Database : MEDLINE
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  1 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28411162
Author:Lyons BM; McHenry MA; Barrington DS
Address:Pringle Herbarium, Plant Biology Department, University of Vermont, Torrey Hall, 27 Colchester Ave, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
Title:Insights into evolution in Andean Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from expanded understanding of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase gene.
Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol; 112:36-46, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1095-9513
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (pgiC) is an enzyme essential to glycolysis found universally in eukaryotes, but broad understanding of variation in the gene coding for pgiC is lacking for ferns. We used a substantially expanded representation of the gene for Andean species of the fern genus Polystichum to characterize pgiC in ferns relative to angiosperms, insects, and an amoebozoan; assess the impact of selection versus neutral evolutionary processes on pgiC; and explore evolutionary relationships of selected Andean species. The dataset of complete sequences comprised nine accessions representing seven species and one hybrid from the Andes and Serra do Mar. The aligned sequences of the full data set comprised 3376 base pairs (70% of the entire gene) including 17 exons and 15 introns from two central areas of the gene. The exons are highly conserved relative to angiosperms and retain substantial homology to insect pgiC, but intron length and structure are unique to the ferns. Average intron size is similar to angiosperms; intron number and location in insects are unlike those of the plants we considered. The introns included an array of indels and, in intron 7, an extensive microsatellite array with potential utility in analyzing population-level histories. Bayesian and maximum-parsimony analysis of 129 variable nucleotides in the Andean polystichums revealed that 59 (1.7% of the 3376 total) were phylogenetically informative; most of these united sister accessions. The phylogenetic trees for the Andean polystichums were incongruent with previously published cpDNA trees for the same taxa, likely the result of rapid evolutionary change in the introns and contrasting stability in the exons. The exons code a total of seven amino-acid substitutions. Comparison of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions did not suggest that the pgiC gene is under selection in the Andes. Variation in pgiC including two additional accessions represented by incomplete sequences provided new insights into reticulate relationships among Andean taxa.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (DNA, Chloroplast); EC 5.3.1.9 (Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase)


  2 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26928720
Author:Le Péchon T; He H; Zhang L; Zhou XM; Gao XF; Zhang LB
Address:Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China. tlepechon@gmail.com.
Title:Using a multilocus phylogeny to test morphology-based classifications of Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae), one of the largest fern genera.
Source:BMC Evol Biol; 16:55, 2016 Feb 29.
ISSN:1471-2148
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) is probably the third largest fern genus in the world and contains ca. 500 species. Species of Polystichum occur on all continents except Antarctica, but its highest diversity is found in East Asia, especially Southwest China and adjacent regions. Previous studies typically had sparse taxon sampling and used limited DNA sequence data. Consequently, the majority of morphological hypotheses/classifications have never been tested using molecular data. RESULTS: In this study, DNA sequences of five plastid loci of 177 accessions representing ca. 140 species of Polystichum and 13 species of the closely related genera were used to infer a phylogeny using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and maximum parsimony. Our analyses show that (1) Polystichum is monophyletic, this being supported by not only molecular data but also morphological features and distribution information; (2) Polystichum is resolved into two strongly supported monophyletic clades, corresponding to the two subgenera, P. subg. Polystichum and P. subg. Haplopolystichum; (3) Accessions of P. subg. Polystichum are resolved into three major clades: clade K (P. sect. Xiphophyllum), clade L (P. sect. Polystichum), and the HYMASO superclade dominated by accessions of P. sect. Hypopeltis, P. sect. Macropolystichum, and P. sect. Sorolepidium, while those of P. subg. Haplopolystichum are resolved into eight major clades; and (4) The monophyly of the Afra clade (weakly supported), the Australasian clade (weakly supported), and the North American clade (strongly supported) is confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 23 sections of Polystichum recognized in a recent classification of the genus, four (P. sect. Hypopeltis, P. sect. Neopolystichum, P. sect. Sorolepidium, P. sect. Sphaenopolystichum) are resolved as non-monophyletic, 16 are recovered as monophyletic, and three are monospecific. Of the 16 monophyletic sections, two (P. sect. Adenolepia, P. sect. Cyrtogonellum) are weakly supported and 14 are strongly supported as monophyletic. The relationships of 11 sections (five in P. subg. Haplopolystichum; six in P. subg. Polystichum) are well resolved.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (DNA, Plant)


