Database : MEDLINE
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  1 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26057097
Author:El-Kosasy AM; Hussein LA; Magdy N; Abbas MM
Address:Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, 11566 Cairo, Egypt.
Title:Sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of ethopabate and amprolium hydrochloride in chicken plasma and their residues in food samples.
Source:Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 150:430-9, 2015.
ISSN:1873-3557
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Two sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric methods are proposed to determine ethopabate (ETH) and amprolium hydrochloride (AMP). First derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry determines the natively fluorescent ethopabate at 288 nm in presence of amprolium hydrochloride which is a non fluorescent quaternary compound with average recovery 100.54±0.721 over a concentration range of 0.01-0.8 µg/mL. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.007 µg/mL, respectively. The second method is direct synchronous spectrofluorimetry for determining amprolium hydrochloride at 362 nm after a reaction with 5% NaOH and 0.08% potassium ferricyanide that is optimized by a two-level factorial design. This method is linear over a concentration range of 0.01-0.65 µg/mL with average recovery 99.4±1.28. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.006 µg/mL, respectively. The proposed methods are found to be valid and applicable for the analysis of ETH and AMP in their veterinary formulation. They are successfully applied to determine the studied drugs in chicken plasma and their residues in chicken muscle, liver, egg and chicken-based baby food product with recoveries in the ranges of 95.71-108.73% and 97.36-111.89% and for ETH and AMP, respectively.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
Name of substance:F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium)


  2 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25523045
Author:Hussein LA; Magdy N; Abbas MM
Address:Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, 11566, Cairo, Egypt.
Title:Five different spectrophotometric methods for determination of Amprolium hydrochloride and Ethopabate binary mixture.
Source:Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 138:395-405, 2015 Mar 05.
ISSN:1873-3557
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Five simple, specific, accurate and precise UV-spectrophotometric methods are adopted for the simultaneous determination of Amprolium hydrochloride (AMP) and Ethopabate (ETH), a binary mixture with overlapping spectra, without preliminary separation. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra ((1)DD) for determination of AMP and ETH at 234.7nm and 306.8nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.76±0.907 and 100.29±0.842 respectively. The second method is the mean centering of the ratio spectra for determination of AMP and ETH at 238.8nm and 313nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 100.26±1.018 and 99.94±1.286 respectively. The third method is based on dual wavelength selection for determination of AMP and ETH at 235.3nm & 308nm and 244nm & 268.4nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.30±1.097 and 100.03±1.065 respectively. The fourth method is ratio difference method for determination of AMP and ETH at 239nm & 310nm and 239nm & 313nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.27±0.892 and 100.40±1.814 respectively. The fifth one is area under the curve (AUC) method where the areas between 235.6-243nm and 268.3-275nm are selected for determination of AMP and ETH with mean percentage recoveries 100.35±1.031 and 100.39±0.956 respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the two drugs and they are applied to their pharmaceutical veterinary preparation. Methods are validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limit.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Veterinary Drugs); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium)


  3 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:24817251
Author:Nasr JJ; Shalan S
Address:Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt.
Title:Spectrofluorimetric analysis of ethopabate in veterinary formulations with application to residue determination in chicken muscles and liver.
Source:Luminescence; 29(8):1188-93, 2014 Dec.
ISSN:1522-7243
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Ethopabate is a veterinary drug used in the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis in chickens. The presence of drug residues in edible tissues can be dangerous to human consumers. It may cause direct toxic effects, allergic reactions and increased bacterial resistance. A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of ethopabate in its veterinary formulations. The proposed method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of ethopabate in water at 364 nm after excitation at 270 nm. The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 2-100 ng/mL, with a limit of detection of 2.9 ng/g and a limit of quantification of 9.8 ng/g for ethopabate. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ethopabate in its commercial veterinary formulations and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with the reference method. The method was extended to the determination of ethopabate residues in chicken muscles and liver, and the results were satisfactory. The recoveries obtained were in the 108.36-113.42% range. No organic solvents are used in the procedure, so it can be considered a type of 'green' chemistry.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Solvents); 0 (Veterinary Drugs); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate)


