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PMID:29352276
Author:Osadchii OE
Address:Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Title:Arrhythmogenic drugs can amplify spatial heterogeneities in the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart: An evidence from assessments of monophasic action potential durations and JT intervals.
Source:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191514, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Non-uniform shortening of the action potential duration (APD90) in different myocardial regions upon heart rate acceleration can set abnormal repolarization gradients and promote arrhythmia. This study examined whether spatial heterogeneities in APD90 restitution can be amplified by drugs with clinically proved proarrhythmic potential (dofetilide, quinidine, procainamide, and flecainide) and, if so, whether these effects can translate to the appropriate changes of the ECG metrics of ventricular repolarization, such as JT intervals. In isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations, monophasic action potentials and volume-conducted ECG were recorded at progressively increased pacing rates. The APD90 measured at distinct ventricular sites, as well as the JTpeak and JTend values were plotted as a function of preceding diastolic interval, and the maximum slopes of the restitution curves were determined at baseline and upon drug administration. Dofetilide, quinidine, and procainamide reverse rate-dependently prolonged APD90 and steepened the restitution curve, with effects being greater at the endocardium than epicardium, and in the right ventricular (RV) vs. the left ventricular (LV) chamber. The restitution slope was increased to a greater extent for the JTend vs. the JTpeak interval. In contrast, flecainide reduced the APD90 restitution slope at LV epicardium without producing effect at LV endocardium and RV epicardium, and reduced the JTpeak restitution slope without changing the JTend restitution. Nevertheless, with all agents, these effects translated to the amplified epicardial-to-endocardial and the LV-to-RV non-uniformities in APD90 restitution, paralleled by the increased JTend vs. JTpeak difference in the restitution slope. In summary, these findings suggest that arrhythmic drug profiles are partly attributable to the accentuated regional heterogeneities in APD90 restitution, which can be indirectly determined through ECG assessments of the JTend vs. JTpeak dynamics at variable pacing rates.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); 0 (Phenethylamines); 0 (Sulfonamides); ITX08688JL (Quinidine); K94FTS1806 (Flecainide); L39WTC366D (Procainamide); R4Z9X1N2ND (dofetilide)


  2 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28273651
Author:Trencsényi G; Dénes N; Nagy G; Kis A; Vida A; Farkas F; Szabó JP; Kovács T; Berényi E; Garai I; Bai P; Hunyadi J; Kertész I
Address:Department of Medical Imaging, Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary; Scanomed LTD, Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address: trencsenyi.gyorgy@med.unideb.hu.
Title:Comparative preclinical evaluation of Ga-NODAGA and Ga-HBED-CC conjugated procainamide in melanoma imaging.
Source:J Pharm Biomed Anal; 139:54-64, 2017 May 30.
ISSN:1873-264X
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. The early detection of primary melanoma tumors and metastases using non-invasive PET imaging determines the outcome of this disease. Previous studies have shown that benzamide derivatives (e.g. procainamide) conjugated with PET radionuclides specifically bind to melanin pigment of melanoma tumors. Ga chelating agents can have high influence on physiological properties of Ga labeled bioactive molecules, as was experienced during the application of HBED-CC on PSMA ligand. The aim of this study was to assess this concept in the case of the melanin specific procaindamide (PCA) and to compare the melanin specificity of Ga-labeled PCA using HBED-CC and NODAGA chelators under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Procainamide (PCA) was conjugated with HBED-CC and NODAGA chelators and was labeled with Ga-68. The melanin specificity of Ga-HBED-CC-PCA and Ga-NODAGA-PCA was investigated in vitro and in vivo using amelanotic (MELUR and A375) and melanin containing (B16-F10) melanoma cell lines. Tumor-bearing mice were prepared by subcutaneous injection of B16-F10, MELUR and A375 melanoma cells into C57BL/6 and SCID mice. 21±2days after tumor cell inoculation and 90min after intravenous injection of the Ga-labelledlabeled radiopharmacons whole body PET/MRI scans were performed. Ga-NODAGA-PCA and Ga-HBED-CC-PCA were produced with excellent radiochemical purity (98%). In vitro experiments demonstrated that after 30 and 90min incubation time Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake of B16-F10 cells was significantly (p≤0.01) higher than the Ga-HBED-CC-conjugated PCA accumulation in the same cell line. Furthermore, significant difference (p≤0.01 and 0.05) was found between the uptake of melanin negative and positive cell lines using Ga-NODAGA-PCA and Ga-HBED-CC-PCA. In vivo PET/MRI studies using tumor models revealed significantly (p≤0.01) higher Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake (SUVmean: 0.46±0.05, SUVmax: 1.96±0.25,T/M ratio: 40.7±4.23) in B16-F10 tumors in contrast to Ga-HBED-CC-PCA where the SUVmean, SUVmax and T/M ratio were 0.13±0.01, 0.56±0.11 and 11.43±1.24, respectively. Melanin specific PCA conjugated with NODAGA chelator showed higher specific binding properties than conjugated with HBED-CC. The chemical properties of the bifunctional chelators used for Ga-labeling of PCA determine the biological behaviour of the probes. Due to the high specificity and sensitivity Ga-labeled PCA molecules are promising radiotracers in melanoma imaging.
Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (1-(1,3-carboxypropyl)-4,7-carboxymethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane); 0 (Acetates); 0 (Gallium Radioisotopes); 0 (Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring); 143557-99-7 (N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-(ethylene-beta-carboxy)benzyl)ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid); 9G34HU7RV0 (Edetic Acid); L39WTC366D (Procainamide)


