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[PMID]: 28949970
[Au] Autor:Peiperl L; PLOS Medicine Editors
[Ad] Address:Public Library of Science, San Francisco, California, United States of America and Cambridge, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Keeping it real: A journal editor in clinic.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(9):e1002394, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this month's editorial, PLOS Medicine's Chief Editor Larry Peiperl discusses the relevance of patient care to a journal editor's work.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Editorial Policies
Periodicals as Topic
Professional Role
Publishing
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
Leadership
Peer Review, Research
[Pt] Publication type:EDITORIAL
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170928
[Lr] Last revision date:170928
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170926
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002394

  2 / 123765 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28727834
[Au] Autor:Howard B; Scott JT; Blubaugh M; Roepke B; Scheckel C; Vassar M
[Ad] Address:College of Osteopathic Medicine, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Systematic review: Outcome reporting bias is a problem in high impact factor neurology journals.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0180986, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Selective outcome reporting is a significant methodological concern. Comparisons between the outcomes reported in clinical trial registrations and those later published allow investigators to understand the extent of selection bias among trialists. We examined the possibility of selective outcome reporting in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in neurology journals. METHODS: We searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials from Jan 1, 2010 -Dec 31, 2015 published in the top 3 impact factor neurology journals. These articles were screened according to specific inclusion criteria. Each author individually extracted data from trials following a standardized protocol. A second author verified each extracted element and discrepancies were resolved. Consistency between registered and published outcomes was evaluated and correlations between discrepancies and funding, journal, and temporal trends were examined. RESULTS: 180 trials were included for analysis. 10 (6%) primary outcomes were demoted, 38 (21%) primary outcomes were omitted from the publication, and 61 (34%) unregistered primary outcomes were added to the published report. There were 18 (10%) cases of secondary outcomes being upgraded to primary outcomes in the publication, and there were 53 (29%) changes in timing of assessment. Of 82 (46%) major discrepancies with reported p-values, 54 (66.0%) favored publication of statistically significant results. CONCLUSION: Across trials, we found 180 major discrepancies. 66% of major discrepancies with a reported p-value (n = 82) favored statistically significant results. These results suggest a need within neurology to provide more consistent and timely registration of outcomes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Neurology
Publication Bias
Publications
Publishing
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
Information Dissemination
Journal Impact Factor
Research
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170928
[Lr] Last revision date:170928
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170720
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180986

  3 / 123765 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28271658
[Au] Autor:Robinson N
[Ad] Address:School of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, SE1 0AA, UK.
[Ti] Title:Integrating acupuncture: are there positive health outcomes for women?
[So] Source:J Zhejiang Univ Sci B;18(3):233-238, 2017 Mar..
[Is] ISSN:1862-1783
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The key health issues for women tend to be primarily associated with the female reproductive system. There are also other gender priorities and consequences associated with ageing, which require effective interventions. Acupuncture is used worldwide and its evidence base is increasing on both mechanisms of action and its effectiveness in clinical care. Although acupuncture may be a valuable addition to healthcare for some conditions, it is rarely fully integrated into mainstream Western medicine clinical practice. Inadequate design and poor reporting of clinical trials have been barriers. Additionally systematic reviews and meta-analyses have tended to be equivocal and have reported that there is insufficient evidence for its recommendation. Future research should focus on ensuring good trial design including cost effectiveness and qualitative data and using a more pragmatic stance which reflects acupuncture in clinical practice. Undoubtedly, effective interventions are always needed to ensure the best health outcomes and address preventable deaths, morbidities, and disabilities among women but integration will be compromised unless underpinned by good evidence.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acupuncture Therapy/methods
Women´s Health
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Clinical Trials as Topic
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Evidence-Based Medicine
Female
Gynecology
Health Promotion
Humans
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/therapy
Research Design
Review Literature as Topic
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170928
[Lr] Last revision date:170928
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170308
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1631/jzus.B1600260