  4 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:19202812
Author:Granja RH; Niño AM; Zucchetti RA; Niño RE; Salerno AG
Address:Microbioticos Laboratories, Avenida Santa Isabel, 2120 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. rodrigo@microbioticos.com
Title:Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for the determination of ethopabate residues in poultry liver.
Source:J AOAC Int; 91(6):1483-7, 2008 Nov-Dec.
ISSN:1060-3271
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Ethopabate is frequently used in the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. Residues of this drug in food present a potential risk to consumers. A simple, rapid, and sensitive column high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV detection for determination of ethopabate in poultry liver is presented. The drug is extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation, the residue is dissolved with an acetone-hexane mixture and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using Florisil columns. The analyte is then eluted with methanol. LC analysis is carried out on a C18 5 microm Gemini column, 15 cm x 4.6 mm. Ethopabate is quantified by means of UV detection at 270 nm. Parameters such as decision limit, detection capability, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and measurement uncertainty were calculated according to method validation guidelines provided in 2002/657/EC and ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Decision limit and detection capability were determined to be 2 and 3 microg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries from poultry samples fortified with 10, 15, and 20 microg/kg levels of ethopabate were 100-105%. A complete statistical analysis was performed on the results obtained, including an estimation of the method uncertainty. The method is to be implemented into Brazil's residue monitoring and control program for ethopabate.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Coccidiostats); 0 (Indicators and Reagents); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate)


  5 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:11128384
Author:Lundén A; Thebo P; Gunnarsson S; Hooshmian-Rad P; Tauson R; Uggla A
Address:Department of Parasitology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) and National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala. Anna.Lunden@sva.se
Title:Eimeria infections in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed laying hens in Sweden.
Source:Br Poult Sci; 41(4):440-7, 2000 Sep.
ISSN:0007-1668
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:1. Coccidiosis, caused by different Eimeria species, is believed to be a more prominent problem in loose-housed layers kept on litter than in battery cages. In this study, the impact and development of Eimeria infections were investigated in layers kept in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed hens. 2. Layers from 57 flocks on 26 farms were followed by necropsy of a representative sample of birds that died or had to be culled. Coccidiosis was diagnosed in 11 flocks (19.3%) from 9 (31%) of the farms. The outbreaks occurred when the birds were 19 to 32 weeks old. E. maxima was identified in 6 and E. tenella in 3 of the outbreaks. 3. Sixteen of the flocks were also monitored with faecal and litter samples collected at regular intervals. Oocysts were detected in samples from all these flocks. The pattern of oocyst excretion was similar in most of the flocks, with maximum counts at 4 to 8 weeks after introduction to the laying house. There was no significant correlation between the levels of oocysts in faeces and clinical coccidiosis. 4. Raising pullets without any coccidiostat, to increase their chance to develop immunity against coccidia, was not found to decrease the risk of coccidiosis during the production period when compared to the practice of giving amprolium and ethopabate during the rearing period.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Coccidiostats); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium)


  6 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:8933428
Author:Tan HS; Ramachandran P; Cacini W
Address:Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH 45267-0004, USA.
Title:High performance liquid chromatographic assay of amprolium and ethopabate in chicken feed using solid-phase extraction.
Source:J Pharm Biomed Anal; 15(2):259-65, 1996 Nov.
ISSN:0731-7085
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:A method for the assay of mixtures of amprolium and ethopabate in chicken feed was developed utilizing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after sample clean-up of a methanolic extract by solid-phase extraction using CN cartridges. HPLC was done with benzocaine as internal standard on a C-8 column with methanol-water 40:60, containing octanesulfonic acid, triethylamine and acetic acid, as mobile phase. Eluate was monitored at 274 nm. Baseline separation was achieved with retention times of approximately 7.5, 9.4, and 10.4 min, for amprolium, benzocaine, and ethopabate respectively. Feed constituents did not give peaks after 6.5 min. Peak area ratios were linear over 10-180 ng of amprolium, and 2-18 ng of ethopabate injected. Limits of quantitation at AUFS 0.05 were 0.5 and 0.3 ng respectively. Recovery studies from spiked feed (n = 9), covering +/- 30% of usual doses in feed, gave percent recoveries (+/- SD) of 99.4 +/- 1.4% for amprolium and 100.5 +/- 2.6% for ethopabate. Applying the method to two different batches of commercial feed gave results which were comparable to those obtained by the AOAC spectrofluorometric methods.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
Name of substance:0 (Coccidiostats); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium)


