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  1 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28448373
Autor:Loh J; Harms C; Harman B
Dirección:Jennifer Loh, PhD, MAPs, is Senior Lecturer; Craig Harms, PhD, is Lecturer; and Bronwyn Harman, DPsych, is Senior Lecturer, School of Arts and Humanities, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia.
Título:Effects of Parental Stress, Optimism, and Health-Promoting Behaviors on the Quality of Life of Primiparous and Multiparous Mothers.
Fuente:Nurs Res; 66(3):231-239, 2017 May/Jun.
ISSN:1538-9847
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Parental stress, optimism, and health-promoting behaviors (HPBs) are important predictors of the quality of life (QoL) of mothers. However, it is unclear how strongly these predictors affect the QoL of mothers. It is also unclear if the impact of these predictors on QoL differs between primiparous and multiparous mothers. In this study, we defined primiparous as "bearing young for the first time" and multiparous as "having experienced one or more previous childbirths." OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this study was to examine the relative effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers. The second objective was to investigate if the effect of these predictors differed between primiparous and multiparous mothers. METHODS: One hundred ninety-four Australian mothers (n = 87, 44.8% primiparous mothers) participated in an online survey that included the Parental Stress Scale, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. RESULTS: All predictors (parental stress, optimism, and HPBs) significantly affected the QoL of mothers; higher levels of optimism, greater use of HPBs, and lower parental stress were associated with higher levels of QoL for all mothers. Parity did not affect the relationships. DISCUSSION: This study sheds light on the nature and unique effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28813554
Autor:Kim ES; Kawachi I; Chen Y; Kubzansky LD
Dirección:Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Título:Association Between Purpose in Life and Objective Measures of Physical Function in Older Adults.
Fuente:JAMA Psychiatry; 74(10):1039-1045, 2017 Oct 01.
ISSN:2168-6238
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Importance: Higher purpose in life is hypothesized to reduce the likelihood of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed because purpose has been linked with a range of positive health behaviors and biological processes that are potentially protective against declining physical function. However, the association between purpose in life and objective physical function has not been examined. Objective: To assess whether higher purpose in life among adequately functioning older adults is associated with lower risk of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data for a longitudinal cohort study were collected in 2006 and again in 2010 from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study of US adults older than 50 years. Data analysis was conducted from November 23, 2016, to June 2, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The risk of developing weak grip strength (assessed as a binary yes or no outcome) or slow walking speed (yes or no) during the 4-year follow-up period. Grip strength was assessed using Smedley spring-type hand dynamometers, and walking speed was assessed by asking respondents to walk 2.5 m at their normal walking pace. Results: In this study, 4486 adults had grip scores at baseline indicating adequate function (2665 women and 1821 men; mean [SD] age, 63.0 [8.2] years) and 1461 adults had walking scores at baseline indicating adequate function (801 women and 660 men; mean [SD] age, 70.8 [6.5] years). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, each 1-SD increase in purpose was associated with a 13% decreased risk (95% CI, 1%-23%) of developing weak grip strength and a 14% decreased risk (95% CI, 8%-20%) of developing slow walking speed. Associations with walking speed were maintained in all covariate models (fully adjusted model: risk ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95), but associations with grip strength did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance after additionally adjusting for relevant baseline health factors, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors (fully adjusted model: risk ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.04). Conclusions and Relevance: Purpose in life was prospectively associated with a decreased risk of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed, although the findings were more robust for walking speed than for grip strength. These findings suggest that a sense of purpose in life, a modifiable factor, may play an important role in maintaining physical function among older adults.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28700613
Autor:Ran Q; Yang J; Yang W; Wei D; Qiu J; Zhang D
Dirección:Department of Radiology, Xin Qiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Sha Pingba, Chongqing, China.