  4 / 123765 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28934772
[Au] Autor:Thomson G; Wilson N
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.
[Ti] Title:Local and regional smokefree and tobacco-free action in New Zealand: highlights and directions.
[So] Source:N Z Med J;130(1462):89-101, 2017 Sep 22.
[Is] ISSN:1175-8716
[Cp] Country of publication:New Zealand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this viewpoint we highlight and discuss some recent local and regional level advances in tobacco control in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In this country a wide range of local actors are helping drive smokefree and tobacco-free policies, with an increasing presence of businesses in this field. There has been progress in the areas of smokefree dining, large outdoor worksites and ski fields, and parts of downtown areas such as squares and streets. In 2015 and 2016, three councils (Palmerston North, Napier and Hastings) have used pavement lease policies and bylaws to start introducing an element of requirement into smokefree outdoor dining. Elsewhere (eg, Rotorua, Ashburton, Westland and Christchurch) significant smokefree outdoor dining moves have been made by, or in conjunction with, local councils. Tobacco-free retailing continues to expand, particularly in Northland. In the absence of meaningful central government action on smokefree places in the last decade (despite the Smokefree 2025 goal), local activity is leading the way. It is particularly important in providing models for smokefree outdoor hospitality areas, where smoking normalisation and relapse are significant health risks. Nevertheless, there is a need for the local smokefree and tobacco-free activity to be nationally evaluated, particularly for assessing the prevalence of smoking in areas covered by 'smokefree' policies. Action by central government could help local actors by providing a more definite legislative basis for bylaws, by minimum outdoor smokefree laws and by the funding of effective tobacco control mass media.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence
Health Promotion/methods
Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking/prevention & control
Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
Local Government
Mass Media/economics
New Zealand
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Tobacco Smoke Pollution)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170926
[Lr] Last revision date:170926
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170921
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28873144
[Au] Autor:Christiansen S; Flanagin A
[Ad] Address:Managing Editor, , and Cochair.
[Ti] Title:Correcting the Medical Literature: "To Err Is Human, to Correct Divine".
[So] Source:JAMA;318(9):804-805, 2017 09 05.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Editorial Policies
Periodicals as Topic/standards
Retraction of Publication as Topic
[Pt] Publication type:EDITORIAL
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170927
[Lr] Last revision date:170927
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170905
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.11833

  6 / 123765 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28872991
[Au] Autor:Mittal N; Goyal M; Mittal PK
[Ti] Title:Understanding and Appraising Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis.
[So] Source:J Clin Pediatr Dent;41(5):317-326, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1053-4628
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Systematic reviews and meta-analysis seek to answer a pre-framed research question to lead to a valid answer through a systematic, explicit and reproducible method of locating; identifying, including and appraising appropriate trials. The results are synthesized considering the methodological rigor of included trials. While the meta-analysis quantitatively pools the results from individual included studies, the systematic review summarizes the findings as qualitative conclusions. These reviews are crux of evidence based dentistry for various stake-holders, i.e., clinicians, researchers and policy-makers. Although the meticulous methodology of systematic review and meta-analysis minimizes the elements of bias, yet the validity and reliability of their findings should be explored prior to translating their conclusions to practice. The goal of this paper is to familiarize readers with rationale, conduct and appraisal of systematic review and meta-analysis. Further, guidance is provided on tracing potential elements of bias in the review to enable readers to judge the quality of evidence generated from the review.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Evidence-Based Dentistry
Meta-Analysis as Topic
Review Literature as Topic
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170926
[Lr] Last revision date:170926
[Js] Journal subset:D
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170905
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17796/1053-4628-41.5.317