  3 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28116573
Author:Kumar A; Klibanov AM
Address:Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.
Title:Viscosity-Reducing Bulky-Salt Excipients Prevent Gelation of Protein, but Not Carbohydrate, Solutions.
Source:Appl Biochem Biotechnol; 182(4):1491-1496, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1559-0291
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The problem of gelation of concentrated protein solutions, which poses challenges for both downstream protein processing and liquid formulations of pharmaceutical proteins, is addressed herein by employing previously discovered viscosity-lowering bulky salts. Procainamide-HCl and the salt of camphor-10-sulfonic acid with L-arginine (CSA-Arg) greatly retard gelation upon heating and subsequent cooling of the model proteins gelatin and casein in water: Whereas in the absence of additives the proteins form aqueous gels within several hours at room temperature, procainamide-HCl for both proteins and also CSA-Arg for casein prevent gel formation for months under the same conditions. The inhibition of gelation by CSA-Arg stems exclusively from the CSA moiety: CSA-Na was as effective as CSA-Arg, while Arg-HCl was marginally or not effective. The tested bulky salts did not inhibit (and indeed accelerated) temperature-induced gel formation in aqueous solutions of all examined carbohydrates-starch, agarose, alginate, gellan gum, and carrageenan.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Carbohydrates); 0 (Caseins); 0 (Excipients); 0 (Gels); 0 (Salts); 0 (Solutions); 0 (Sulfones); 21286-54-4 (camphor-10-sulfonyl chloride); 76-22-2 (Camphor); 9000-70-8 (Gelatin); 94ZLA3W45F (Arginine); L39WTC366D (Procainamide)


  4 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27594050
Author:Leite JP; Mota R; Durão J; Neves SC; Barrias CC; Tamagnini P; Gales L
Address:i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135, Porto, Portugal.
Title:Cyanobacterium-Derived Extracellular Carbohydrate Polymer for the Controlled Delivery of Functional Proteins.
Source:Macromol Biosci; 17(2), 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1616-5195
Country of publication:Germany
Language:eng
Abstract:The unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. CCY 0110 is a highly efficient producer of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), releasing up to 75% of the polymer to the culture medium. The carbohydrate polymer released to the medium (RPS) was previously isolated and characterized; it is composed of nine different monosaccharides including two uronic acids, and also containing peptides and sulfate groups. Here it is shown that the RPS spontaneously assembles with proteins at high concentrations leading to a phase transition. The proteins are released progressively and structurally intact near physiological conditions, primarily through the swelling of the polymer-protein matrix. The releasing kinetics of the proteins can be modulated through the addition of divalent cations, such as calcium. Notably, the polymer is not toxic to human dermal neonatal fibroblasts in vitro at RPS concentrations bellow 0.1 mg mL . The results show that this polymer is a good candidate for the delivery of therapeutic macromolecules.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Carbohydrates); 0 (Cations, Divalent); 0 (Delayed-Action Preparations); 0 (Proteins); EC 3.2.1.17 (Muramidase); L39WTC366D (Procainamide)


