Base de datos : MEDLINE
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  1 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28193174
Autor:Sargent L; McCullough A; Del Mar C; Lowe J
Dirección:Centre of Research Excellence in Minimising Antibiotics Resistance for Acute Respiratory Infections (Bond University, Gold Coast), University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, Sippy Downs, 4556, Australia. lsargent@usc.edu.au.
Título:Using theory to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.
Fuente:BMC Fam Pract; 18(1):20, 2017 Feb 13.
ISSN:1471-2296
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. METHODS: This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia. Forty-three semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with general practitioners, pharmacists and patients were conducted. Responses were coded into domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework, and specific criteria from the Behaviour Change Wheel were used to identify which domains were relevant to increasing the use of delayed prescribing by GPs. RESULTS: The interviews revealed nine key domains that influence GPs' use of delayed prescribing: knowledge; cognitive and interpersonal skills; memory, attention and decision-making processes; optimism; beliefs about consequences; intentions; goals; emotion; and social influences: GPs knew about delayed prescribing; however, they did not use it consistently, preferring to bring patients back for review and only using it with patients in a highly selective way. Pharmacists would support GPs and the public in delayed prescribing but would fill the prescription if people insisted. The public said they would delay taking their antibiotics if asked by their GP and given the right information on managing symptoms and when to take antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Using a theory-driven approach, we identified nine key domains that influence GPs' willingness to provide a delayed prescription to patients with an acute respiratory infection presenting to general practice. These data can be used to develop a structured intervention to change this behaviour and thus reduce antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in general practice.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)


  2 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28813554
Autor:Kim ES; Kawachi I; Chen Y; Kubzansky LD
Dirección:Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Título:Association Between Purpose in Life and Objective Measures of Physical Function in Older Adults.
Fuente:JAMA Psychiatry; 74(10):1039-1045, 2017 Oct 01.
ISSN:2168-6238
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Importance: Higher purpose in life is hypothesized to reduce the likelihood of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed because purpose has been linked with a range of positive health behaviors and biological processes that are potentially protective against declining physical function. However, the association between purpose in life and objective physical function has not been examined. Objective: To assess whether higher purpose in life among adequately functioning older adults is associated with lower risk of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data for a longitudinal cohort study were collected in 2006 and again in 2010 from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study of US adults older than 50 years. Data analysis was conducted from November 23, 2016, to June 2, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The risk of developing weak grip strength (assessed as a binary yes or no outcome) or slow walking speed (yes or no) during the 4-year follow-up period. Grip strength was assessed using Smedley spring-type hand dynamometers, and walking speed was assessed by asking respondents to walk 2.5 m at their normal walking pace. Results: In this study, 4486 adults had grip scores at baseline indicating adequate function (2665 women and 1821 men; mean [SD] age, 63.0 [8.2] years) and 1461 adults had walking scores at baseline indicating adequate function (801 women and 660 men; mean [SD] age, 70.8 [6.5] years). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, each 1-SD increase in purpose was associated with a 13% decreased risk (95% CI, 1%-23%) of developing weak grip strength and a 14% decreased risk (95% CI, 8%-20%) of developing slow walking speed. Associations with walking speed were maintained in all covariate models (fully adjusted model: risk ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95), but associations with grip strength did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance after additionally adjusting for relevant baseline health factors, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors (fully adjusted model: risk ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.04). Conclusions and Relevance: Purpose in life was prospectively associated with a decreased risk of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed, although the findings were more robust for walking speed than for grip strength. These findings suggest that a sense of purpose in life, a modifiable factor, may play an important role in maintaining physical function among older adults.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27814502
Autor:Isaacs K; Mota NP; Tsai J; Harpaz-Rotem I; Cook JM; Kirwin PD; Krystal JH; Southwick SM; Pietrzak RH
Dirección:Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address: kayla.isaacs@yale.edu.
Título:Psychological resilience in U.S. military veterans: A 2-year, nationally representative prospective cohort study.