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[PMID]: 28871971
[Au] Autor:Verma V
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska. Electronic address: vivek333@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Financial Relationships With Industry of Editorial Board Members of the Three Journals of the American Society for Radiation Oncology.
[So] Source:Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys;99(2):286-291, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-355X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To quantitate financial conflicts of interest (FCOIs) among radiation oncology peer-reviewers, specifically editorial board members of the 3 American Society for Radiation Oncology journals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The public Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database delineates payments in 3 categories (general payments, research funding, and company ownership). After excluding non-US and non-MDs, names of board members were searched. Values of each FCOI were extracted for 2013 to 2015 and compiled. RESULTS: Of 85 board members, 65 (76%) received any form of payment during the overall period. The majority of delivered payments were general payments: 59 (69%) received at least 1 general payment during these 3 years. In each year, 9 board members (11%) received research funding, and 3 board members (4%) reported company ownership. Over the studied period, all board members received a sum total of $5,387,985; this was composed of $665,801 (12%) in general payments, $3,758,968 (70%) in research funding, and $963,216 (18%) in company ownership. The mean general payment and research funding amounts (all members) were $2,621 and $14,741, respectively. Median (interquartile range) general payments and research funding only in board members receiving payments were $419 ($91-$5072) and $56,250 ($13,345-$200,000), respectively. When assessing general payments according to amount, the vast majority of editorial board members received lower-quantity or no such payments, along with a smaller proportion that received higher-volume payments. The most frequent sources of general payments were Varian, Elekta, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Merck and Varian were the most frequent funding sources for research payments. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, the majority of FCOIs were general payments, but research funding comprised the highest monetary sums. Large-volume FCOIs do not apply to the vast majority of editorial board members, implying that the maintained integrity of academic peer-review is likely not influenced to a large extent by FCOIs.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Administrative Personnel/economics
Conflict of Interest/economics
Peer Review, Research
Periodicals as Topic/economics
Radiation Oncology/economics
Societies, Medical/economics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Administrative Personnel/statistics & numerical data
Ownership/economics
Ownership/statistics & numerical data
Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data
Research Support as Topic/statistics & numerical data
United States
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170926
[Lr] Last revision date:170926
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170905
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  8 / 123765 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28837554
[Au] Autor:Mayrhuber EA; Niederkrotenthaler T; Kutalek R
[Ad] Address:Unit Medical Anthropology and Global Health, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, Vienna, Austria.
[Ti] Title:"We are survivors and not a virus:" Content analysis of media reporting on Ebola survivors in Liberia.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(8):e0005845, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease epidemic between 2013 and 2016 in West Africa was unprecedented. It resulted in approximately 28.000 cases and 10.000 Ebola survivors. Many survivors face social, economic and health-related predicaments and media reporting is crucially important in infectious disease outbreaks. However, there is little research on reporting of the social situation of Ebola survivors in Liberia. METHODS: The study used a mixed methods approach and analysed media reports from the Liberian Daily Observer (DOL), a daily newspaper available online in English. We were interested to know how the situation of Ebola survivors was portrayed; in what way issues such as stigma and discrimination were addressed; and which stigma reduction interventions were covered and how. We included all articles on the situation of Ebola survivors in the quantitative and in-depth qualitative analysis published between April 2014 and March 2016. RESULTS: The DOL published 148 articles that portrayed the social situation of Ebola survivors between the 24 months observation period. In these articles, Ebola survivors were often defined beyond biological terms, reflecting on a broader social definition of survivorship. Survivorship was associated with challenges such as suffering from after-effects, social and economic consequences and psychological distress. Almost 50% of the articles explicitly mentioned stigmatisation in their reporting on Ebola survivors. This was contextualised in untrustworthiness towards international responses and the local health care system and inconclusive knowledge on cures and transmission routes. In the majority of DOL articles stigma reduction and engaging survivors in the response was reported as crucially important. DISCUSSION: Reporting in the DOL was educational-didactical and well-balanced in terms of disseminating available medical knowledge and reflecting the social situation of Ebola survivors. While the articles contextualised factors contributing to stigmatisation throughout the reporting, journalistic scrutiny regarding effectiveness of interventions by government and NGOs was missing.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Epidemics
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola
Mass Media
Social Stigma
Survivors
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology
Humans
Liberia/epidemiology
Mass Media/standards
Mass Media/statistics & numerical data
Sociological Factors
Survivors/psychology
Survivors/statistics & numerical data
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170926
[Lr] Last revision date:170926
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170824
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005845