  5 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27718463
Author:Liu CC; Huang GL; Xi HL; Liu SL; Liu JQ; Yu HL; Zhou SK; Liang LH; Yuan L
Address:State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing 102205, China; Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Research Institute of Chemical Defence, Beijing 102205, China.
Title:Simultaneous quantification of soman and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase, their aged methylphosphonic acid adduct and butyrylcholinesterase in plasma using an off-column procainamide-gel separation method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS.
Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci; 1036-1037:57-65, 2016 Nov 15.
ISSN:1873-376X
Country of publication:Netherlands
Language:eng
Abstract:This work describes a novel and sensitive non-isotope dilution method for simultaneous quantification of organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) soman (GD) and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), their aged methylphosphonic acid (MeP) adduct and unadducted BChE in plasma exposed to OPNA. OPNA-BChE adducts were isolated with an off-column procainamide-gel separation (PGS) from plasma, and then digested with pepsin into specific adducted FGES AGAAS nonapeptide (NP) biomarkers. The resulting NPs were detected by UHPLC-MS/MS MRM. The off-column PGS method can capture over 90% of BChE, MeP-BChE, VX-BChE and GD-BChE from their respective plasma materials. One newly designed and easily synthesized phosphorylated BChE nonapeptide with one Gly-to-Ala mutation was successfully reported to serve as internal standard instead of traditional isotopically labeled BChE nonapeptide. The linear range of calibration curves were from 1.00-200ngmL for VX-NP, 2.00-200ngmL for GD-NP and MeP-NP (R ≥0.995), and 3.00-200ngmL for BChE NP (R ≥0.990). The inter-day precision had relative standard deviation (%RSD) of <8.89%, and the accuracy ranged between 88.9-120%. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.411, 0.750, 0.800 and 1.43ngmL for VX-NP, GD-NP, MeP-NP and BChE NP, respectively. OPNA-exposed quality control plasma samples were characterized as part of method validation. Investigation of plasma samples unexposed to OPNA revealed no baseline values or interferences. Using the off-column PGS method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS, VX-NP and GD-NP adducts can be unambiguously detected with high confidence in 0.10ngmL and 0.50ngmL of exposed human plasma respectively, only requiring 0.1mL of plasma sample and taking about four hours without special sample preparation equipment. These improvements make it a simple, sensitive and robust PGS-UHPLC-MS/MS method, and this method will become an attractive alternative to immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method and a useful diagnostic tool for retrospective detection of OPNA exposure with high confidence. Furthermore, using the developed method, the adducted BChE levels from VX and GD-exposed (0.10-100ngmL ) plasma samples were completely characterized, and the fact that VX being more active and specific to BChE than GD was re-confirmed.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
Name of substance:0 (Chemical Warfare Agents); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Gels); 0 (Organophosphorus Compounds); 0 (Organothiophosphorus Compounds); 329W4YM10Z (methylphosphonic acid); 96-64-0 (Soman); 9A4381183B (VX); EC 3.1.1.8 (Butyrylcholinesterase); L39WTC366D (Procainamide)