Fuente:J Psychiatr Res; 84:301-309, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1879-1379
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Although many cross-sectional studies have examined the correlates of psychological resilience in U.S. military veterans, few longitudinal studies have identified long-term predictors of resilience in this population. The current prospective cohort study utilized data from a nationally representative sample of 2157 U.S. military veterans who completed web-based surveys in two waves (2011 and 2013) as part of the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Cluster analysis of cumulative lifetime exposure to potentially traumatic events and Wave 2 measures of current symptoms of posttraumatic stress, major depressive, and generalized anxiety disorders was performed to characterize different profiles of current trauma-related psychological symptoms. Different profiles were compared with respect to sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics. A three-group cluster analysis revealed a Control group with low lifetime trauma exposure and low current psychological distress (59.5%), a Resilient group with high lifetime trauma and low current distress (27.4%), and a Distressed group with both high trauma exposure and current distress symptoms (13.1%). These results suggest that the majority of trauma-exposed veterans (67.7%) are psychologically resilient. Compared with the Distressed group, the Resilient group was younger, more likely to be Caucasian, and scored lower on measures of physical health difficulties, past psychiatric history, and substance abuse. Higher levels of emotional stability, extraversion, dispositional gratitude, purpose in life, and altruism, and lower levels of openness to experiences predicted resilient status. Prevention and treatment efforts designed to enhance modifiable factors such as gratitude, sense of purpose, and altruism may help promote resilience in highly trauma-exposed veterans.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28700613
Autor:Ran Q; Yang J; Yang W; Wei D; Qiu J; Zhang D
Dirección:Department of Radiology, Xin Qiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Sha Pingba, Chongqing, China.
Título:The association between resting functional connectivity and dispositional optimism.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(7):e0180334, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Dispositional optimism is an individual characteristic that plays an important role in human experience. Optimists are people who tend to hold positive expectations for their future. Previous studies have focused on the neural basis of optimism, such as task response neural activity and brain structure volume. However, the functional connectivity between brain regions of the dispositional optimists are poorly understood. Previous study suggested that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism, but it is unclear whether there are other brain regions that combine with the vmPFC to contribute to dispositional optimism. Thus, the present study used the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach and set the vmPFC as the seed region to examine if differences in functional brain connectivity between the vmPFC and other brain regions would be associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism. The results found that dispositional optimism was significantly positively correlated with the strength of the RSFC between vmPFC and middle temporal gyrus (mTG) and negativly correlated with RSFC between vmPFC and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). These findings may be suggested that mTG and IFG which associated with emotion processes and emotion regulation also play an important role in the dispositional optimism.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28203017
Autor:Guo YS; Li S; Lyu MY; Yang D; Hua H
Dirección:Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.
Título:[Analysis of type C behavior in patients with oral lichen planus].
Fuente:Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao; 49(1):120-4, 2017 02 18.
ISSN:1671-167X
País de publicación:China
Idioma:chi
Resumen:OBJECTIVE: To assess type C behavior in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) in order to provide basis for clinical prevention, treatment and psychological intervention of OLP. METHODS: Type C behavior scale was used on 85 OLP patients and 85 control patients, who were in accordance with the inclusion criteria, in order to investigate their type C behavior. The scale included 9 items: anxiety, depression, anger, anger toward inside (anger-in), anger toward outside (anger-out), reasoning, domination, optimism, and social support. Scores of the 9 items between OLP patients and control group were calculated under the instruction of the scale and were statistically analyzed, and OLP group was further stratified statistically by sex, reticulate-erosive-ulcerative (REU) pathological type and course of diseases, and the scores of each group were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Among the 85 OLP patients, there were more females, more non-erosive lesion type, and the most common site for OLP was the buccal mucosa. The scores of the type-C behavior questionnaire for anxiety, depression, anger and optimism were respectively 43.01±7.47, 44.02±7.61, 21.56±5.26, 22.15±4.00 among the OLP patients and were 37.94±8.70, 39.58±7.35, 18.12±5.39, 24.05±3.23 among control group, with significant differences(P<0.05 for all) between the two groups. The female OLP patients had higher anxiety, depression, anger scores (43.21±6.97, 44.29±7.54, 21.64±5.09) and lower reasoning, domination, optimism scores (39.12±5.66, 16.29±3.95, 22.05±4.12) with significant differences (P<0.05 for all) compared with those of the female controls. The scores between male patients and male controls showed no significant difference. The patients with erosive lesions had higher anger score (22.94±5.26) than that of the patients without erosive lesions(20.60±5.03), with a significant difference(P<0.05). With the development of the disease, the tendency of anxiety and depression of the patients were more obvious, while optimism scores remained declining. The patients suffering more than 3 years of OLP had higher anger-toward-outside scores (17.36±3.35) than the patients suffering less than 3 years of OLP (15.19±3.99), with a significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: OLP patients showed an obvious type C behavior characteristic, especially in anxiety, depression, anger and low optimism. This research provides the C behavior characteristic of OLP for further psychological consultation or intervention during OLP treatment.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28071094
Autor:Hofer J; Busch H; Solcová IP; Tavel P
Dirección:1 University of Trier, Trier, Germany.
Título:Relationship Between Subjectively Evaluated Health and Fear of Death Among Elderly in Three Cultural Contexts.