  3 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26891763
Author:Schwerbrock R; Leuschner C
Address:Albrecht-von-Haller Institute for Plant Sciences, Plant Ecology and Ecosystems Research, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
Title:Air humidity as key determinant of morphogenesis and productivity of the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii.
Source:Plant Biol (Stuttg); 18(4):649-57, 2016 Jul.
ISSN:1438-8677
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:(1) Most ferns are restricted to moist and shady habitats, but it is not known whether soil moisture or atmospheric water status are decisive limiting factors, or if both are equally important. (2) Using the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii, we conducted a three-factorial climate chamber experiment (soil moisture (SM) × air humidity (RH) × air temperature (T)) to test the hypotheses that: (i) atmospheric water status (RH) exerts a similarly large influence on the fern's biology as soil moisture, and (ii) both a reduction in RH and an increase in air temperature reduce vigour and growth. (3) Nine of 11 morphological, physiological and growth-related traits were significantly influenced by an increase in RH from 65% to 95%, leading to higher leaf conductance, increased above- and belowground productivity, higher fertility, more epidermal trichomes and fewer leaf deformities under high air humidity. In contrast, soil moisture variation (from 66% to 70% in the moist to ca. 42% in the dry treatment) influenced only one trait (specific leaf area), and temperature variation (15 °C versus 19 °C during daytime) only three traits (leaf conductance, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area); RH was the only factor affecting productivity. (4) This study is the first experimental proof for a soil moisture-independent air humidity effect on the growth of terrestrial woodland ferns. P. braunii appears to be an air humidity hygrophyte that, whithin the range of realistic environmental conditions set in this study, suffers more from a reduction in RH than in soil moisture. A climate warming-related increase in summer temperatures, however, seems not to directly threaten this endangered species.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Soil); 059QF0KO0R (Water)


  4 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26227010
Author:Brodersen CR; Rico C; Guenni O; Pittermann J
Address:School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.
Title:Embolism spread in the primary xylem of Polystichum munitum: implications for water transport during seasonal drought.
Source:Plant Cell Environ; 39(2):338-46, 2016 Feb.
ISSN:1365-3040
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Xylem network structure and function have been characterized for many woody plants, but less is known about fern xylem, particularly in species endemic to climates where water is a limiting resource for months at a time. We characterized seasonal variability in soil moisture and frond water status in a common perennial fern in the redwood understory of a costal California, and then investigated the consequences of drought-induced embolism on vascular function. Seasonal variability in air temperature and soil water content was minimal, and frond water potential declined slowly over the observational period. Our data show that Polystichum munitum was protected from significant drought-induced hydraulic dysfunction during this growing season because of a combination of cavitation resistant conduits (Air-seeding threshold (ASP) = -1.53 MPa; xylem pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P50 ) = -3.02 MPa) and a soil with low moisture variability. High resolution micro-computed tomography (MicroCT) imaging revealed patterns of embolism formation in vivo for the first time in ferns providing insight into the functional status of the xylem network under drought conditions. Together with stomatal conductance measurements, these data suggest that P. munitum is adapted to tolerate drier conditions than what was observed during the growing season.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
Name of substance:0 (Soil); 059QF0KO0R (Water)


  5 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:24525330
Author:McHenry MA; Barrington DS
Address:University of Vermont, Pringle Herbarium, Torrey Hall, 27 Colchester Ave, Burlington, Vermont 05405 USA.
Title:Phylogeny and biogeography of exindusiate Andean Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae).
Source:Am J Bot; 101(2):365-75, 2014 Feb.
ISSN:1537-2197
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Uplift of the tropical Andes had a significant impact on the diversification of South American flora and fauna. Recent biogeographic inquiries have established patterns of Andean divergence, but investigations on ferns are scant. The fern genus Polystichum Roth (Dryopteridaceae) combines widespread geographic and elevational distribution with a large number of species to form an ideal system for investigation of the origin and diversification patterns of a fern lineage in the tropical Andes. METHODS: The relationships among 42 Polystichum species, including taxa from all major biogeographic regions, were analyzed with 2591 aligned nucleotides from four plastid markers using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The resulting phylogeny was then used to estimate divergence times and reconstruct both ancestral areas and ancestral elevations. KEY RESULTS: Tropical Andean South American polystichums that lack an indusium (sori exindusiate) were confirmed to form a monophyletic group. This exindusiate Andean Polystichum clade diverged from a middle-elevation forest lineage now rich in species endemic to Mexico during the middle Miocene (13.12 million years ago). The majority of diversification that followed took place in the montane regions of the central Andes with radiations to the northern Andes, southeastern Brazil, and alpine regions. CONCLUSIONS: The monophyletic exindusiate Andean Polystichum lineage diverged from a Mexican lineage in the middle Miocene and diversified in the central Andes before dispersing northward. This south-to-north dispersal pattern, documented for many other Andean lineages, corresponds with episodes of uplift in the tropical Andes.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (DNA, Plant)