  6 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27635072
Author:Steinberg C; Padfield GJ; Champagne J; Sanatani S; Angaran P; Andrade JG; Roberts JD; Healey JS; Chauhan VS; Birnie DH; Janzen M; Gerull B; Klein GJ; Leather R; Simpson CS; Seifer C; Talajic M; Gardner M; Krahn AD
Address:For the author affiliations, please see the Appendix.
Title:Cardiac Abnormalities in First-Degree Relatives of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest Victims: A Report From the Cardiac Arrest Survivors With Preserved Ejection Fraction Registry.
Source:Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol; 9(9), 2016 Sep.
ISSN:1941-3084
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Unexplained cardiac arrest (UCA) may be explained by inherited arrhythmia syndromes. The Cardiac Arrest Survivors With Preserved Ejection Fraction Registry prospectively assessed first-degree relatives of UCA or sudden unexplained death victims to screen for cardiac abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Around 398 first-degree family members (186 UCA, 212 sudden unexplained death victims' relatives; mean age, 44±17 years) underwent extensive cardiac workup, including ECG, signal averaged ECG, exercise testing, cardiac imaging, Holter-monitoring, and selective provocative drug testing with epinephrine or procainamide. Genetic testing was performed when a mutation was identified in the UCA survivor or when the diagnostic workup revealed a phenotype suggestive of a specific inherited arrhythmia syndrome. The diagnostic strength was classified as definite, probable, or possible based on previously published definitions. Cardiac abnormalities were detected in 120 of 398 patients (30.2%) with 67 of 398 having a definite or probable diagnosis (17%), including Long-QT syndrome (13%), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (4%), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (4%), and Brugada syndrome (3%). The detection yield was similar for family members of UCA and sudden unexplained death victims (31% versus 27%; P=0.59). Genetic testing was performed more often in family members of UCA patients (29% versus 20%; P=0.03). Disease-causing mutations were identified in 20 of 398 relatives (5%). The most common pathogenic mutations were RyR2 (2%), SCN5A (1%), and KNCQ1 (0.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac screening revealed abnormalities in 30% of first-degree relatives of UCA or sudden unexplained death victims, with a clear working diagnosis in 17%. Long-QT, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia were the most common diagnoses. Systematic cascade screening and genetic testing in asymptomatic individuals will lead to preventive lifestyle and medical interventions with potential to prevent sudden cardiac death. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00292032.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
Name of substance:0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); L39WTC366D (Procainamide); YKH834O4BH (Epinephrine)


  7 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27610614
Author:Kozak RP; Urbanowicz PA; Punyadeera C; Reiding KR; Jansen BC; Royle L; Spencer DI; Fernandes DL; Wuhrer M
Address:Ludger Ltd., Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
Title:Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome.
Source:PLoS One; 11(9):e0162824, 2016.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Fetuins); 0 (Polysaccharides); L39WTC366D (Procainamide)


  8 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27501273
Author:Viale M; Fontana A; Maric I; Monticone M; Angelini G; Gasbarri C
Address:IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino-IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, U.O.C. Bioterapie, 16132 Genova, Italy.
Title:Preparation and Antiproliferative Activity of Liposomes Containing a Combination of Cisplatin and Procainamide Hydrochloride.
Source:Chem Res Toxicol; 29(9):1393-5, 2016 Sep 19.
ISSN:1520-5010
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:We have previously reported the enhancement of the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP) when it is coadministered with a class I antiarrhythmic drug procainamide hydrochloride (PA). Here, we determined the antiproliferative activity of DDP, either in solution or loaded in liposomes, in the presence of PA, in the bulk solution, or directly embedded in liposomes together with DDP. Our results show that PA potentiates the activity of DDP-liposomes and that this effect is maintained at least in some of the investigated cell types when both drugs were mixed and loaded together into liposomes.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Liposomes); L39WTC366D (Procainamide); Q20Q21Q62J (Cisplatin)


