address: contact@cherylanderson.co.uk.
Título:Exercise facilities for neurologically disabled populations - Perceptions from the fitness industry.
Fuente:Disabil Health J; 10(1):157-162, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1876-7583
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: People with neurological disabilities (pwND) face many barriers to undertaking physical activity. One option for exercise alongside formal physiotherapy is local fitness facilities but accessibility is often found wanting and gyms are seen as unwelcoming to pwND. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the perceptions of fitness facility managers with respect to exercise for pwND in a gym environment. The aim was to identify potential barriers to provision by the fitness industry for pwND. METHODS: The participants included those who were in a position to influence provision at a policy level and those working at management level within fitness providers. A mixed methods approach was used: a quantitative questionnaire and 4 qualitative interviews. Descriptive and correlational analysis, thematic content analysis and concurrent triangulation analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Specially trained staff is perceived to be necessary to make fitness facilities accessible for pwND. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring the provision of specially trained staff to support pwND to exercise in gyms may be the main barrier to provision for this population. Investigation into the standard training of fitness professionals combining the expertise of neurological physiotherapists with that of fitness professionals to meet the needs of pwND would be advantageous.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27481150
Autor:Luck-Sikorski C; Riedel-Heller SG
Dirección:Institute of Social Medicine, Occupational Health and Public Health (ISAP), University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; Leipzig University Medical Center, IFB Adiposity Diseases, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 27, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; SRH University of Applied Sciences, Neue Str. 28-30, 07548 Gera, Germany. Electronic address: claudia.luck-sikorski@medizin.uni-leipzig.de.
Título:Obesity as a disability - A representative survey of individuals with obesity from Germany.
Fuente:Disabil Health J; 10(1):152-156, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1876-7583
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: While obesity can be an antecedent of disability and the prevalence of disabilities in increased in individuals with obesity, it has been highly debated whether obesity itself should be considered a disability. The European Court of justice has set a precedent in 2014, ruling that severe forms of obesity qualify for protection under the disability protection legislation. However, attitudes and opinions of those affected have not been investigated yet. OBJECTIVE: To study attitudes of people with obesity regarding the acknowledgment of obesity as a disability. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based study from Germany, conducted in 2015, in n = 1000 individuals with obesity. RESULTS: We find that 38.2% of all respondents agreed that obesity ought to be considered a disability. In logistic regression analyses, heavier participants expressed a higher support of obesity seen as a disability, regardless of perceived discrimination experiences (ΔOR = 1.54, p = 0.427). Experiences of perceived discrimination were associated with a higher approval of obesity as a disability in individuals with class II obesity (OR = 2.07, p = 0.002) compared to respondents with less severe obesity. CONCLUSION: These findings go in line with the European Court of Justice's ruling, where it is stated that only severe forms of obesity qualify for protection under the disability legislation. The results underline the importance of considering adding weight to anti-discrimination legislation.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27424945
Autor:Hill JN; Balbale S; Lones K; LaVela SL
Dirección:Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Spinal Cord Injury Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (SCI QUERI), Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA; Center of Innovation for Complex Chronic Health Care (CINCCH), Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA; Center for Evaluation of Practices a
Título:Starting a new conversation: Engaging Veterans with spinal cord injury in discussions of what function means to them, the barriers/facilitators they encounter, and the adaptations they use to optimize function.
Fuente:Disabil Health J; 10(1):114-122, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1876-7583
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Assessments of function in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) often utilize pre-defined constructs and measures without consideration of patient context, including how patients define function and what matters to them. OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: We utilized photovoice to understand how individuals define function, facilitators and barriers to function, and adaptations to support functioning. METHODS: Veterans with SCI were provided with cameras and guidelines to take photographs of things that: (1) help with functioning, (2) are barriers to function, and (3) represent adaptations used to support functioning. Interviews to discuss photographs followed and were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded-thematic coding. Nvivo 8 was used to store and organize data. RESULTS: Participants (n = 9) were male (89%), Caucasian (67%), had paraplegia (75%), averaged 64 years of age, and were injured, on average, for 22 years. Function was described in several ways: the concept of 'normalcy,' aspects of daily living, and ability to be independent. Facilitators included: helpful tools, physical therapy/therapists, transportation, and caregivers. Barriers included: wheelchair-related issues and interior/exterior barriers both in the community and in the hospital. Examples of adaptations included: traditional examples like ramps, and also creative examples like the use of rubber bands on a can to help with grip. CONCLUSION(S): Patient-perspectives elicited in-depth information that expanded the common definition of function by highlighting the concept of "normality," facilitators and barriers to function, and adaptations to optimize function. These insights emphasize function within a patient-context, emphasizing a holistic definition of function that can be used to develop personalized, patient-driven care plans.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 41476 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29045426
Autor:Carballo F; Freidin E; Casanave EB; Bentosela M
Dirección:Grupo de Investigación del comportamiento en cánidos (ICOC), Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas (IDIM-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Título:Dogs' recognition of human selfish and generous attitudes requires little but critical experience with people.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(10):e0185696, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:There is some dispute regarding the role of experience in the development of dogs´ socio-cognitive abilities in their interaction with people. We sought to provide new evidence to this debate by comparing dogs with contrasting levels of experience with humans, in a task involving the discrimination of human generous and selfish attitudes. To this end, we compared the performance of adult family dogs against that of adult shelter dogs and puppies living in people´s homes. In training trials, the generous experimenter (G) signaled the bowl with food and allowed the dog to eat, whereas the selfish experimenter (S) also signaled the baited bowl, but she/he ate the food before the dog could have access to it. Then, subjects were allowed to freely choose between G and S in the choice test. The main finding was that adult subjects (both family and shelter dogs) developed a preference for G over S, but puppies did not. We conclude that the quality and/or quantity of everyday-contact with people did not affect the discrimination of human attitudes in the present protocol, but the amount of experience with people (in years) did matter. Finally, we discuss the relative role of domestication and ontogeny in the development of dogs´ socio-cognitive abilities.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE



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