  6 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23618774
Author:Esteban S; Fernández Rodríguez J; Díaz López G; Nuñez M; Valcárcel Y; Catalá M
Address:Department of Preventive Medicine, Public Health, Immunology and Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Rey Juan Carlos University, Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain. saraestgn@telefonica.net
Title:New microbioassays based on biomarkers are more sensitive to fluvial water micropollution than standard testing methods.
Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 93:52-9, 2013 Jul.
ISSN:1090-2414
Country of publication:Netherlands
Language:eng
Abstract:Recent investigations suggest that, despite lack of lethality in validated bioassays, micropollutants in surface waters could induce sublethal toxicity in sensitive taxa, jeopardizing their biological performance and eventually leading to populations' extinction. A broader array of testing species, the miniaturization of bioassays and the development of reliable biomarkers of damage are sought in order to improve ecological relevance and cost efficiency of environmental monitoring. Our aim is to assess the different sensitivity of validated bioassays and new approaches using biomarkers as sensitive endpoints of toxicity in spores of Polystichum setiferum and Danio rerio embryos. Six water samples were collected in Tagus basin in summer and winter. Samples tested induce no acute toxicity in validated methods (algae growth inhibition and daphnia mobility inhibition). Summer water samples induced acute membrane damage (lipid peroxidation) in Danio rerio embryos and hormetic increases in fern spore mitochondrial activity. One of the samples dramatically reduced mitochondrial activity indicating severe acute sublethal phytotoxicity. All the winter samples induced significant decreases in fern spore mitochondrial activity and membrane damage increases in Danio rerio embryo. Furthermore, three samples induced lethal phytotoxicity in fern spores. We conclude that the new microbioassays show a better sensitivity to fluvial water micropollution and confirm the necessity to test critical life stages such as development and provide cost-efficient methods for environmental monitoring.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)


  7 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23146275
Author:Feito R; Valcárcel Y; Catalá M
Address:Biology and Geology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/Tulipán s/n, E-28933 Mostóles, Madrid, Spain.
Title:Preliminary data suggest that venlafaxine environmental concentrations could be toxic to plants.
Source:Chemosphere; 90(7):2065-9, 2013 Feb.
ISSN:1879-1298
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Venlafaxine hydrochloride is a structurally novel antidepressant. Its occurrence in surface waters and drinking water has only been reported in recent works. The aim of this work is to assess the acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of venlafaxine in relevant taxa of riparian ecosystems. We used the fern Polystichum setiferum during the critical life stage of development. Reliable biomarkers of cell viability (mitochondrial activity), plant physiology (chlorophyll), and growth (DNA content) were assessed as sensitive endpoints of toxicity. About DNA quantification, our results show that venlafaxine induces acute lethal phytotoxicity at 24 and 48 h (LOECs 1 µg L(-1) and 0.1 µg L(-1), respectively). At 24 h, hormetic effects in spores of P. setiferum mitochondrial activity mask lethality and adverse effects are observed (LOEC 1 µg L(-1)). At 48 h a reduction in the mitochondrial activity happens (LOEC 10 µg L(-1)). In chronic exposure of 1 week, LOEC for DNA is 0.1 µg L(-1). Mitochondrial activity showed a strong hormetic stimulation of a surviving spore population (LOEC 10 µg L(-1)). Changes were not observed in chlorophyll autofluorescence. Environmental concentrations of venlafaxine can be deleterious for the development of significant populations of sensitive individuals in riparian ecosystems.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Antidepressive Agents); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Cyclohexanols); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 1406-65-1 (Chlorophyll); 7D7RX5A8MO (Venlafaxine Hydrochloride)