  9 / 123765 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28772305
[Au] Autor:Saldanha IJ; Lindsley K; Do DV; Chuck RS; Meyerle C; Jones LS; Coleman AL; Jampel HD; Dickersin K; Virgili G
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of Clinical Trial and Systematic Review Outcomes for the 4 Most Prevalent Eye Diseases.
[So] Source:JAMA Ophthalmol;135(9):933-940, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6173
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Importance: Suboptimal overlap in outcomes reported in clinical trials and systematic reviews compromises efforts to compare and summarize results across these studies. Objectives: To examine the most frequent outcomes used in trials and reviews of the 4 most prevalent eye diseases (age-related macular degeneration [AMD], cataract, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and glaucoma) and the overlap between outcomes in the reviews and the trials included in the reviews. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined all Cochrane reviews that addressed AMD, cataract, DR, and glaucoma; were published as of July 20, 2016; and included at least 1 trial and the trials included in the reviews. For each disease, a pair of clinical experts independently classified all outcomes and resolved discrepancies. Outcomes (outcome domains) were then compared separately for each disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of review outcomes also reported in trials and vice versa. Results: This study included 56 reviews that comprised 414 trials. Although the median number of outcomes per trial and per review was the same (n = 5) for each disease, the trials included a greater number of outcomes overall than did the reviews, ranging from 2.9 times greater (89 vs 30 outcomes for glaucoma) to 4.9 times greater (107 vs 22 outcomes for AMD). Most review outcomes, ranging from 14 of 19 outcomes (73.7%) (for DR) to 27 of 29 outcomes (93.1%) (for cataract), were also reported in the trials. For trial outcomes, however, the proportion also named in reviews was low, ranging from 19 of 107 outcomes (17.8%) (for AMD) to 24 of 89 outcomes (27.0%) (for glaucoma). Only 1 outcome (visual acuity) was consistently reported in greater than half the trials and greater than half the reviews. Conclusions and Relevance: Although most review outcomes were reported in the trials, most trial outcomes were not reported in the reviews. The current analysis focused on outcome domains, which might underestimate the problem of inconsistent outcomes. Other important elements of an outcome (ie, specific measurement, specific metric, method of aggregation, and time points) might have differed even though the domains overlapped. Inconsistency in trial outcomes may impede research synthesis and indicates the need for disease-specific core outcome sets in ophthalmology.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cataract/therapy
Clinical Trials as Topic
Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy
Glaucoma/therapy
Macular Degeneration/therapy
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Review Literature as Topic
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cataract/epidemiology
Cataract/physiopathology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology
Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology
Glaucoma/epidemiology
Glaucoma/physiopathology
Humans
Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
Prevalence
Visual Acuity/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170927
[Lr] Last revision date:170927
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170803
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.2583

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[PMID]: 28767912
[Au] Autor:Fregnani CMS; Fregnani JHTG; Paiva CE; Barroso EM; Camargos MG; Tsunoda AT; Longatto-Filho A; Paiva BSR
[Ad] Address:Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Barretos, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Translation and cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) to evaluate quality of life in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
[So] Source:Einstein (Sao Paulo);15(2):155-161, 2017 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:2317-6385
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng; por
[Ab] Abstract:Objective: To translate and perform the cultural adaptation of the tool Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) to the Portuguese language. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study, with translation and cultural adaptation of the assessment tool performed according to international guidelines and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) protocol group. It involved eight experts, six from Brazil, one from Portugal and one from the United States. After translation and back-translation of the tool, the semantic analysis process was carried out. We randomly included 20 women aged between 18 and 70 years with altered cervical cytology exam, seen at the Department of Prevention and Gynecologic Oncology - Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. Results: The sample consisted of women with low education level. In the first pre-test, ten women participated and half of them considered the questions CD1, CD2 and CD3 as difficult, because they did not understand the meaning of the term "pelvic area". The question CD5, "I worry about spreading the infection", was also considered difficult to understand by five women. After the reconsideration of the expert committee and FACIT group, the second pre-test was performed. At this stage, we concluded that the previously raised understanding problems had been solved. Conclusion: The translated version of FACIT-CD in universal Portuguese language is equivalent to the original version in English and was easily understood by patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Objetivo: Traduzir e adaptar o instrumento Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD), para a língua portuguesa. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, transversal, com metodologia de tradução e adaptação cultural de instrumento de avaliação, realizado por meio de diretrizes internacionais e seguindo o protocolo do grupo Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT). Envolveu oito especialistas, sendo seis nativos do Brasil, um de Portugal e um dos Estados Unidos. Ao término do processo de tradução e retrotradução, deu-se início ao processo de análise semântica. Foram incluídas aleatoriamente 20 mulheres entre 18 e 70 anos com exame de citologia cervical alterado, atendidas no Departamento de Prevenção e Ginecologia Oncológica do Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por mulheres com baixa escolaridade. No primeiro pré-teste participaram dez mulheres, sendo que a metade considerou as questões CD1, CD2 e CD3 difíceis por não compreenderem o significado do termo "região pélvica". A questão CD5, "Estou preocupada em disseminar a infecção", também foi considerada de difícil entendimento por cinco mulheres. Após as reconsiderações do comitê de especialistas e do grupo FACIT, foi realizado o segundo pré-teste. Nesta fase, pode-se concluir que os problemas de entendimento anteriores foram resolvidos. Conclusão: A versão traduzida do FACIT-CD é equivalente à versão original em inglês e em língua portuguesa universal, sendo facilmente compreendida pelas pacientes com neoplasia intraepitelial cervical.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Quality of Life/psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Translations
Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Brazil
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170928
[Lr] Last revision date:170928
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170802
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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