Fuente:Int J Aging Hum Dev; 84(4):343-365, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1541-3535
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:It is often argued that declining health in elderly people makes death more salient and threatening. However, we argue that health, optimism, and social support interact to predict fear of death in samples from Cameroon, the Czech Republic, and Germany. Low health was associated with enhanced fear of death for participants who received only little social support. As the measure of optimism did not comply with psychometric requirements in the Cameroonian sample, the three-way interaction was tested only in the Czech and German samples. It was found that the two-way interaction was further qualified by optimism in that low health was associated with enhanced fear of death for participants with little social support unless they reported pronounced optimism. Thus, internal and external resources, respectively, can serve to buffer the effect of declining health on the fear of death in the elderly.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28000236
Autor:Puig-Perez S; Hackett RA; Salvador A; Steptoe A
Dirección:Department of Psychobiology and IDOCAL, Laboratory of Social Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
Título:Optimism moderates psychophysiological responses to stress in older people with Type 2 diabetes.
Fuente:Psychophysiology; 54(4):536-543, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1540-5958
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Optimism is thought to be beneficial for health, and these effects may be mediated through modifications in psychophysiological stress reactivity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiovascular responses to stress and heightened cortisol over the day. This study assessed the relationships between optimism, stress responsivity, and daily cortisol output in people with T2D. A total of 140 participants with T2D were exposed to laboratory stress. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and cortisol were measured throughout the session. Cortisol output over the day was also assessed. Optimism and self-reported health were measured using the revised Life Orientation Test and the Short Form Health Survey. Optimism was associated with heightened SBP and DBP stress reactivity (ps < .047) and lower daily cortisol output (p = .04). Optimism was not related to HR, cortisol stress responses, or the cortisol awakening response (ps > .180). Low optimism was related to poorer self-reported physical and mental health (ps < .01). Optimism could have a protective role in modulating stress-related autonomic and neuroendocrine dysregulation in people with T2D.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)


  8 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28039101
Autor:Boselie JJ; Vancleef LM; Peters ML
Dirección:Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: jantine.boselie@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
Título:Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance.
Fuente:J Pain; 18(4):446-455, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1528-8447
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Persistent pain can lead to difficulties in executive task performance. Three core executive functions that are often postulated are inhibition, updating, and shifting. Optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, has been shown to protect against pain-induced performance deterioration in executive function updating. This study tested whether this protective effect of a temporary optimistic state by means of a writing and visualization exercise extended to executive function shifting. A 2 (optimism: optimism vs no optimism) × 2 (pain: pain vs no pain) mixed factorial design was conducted. Participants (N = 61) completed a shifting task once with and once without concurrent painful heat stimulation after an optimism or neutral manipulation. Results showed that shifting performance was impaired when experimental heat pain was applied during task execution, and that optimism counteracted pain-induced deterioration in task-shifting performance. PERSPECTIVE: Experimentally-induced heat pain impairs shifting task performance and manipulated optimism or induced optimism counteracted this pain-induced performance deterioration. Identifying psychological factors that may diminish the negative effect of persistent pain on the ability to function in daily life is imperative.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28499573
Autor:Bekhet AK
Dirección:Marquette University College of Nursing, Clark Hall 530 N. 16th Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233, United States. Electronic address: abir.bekhet@marquette.edu.
Título:Positive Thinking Training Intervention for Caregivers of Persons with Autism: Establishing Fidelity.
Fuente:Arch Psychiatr Nurs; 31(3):306-310, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1532-8228
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:More than 3.5 million in the US are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and caregivers experience stress that adversely affects their well-being. Positive thinking training (PTT) intervention can minimize that stress. However, before testing the effectiveness of PTT, its fidelity must be established. This pilot intervention trial examined fidelity of an online PTT intervention for ASD caregivers with a random assignment of 73 caregivers to either the online PTT intervention or to the control group. Quantitative data [Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS)] and qualitative data (online weekly homework) were collected. The mean scores for the PTSS improved for the intervention group and decreased for the control group post intervention. Evidence for use of PTT was found in caregivers' online weekly homework. The findings provide evidence of the implementation fidelity of PTT intervention and support moving forward to test PTT effectiveness in promoting caregivers' well-being.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 169 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28278200
Autor:Harris AJ; de Molière L; Soh M; Hahn U
Dirección:Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Título:Unrealistic comparative optimism: An unsuccessful search for evidence of a genuinely motivational bias.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(3):e0173136, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:One of the most accepted findings across psychology is that people are unrealistically optimistic in their judgments of comparative risk concerning future life events-they judge negative events as less likely to happen to themselves than to the average person. Harris and Hahn (2011), however, demonstrated how unbiased (non-optimistic) responses can result in data patterns commonly interpreted as indicative of optimism due to statistical artifacts. In the current paper, we report the results of 5 studies that control for these statistical confounds and observe no evidence for residual unrealistic optimism, even observing a 'severity effect' whereby severe outcomes were overestimated relative to neutral ones (Studies 3 & 4). We conclude that there is no evidence supporting an optimism interpretation of previous results using the prevalent comparison method.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE



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