  9 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27288732
Author:Parks A; Marceau F
Address:Axe Maladies Infectieuses et Immunitaires, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 4G2, Canada.
Title:Lysosomotropic cationic drugs induce cytostatic and cytotoxic effects: Role of liposolubility and autophagic flux and antagonism by cholesterol ablation.
Source:Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 305:55-65, 2016 Aug 15.
ISSN:1096-0333
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Cation trapping in acidic cell compartments determines an antiproliferative effect that has a potential interest in oncology, as shown by clinical data and trials involving chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. To further characterize the mechanism of this effect, we studied a series of 6 substituted triethylamine (s-Et3N) drugs that encompasses a wide range of liposolubility (amiodarone, quinacrine, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lidocaine, and procainamide). Three tumor cell lines and primary human endothelial cells were exploited in proliferation assays (48h, cell counts). Accumulation of the autophagic effector LC3 II and the apoptotic marker cleaved PARP1 (immunoblots), cytotoxicity, cell cycle analysis and endocytic function were further tested in the p53-null histiocytic lymphoma U937 line. A profound and desynchronized antiproliferative effect was observed in response to all s-Et3Ns with essentially no cell type specificity. Predictors of s-Et3N potency were liposolubility and the acute accumulation of the autophagic effector LC3 II (6h-treatments). For each s-Et3N, there was an antiproliferative concentration range where cytotoxicity and apoptosis were not triggered in U937 cells (24-48h-treatments). Quinacrine was the most potent cytostatic drug (1-5µM). Co-treatment of cells with inhibitors of cholesterol, ß-cyclodextrin or lovastatin, partially reversed the antiproliferative effect of each s-Et3N. The cytopathology induced by cationic drug accumulation includes a cytostatic effect. Its intensity is cell type- and p53-independent, but predicted by the inhibition of autophagic flux and by the liposolubility of individual drugs and alleviated by cholesterol ablation. The superiority of quinacrine, biomarker value of LC3 II and antagonism by a statin may be clinically relevant.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Anticholesteremic Agents); 0 (Cytostatic Agents); 0 (Cytotoxins); 0 (Microtubule-Associated Proteins); 0 (beta-Cyclodextrins); 0 (light chain 3, human); 4QWG6N8QKH (Hydroxychloroquine); 886U3H6UFF (Chloroquine); 97C5T2UQ7J (Cholesterol); 98PI200987 (Lidocaine); 9LHU78OQFD (Lovastatin); EC 2.4.2.30 (PARP1 protein, human); EC 2.4.2.30 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1); H0C805XYDE (Quinacrine); JV039JZZ3A (betadex); L39WTC366D (Procainamide); N3RQ532IUT (Amiodarone)


  10 / 2982 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27112518
Author:Kim W; Nam J; Lee S; Jeong S; Jung Y
Address:College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University , Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.
Title:5-Aminosalicylic Acid Azo-Linked to Procainamide Acts as an Anticolitic Mutual Prodrug via Additive Inhibition of Nuclear Factor kappaB.
Source:Mol Pharm; 13(6):2126-35, 2016 06 06.
ISSN:1543-8392
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:To improve the anticolitic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a colon-specific mutual prodrug of 5-ASA was designed. 5-ASA was coupled to procainamide (PA), a local anesthetic, via an azo bond to prepare 5-(4-{[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl}phenylazo)salicylic acid (5-ASA-azo-PA). 5-ASA-azo-PA was cleaved to 5-ASA and PA up to about 76% at 10 h in the cecal contents while remaining stable in the small intestinal contents. Oral gavage of 5-ASA-azo-PA and sulfasalazine, a colon-specific prodrug currently used in clinic, to rats showed similar efficiency in delivery of 5-ASA to the large intestine, and PA was not detectable in the blood after 5-ASA-azo-PA administration. Oral gavage of 5-ASA-azo-PA alleviated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rat colitis. Moreover, combined intracolonic treatment with 5-ASA and PA elicited an additive ameliorative effect. Furthermore, combined treatment with 5-ASA and PA additively inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) activity in human colon carcinoma cells and inflamed colonic tissues. Finally, 5-ASA-azo-PA administered orally was able to reduce inflammatory mediators, NFκB target gene products, in the inflamed colon. 5-ASA-azo-PA may be a colon-specific mutual prodrug acting against colitis, and the mutual anticolitic effects occurred at least partly through the cooperative inhibition of NFκB activity.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Azo Compounds); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (Prodrugs); 4Q81I59GXC (Mesalamine); 8T3HQG2ZC4 (Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid); L39WTC366D (Procainamide)



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