Título:The association between resting functional connectivity and dispositional optimism.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(7):e0180334, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Dispositional optimism is an individual characteristic that plays an important role in human experience. Optimists are people who tend to hold positive expectations for their future. Previous studies have focused on the neural basis of optimism, such as task response neural activity and brain structure volume. However, the functional connectivity between brain regions of the dispositional optimists are poorly understood. Previous study suggested that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism, but it is unclear whether there are other brain regions that combine with the vmPFC to contribute to dispositional optimism. Thus, the present study used the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach and set the vmPFC as the seed region to examine if differences in functional brain connectivity between the vmPFC and other brain regions would be associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism. The results found that dispositional optimism was significantly positively correlated with the strength of the RSFC between vmPFC and middle temporal gyrus (mTG) and negativly correlated with RSFC between vmPFC and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). These findings may be suggested that mTG and IFG which associated with emotion processes and emotion regulation also play an important role in the dispositional optimism.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28617475
Autor:Gibney E
Título:UK scientists hope for softened Brexit after shock election result.
Fuente:Nature; 546(7658), 2017 06 15.
ISSN:1476-4687
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicación:NEWS


  5 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28499573
Autor:Bekhet AK
Dirección:Marquette University College of Nursing, Clark Hall 530 N. 16th Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233, United States. Electronic address: abir.bekhet@marquette.edu.
Título:Positive Thinking Training Intervention for Caregivers of Persons with Autism: Establishing Fidelity.
Fuente:Arch Psychiatr Nurs; 31(3):306-310, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1532-8228
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:More than 3.5 million in the US are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and caregivers experience stress that adversely affects their well-being. Positive thinking training (PTT) intervention can minimize that stress. However, before testing the effectiveness of PTT, its fidelity must be established. This pilot intervention trial examined fidelity of an online PTT intervention for ASD caregivers with a random assignment of 73 caregivers to either the online PTT intervention or to the control group. Quantitative data [Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS)] and qualitative data (online weekly homework) were collected. The mean scores for the PTSS improved for the intervention group and decreased for the control group post intervention. Evidence for use of PTT was found in caregivers' online weekly homework. The findings provide evidence of the implementation fidelity of PTT intervention and support moving forward to test PTT effectiveness in promoting caregivers' well-being.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28426010
Autor:Knowlton N
Dirección:Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and co-host of the Earth Optimism Summit in Washington DC.
Título:Doom and gloom won't save the world.
Fuente:Nature; 544(7650):271, 2017 04 18.
ISSN:1476-4687
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28278200
Autor:Harris AJ; de Molière L; Soh M; Hahn U
Dirección:Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Título:Unrealistic comparative optimism: An unsuccessful search for evidence of a genuinely motivational bias.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(3):e0173136, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:One of the most accepted findings across psychology is that people are unrealistically optimistic in their judgments of comparative risk concerning future life events-they judge negative events as less likely to happen to themselves than to the average person. Harris and Hahn (2011), however, demonstrated how unbiased (non-optimistic) responses can result in data patterns commonly interpreted as indicative of optimism due to statistical artifacts. In the current paper, we report the results of 5 studies that control for these statistical confounds and observe no evidence for residual unrealistic optimism, even observing a 'severity effect' whereby severe outcomes were overestimated relative to neutral ones (Studies 3 & 4). We conclude that there is no evidence supporting an optimism interpretation of previous results using the prevalent comparison method.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28270539
Autor:Gruen ME; Dorman DC; Lascelles BDX
Dirección:Comparative Pain Research Program, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607, USA.
Título:Caregiver placebo effect in analgesic clinical trials for cats with naturally occurring degenerative joint disease-associated pain.
Fuente:Vet Rec; 180(19):473, 2017 May 13.