  8 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:22859655
Author:de Groot GA; Zuidema PA; de Groot H; During HJ
Address:Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. g.a.degroot@wur.nl
Title:Variation in ploidy level and phenology can result in large and unexpected differences in demography and climatic sensitivity between closely related ferns.
Source:Am J Bot; 99(8):1375-87, 2012 Aug.
ISSN:1537-2197
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Current environmental changes may affect the dynamics and viability of plant populations. This environmental sensitivity may differ between species of different ploidy level because polyploidization can influence life history traits. We compared the demography and climatic sensitivity of two closely related ferns: the tetraploid Polystichum aculeatum and one of its diploid parents, Polystichum setiferum. METHODS: Matrix models were used to assess the effects of life history variation on population dynamics under varying winter conditions. We analyzed the contributions of all key aspects of the fern life cycle to population growth. Our study is the first to also include the gametophyte generation. KEY RESULTS: Projected population growth rate (λ) was much higher for the tetraploid P. aculeatum (1.516) than for P. setiferum (1.071) under normal winter conditions. During a year with harsh winter conditions, population growth of P. aculeatum was strongly reduced. This finding contradicts our expectation that the winter-hardy fronds of this species would allow high survival of harsh winters. Differences in λ between species and between years with different winter conditions were mostly caused by variation in gametophyte-related recruitment rates, a finding that shows the importance of including gametophytes in fern demographic studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that populations of closely related ferns can show large differences in population performance, mainly related to recruitment rates and frond phenology, and that these differences may depend greatly on climatic conditions. Our findings provide a first indication that (allo)polyploidization in ferns can have a significant effect on population dynamics.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  9 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:22484936
Author:Masuda T; Inouchi T; Fujimoto A; Shingai Y; Inai M; Nakamura M; Imai S
Address:Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan. masuda@ias.tokushima-u.ac.jp
Title:Radical scavenging activity of spring mountain herbs in the Shikoku mountain area and identification of antiradical constituents by simple HPLC detection and LC-MS methods.
Source:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem; 76(4):705-11, 2012.
ISSN:1347-6947
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:The functionality of spring mountain herbs, which were collected in the Kajigamori mountain area of Shikoku area in Japan, was investigated in the course of our studies for utilizing local plant resources. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts from seventeen herbs was measured. Among these herbs, two extracts from Polystichym ovato-paleaceum (Japanese name: Tsuyanashiinode) and Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Japanese name: Niwatoko) showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The material evidence for the potent activity of the extracts was studied by a combination of our developed method for detecting antiradical compounds, LC-MS/MS, and enzymatic hydrolysis.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Caffeic Acids); 0 (Free Radical Scavengers); 0 (Free Radicals); 0 (Kaempferols); 0 (Picrates); 0 (Plant Extracts); 731P2LE49E (kaempferol); 9IKM0I5T1E (Quercetin); DFD3H4VGDH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl); U2S3A33KVM (caffeic acid)


  10 / 13 MEDLINE  
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PMID:21938542
Author:Feito R; Valcárcel Y; Catalá M
Address:Biology and Geology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/Tulipán s/n, 28933 Mostóles, Madrid, Spain.
Title:Biomarker assessment of toxicity with miniaturised bioassays: diclofenac as a case study.
Source:Ecotoxicology; 21(1):289-96, 2012 Jan.
ISSN:1573-3017
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The development of suitable biomarker-based microbioassays with model species with ecological relevance would help increase the cost-efficiency of routine environmental monitoring and chemical toxicity testing. The anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has been widely reported in the environment but ecotoxicological data are scarce. The aim of this work is to assess the acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of diclofenac in relevant taxa of aquatic and riparian ecosystems (the fish Danio rerio and the fern Polystichum setiferum). Reliable biomarkers of cell viability (mitochondrial activity), plant physiology (chlorophyll), growth (DNA content) or oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) were assessed as sensitive endpoints of toxicity. DNA quantification shows that diclofenac induces acute lethal phytotoxicity at 24 and 48 h (LOECs 30 and 0.3 µg l(-1), respectively). Hormetic effects in mitochondrial activity in spores of Polystichum setiferum mask lethality, and adverse effects are only observed at 48 h (LOEC 0.3 µg l(-1)). In chronic exposure (1 week) LOEC for DNA is 0.03 µg l(-1). Mitochondrial activity shows a strong hormetic stimulation of the surviving spore population (LOEC 0.3 µg l(-1)). Little changes are observed in chlorophyll autofluorescence (LOEC 0.3 µg l(-1)). A very short exposure (90 min) of zebrafish embryos induces a reduction of lipid peroxidation at 0.03 µg l(-1). Environmental concentrations of diclofenac can be deleterious for the development of significant populations of sensitive individuals in aquatic and riparian ecosystems.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 1406-65-1 (Chlorophyll); 144O8QL0L1 (Diclofenac)



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