  7 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:1417580
Author:Riddell C; Classen HL
Address:Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Title:Effects of increasing photoperiod length and anticoccidials on performance and health of roaster chickens.
Source:Avian Dis; 36(3):491-8, 1992 Jul-Sep.
ISSN:0005-2086
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Male broiler chickens were raised to 63 days of age under different lighting and anticoccidial treatments. A constant-light program was compared with two interrupted and increasing-light programs in which the photoperiod length was 6 hours between 7 and 14 days of age and then increased gradually to continual light by 49 days of age in the first program and more gradually to 18 hours by 49 days of age in the second program. By 63 days of age, the increasing-light programs significantly increased body-weight gain and decreased feed/grain ratio, but not significantly. The increasing-light programs reduced the incidence of skeletal disease from 7.56% to 2.88% in the first program and to 3.53% in the second program, reduced the incidence of acute death syndrome from 5.94% to 3.37% in the first program and to 4.65% in the second program, and reduced total mortality from 18.81% to 11.71% in the first program and to 11.38% in the second program. The lighting programs had no effect on the incidence of ascites and right heart failure, the ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight, the incidence of clinical and subclinical tibial dyschondroplasia, and the number of cartilaginous and osseous nodules in the lungs. The anticoccidials compared were monensin and amprolium/ethopabate, from 0 to 35 days of age. These treatments had no significant direct effects on any of the parameters measured.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Coccidiostats); 906O0YJ6ZP (Monensin); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium)


  8 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:2136331
Author:Swarbrick O
Title:Illegal use of Amprol-Plus for game.
Source:Vet Rec; 127(12):315, 1990 Sep 22.
ISSN:0042-4900
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; LETTER
Name of substance:F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium)


  9 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:2919391
Author:Kan CA; van Leeuwen W; van Gend HW
Address:Centrum voor Onderzoek en Voorlichting voor de Pluimveehouderij, Het Spelderholt, Beekbergen.
Title:Residuen van amprolium in eieren na toediening van amprolium/ethopabaat aan leghennen en opfokleghennen. [Amprolium residues in eggs following administration of amprolium/ethopabate in laying hens and breeding hens].
Source:Tijdschr Diergeneeskd; 114(2):76-82, 1989 Jan 15.
ISSN:0040-7453
Country of publication:Netherlands
Language:dut
Abstract:Amprolium may be used as a coccidiostat in rearing hens and is a therapeutical agent used in laying hens. As a result of cross contamination, low amprolium levels may occur in feed. Feed containing a concentration of amprolium ranging from 5 to 250 mg/kg was therefore supplied to groups of laying hens. The amprolium residues in the yolks during and after treatment were subsequently determined. These levels varied from 1.75 mg/kg in the group fed 250 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg in the group fed 5 mg/kg. Amprolium levels in the whites of eggs were much lower than those in the yolks. The residues in yolks decreased below detectable levels (less than 0.005 mg/kg) within approximately ten days after treatment. Rearing hens in a tiered wire floor system were given amprolium in their feed until the first egg was laid. Amprolium residues in yolks were detected for well over a fortnight after the onset of laying. The amprolium residues determined in yolk did not exceed US tolerance levels of 8 mg/kg.
Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Coccidiostats); 0 (Picolines); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium)


  10 / 20 MEDLINE  
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PMID:2740635
Author:Chapman HD
Address:Institute for Animal Health, Houghton Laboratory, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire.
Title:Chemotherapy of caecal coccidiosis: efficacy of toltrazuril, sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine and amprolium/ethopabate, given in drinking water, against field isolates of Eimeria tenella.
Source:Res Vet Sci; 46(3):419-20, 1989 May.
ISSN:0034-5288
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Treatment with toltrazuril, sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine and amprolium/ethopabate prevented mortality in chickens infected with field isolates of Eimeria tenella. Amprolium/ethopabate was the most effective drug in reducing lesions caused by the parasites. Few oocysts of E tenella were produced in birds medicated with sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine or amprolium/ethopabate and none in those medicated with toltrazuril.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Coccidiostats); 0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Sulfanilamides); 0 (Triazines); F4X3L6068O (Ethopabate); H2T307KMZR (Amprolium); QVZ3IAR3JS (toltrazuril); WNW8115TM9 (Sulfaquinoxaline); Z3614QOX8W (Pyrimethamine)



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