ISSN:2042-7670
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:A literature review identified six placebo-controlled studies of analgesics in client-owned cats with degenerative joint disease-associated pain. Five studies with 96 cats had available data. Caregiver responses on a clinical metrology instrument, Client-Specific Outcome Measure (CSOM), were compared to measured activity. Cats were categorised as 'successes' or 'failures' based on change in CSOM score and activity counts from baseline. Effect sizes based on CSOM score were calculated; factors that were associated with success/failure were analysed using logistic regression. Effect sizes ranged from 0.97 to 1.93. The caregiver placebo effect was high, with 54-74 per cent of placebo-treated cats classified as CSOM successes compared with 10-63 per cent of cats classified as successes based on objectively measured activity. 36 per cent of CSOM successes were also activity successes, while 19 per cent of CSOM failures were activity successes. No significant effects of cat age, weight, baseline activity, radiographic score, orthopaedic pain score or study type on CSOM success in the placebo groups were found. The caregiver placebo effect across these clinical trials was remarkably high, making demonstration of efficacy for an analgesic above a placebo difficult. Further work is needed to determine whether a potential placebo-by-proxy effect could benefit cats in clinical settings.
Tipo de publicación:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Analgesics)


  9 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28233374
Autor:Zhou H; Peng J; Wang D; Kou L; Chen F; Ye M; Deng Y; Yan J; Liao S
Dirección:Department of Nursing, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangdong, China.
Título:Mediating effect of coping styles on the association between psychological capital and psychological distress among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.
Fuente:J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs; 24(2-3):114-122, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1365-2850
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. ABSTRACT: Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the role of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress. Aim This study investigated the role of coping styles as a mediator in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. Methods Participants included 538 nurses who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PsyCap, coping styles and psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to explore the role of coping styles. Results PsyCap, coping styles and psychological distress were significantly correlated. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Coping styles is a partial mediator of PsyCap and psychological distress. Implications for mental health nursing The significant role of negative and positive coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, to alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be the focus of the improvement. Different styles of coping are developed from education and experience. Therefore, it is necessary for nurse managers to organize educational and training programmes to improve coping skills among nurses. Studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should also assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 202 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28203017
Autor:Guo YS; Li S; Lyu MY; Yang D; Hua H
Dirección:Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.
Título:[Analysis of type C behavior in patients with oral lichen planus].
Fuente:Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 49(1):120-4, 2017 02 18.
ISSN:1671-167X
País de publicación:China
Idioma:chi
Resumen:OBJECTIVE: To assess type C behavior in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) in order to provide basis for clinical prevention, treatment and psychological intervention of OLP. METHODS: Type C behavior scale was used on 85 OLP patients and 85 control patients, who were in accordance with the inclusion criteria, in order to investigate their type C behavior. The scale included 9 items: anxiety, depression, anger, anger toward inside (anger-in), anger toward outside (anger-out), reasoning, domination, optimism, and social support. Scores of the 9 items between OLP patients and control group were calculated under the instruction of the scale and were statistically analyzed, and OLP group was further stratified statistically by sex, reticulate-erosive-ulcerative (REU) pathological type and course of diseases, and the scores of each group were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Among the 85 OLP patients, there were more females, more non-erosive lesion type, and the most common site for OLP was the buccal mucosa. The scores of the type-C behavior questionnaire for anxiety, depression, anger and optimism were respectively 43.01±7.47, 44.02±7.61, 21.56±5.26, 22.15±4.00 among the OLP patients and were 37.94±8.70, 39.58±7.35, 18.12±5.39, 24.05±3.23 among control group, with significant differences(P<0.05 for all) between the two groups. The female OLP patients had higher anxiety, depression, anger scores (43.21±6.97, 44.29±7.54, 21.64±5.09) and lower reasoning, domination, optimism scores (39.12±5.66, 16.29±3.95, 22.05±4.12) with significant differences (P<0.05 for all) compared with those of the female controls. The scores between male patients and male controls showed no significant difference. The patients with erosive lesions had higher anger score (22.94±5.26) than that of the patients without erosive lesions(20.60±5.03), with a significant difference(P<0.05). With the development of the disease, the tendency of anxiety and depression of the patients were more obvious, while optimism scores remained declining. The patients suffering more than 3 years of OLP had higher anger-toward-outside scores (17.36±3.35) than the patients suffering less than 3 years of OLP (15.19±3.99), with a significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: OLP patients showed an obvious type C behavior characteristic, especially in anxiety, depression, anger and low optimism. This research provides the C behavior characteristic of OLP for further psychological consultation or intervention during OLP treatment.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE



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