Database : MEDLINE
Search on : D02.675.276.136 [DeCS Category]
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  1 / 154 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29317207
Author:Imamura T; Takagi H; Miyazato A; Ohki S; Mizukoshi H; Mori M
Address:Ishikawa Prefectural University, Nonoichi, Ishikawa, 921-8836, Japan. Electronic address: timamura@ishikawa-up.ac.jp.
Title:Isolation and characterization of the betalain biosynthesis gene involved in hypocotyl pigmentation of the allotetraploid Chenopodium quinoa.
Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 496(2):280-286, 2018 02 05.
ISSN:1090-2104
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:In quinoa seedlings, the pigment betalain accumulates in the hypocotyl. To isolate the genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in the hypocotyl, we performed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis on the CQ127 variety of quinoa seedlings. While putative amaranthin and celosianin II primarily accumulate in the hypocotyls, this process produced a green hypocotyl mutant (ghy). This MutMap+ method using the quinoa draft genome revealed that the causative gene of the mutant is CqCYP76AD1-1. Our results indicated that the expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 was light-dependent. In addition, the transient expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in the accumulation of betanin but not isobetanin, and the presence of a polymorphism in CqCYP76A1-2 in the CQ127 variety was shown to have resulted in its loss of function. These findings suggested that CqCYP76AD1-1 is involved in betalain biosynthesis during the hypocotyl pigmentation process in quinoa. To our knowledge, CqCYP76AD1-1 is the first quinoa gene identified by EMS mutagenesis using a draft gene sequence.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Mutagens); 15167-84-7 (amaranthin betacyanin); 37279-84-8 (Betalains); 5YJC992ZP6 (betanin); 9H154DI0UP (Ethyl Methanesulfonate); EC 1.14.13.- (7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase); EC 1.14.13.- (cytochrome P-450 CYP76B1 (Helianthus tuberosus))


  2 / 154 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29239176
Author:Henarejos-Escudero P; Guadarrama-Flores B; Guerrero-Rubio MA; Gómez-Pando LR; García-Carmona F; Gandía-Herrero F
Address:Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular A, Unidad Docente de Biología, Facultad de Veterinaria. Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum″. Universidad de Murcia , 30100 Murcia, Spain.
Title:Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).
Source:J Agric Food Chem; 66(2):467-474, 2018 Jan 17.
ISSN:1520-5118
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 µM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 µM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Pigments, Biological); 37279-84-8 (Betalains)


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PMID:28624090
Author:Nistor OV; Seremet Ceclu L; Andronoiu DG; Rudi L; Botez E
Address:Food Science and Engineering Faculty "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, 111 Domneasca Street, 800201, Romania.
Title:Influence of different drying methods on the physicochemical properties of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. Cylindra).
Source:Food Chem; 236:59-67, 2017 Dec 01.
ISSN:0308-8146
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:There is an increased interest in preserving fruits and vegetables by drying. The novelty of this study consists in the combination of the following three drying methods: free convection (at 50, 60, and 70°C), forced convection at 40°C and 315W microwave power. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the drying conditions on red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) in terms of betalain variance, and polyphenol, microstructure changes (SEM). A strong thermal shock, provided by convection at 60° followed by microwave wattage 315W/9min, leads to a better preservation of bioactive compounds content (0.631±0.0042mg/g of betacyanin and 0.795±0.0019mg/g betaxanthin) when compared to convection at 50, 60 and 70°C. The results showed that combined drying methods led to a significant preservation of the phytochemical content as compared to the traditional methods.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Polyphenols); 37279-84-8 (Betalains)


  4 / 154 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28551238
Author:Escribano J; Cabanes J; Jiménez-Atiénzar M; Ibañez-Tremolada M; Gómez-Pando LR; García-Carmona F; Gandía-Herrero F
Address:Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular A, Unidad Docente de Biología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
Title:Characterization of betalains, saponins and antioxidant power in differently colored quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties.
Source:Food Chem; 234:285-294, 2017 Nov 01.
ISSN:0308-8146
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Quinoa was the traditional grain crop used by the prehispanic civilizations in America. Grains are white, black, yellow, and red-violet and plants are cultivated in vast areas of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The recent description of the betacyanin pigment betanin in red-violet varieties is here further analyzed detecting the presence of amaranthin not previously identified in quinoa grains. Yellow-orange grains are characterized for the first time and up to four different betaxanthins are found to be responsible for this coloration. The native fluorescence of the identified betaxanthins makes the surface of the yellow quinoa grains glow with green fluorescent light. The presence of betalains is correlated with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities measured under the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays in grain extracts of 29 Peruvian varieties. TEAC equivalence is as high as 44.1 and 47.4mmol Trolox/kg for the yellow and red-violet varieties analyzed respectively.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Saponins); 37279-84-8 (Betalains)


  5 / 154 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28551213
Author:García-Cruz L; Dueñas M; Santos-Buelgas C; Valle-Guadarrama S; Salinas-Moreno Y
Address:Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Mexico-Texcoco km 38.5, Texcoco de Mora, 56230 Mexico, Mexico.
Title:Betalains and phenolic compounds profiling and antioxidant capacity of pitaya (Stenocereus spp.) fruit from two species (S. Pruinosus and S. stellatus).
Source:Food Chem; 234:111-118, 2017 Nov 01.
ISSN:0308-8146
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Pitaya fruits (Stenocereus spp.) contain betalains and phenolic compounds that have not been completely characterized. Fruits of two ecotypes of S. pruinosus, red-fleshed (SpR) and orange-fleshed (SpO), and two of S. stellatus, red-fleshed (SsR) and white-fleshed (SsW), were characterized in their betalains and phenolic compounds. The chromatographic profile of betalains was similar in SpR, SpO, and SsR, where indicaxanthin, gomphrenin I, phyllocacthin, and their isomers predominated. Betaxanthins content was higher than betacyanins and ranged from 17,706.7±1128.1 to 22,053.6±328.1µg/g dry sample. The identified phenolics mostly corresponded to hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives, flavonols and flavanones. The phenolics content was higher in S. stellatus than in S. pruinosus. The ecotype SsW, that had flesh without color, showed the highest concentration. The antioxidant capacity varied within 9.21±0.84 and 2.41±0.36µmolTrolox/g fresh sample, as determined by the ABTS assay. By its phytochemical composition, the fruits of pitaya can be a good source of antioxidant compounds.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Phenols); 37279-84-8 (Betalains)


  6 / 154 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28262892
Author:Martins N; Roriz CL; Morales P; Barros L; Ferreira ICFR
Address:Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), ESA, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 1172, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal. iferreira@ipb.pt.
Title:Coloring attributes of betalains: a key emphasis on stability and future applications.
Source:Food Funct; 8(4):1357-1372, 2017 Apr 19.
ISSN:2042-650X
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Organoleptic characteristics largely determine food acceptance, selection, and subsequent consumption. Therefore, food colorants are extremely important in the food industry. However, based on the latest findings related to the side effects and toxicity issues of some synthetic colorants, consumers worldwide have shown increasing interest in natural alternatives. Betalains are good examples of natural colorants and therefore the present study reviews the main sources of these pigments, their structural elucidation and biosynthetic pathways, their chemical instability to different environmental factors, as well as their potential uses at the industrial level and also for pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes, due to their ability to act as functional ingredients and health enhancers/promoters. Betalain natural pigments represent a promising and safe alternative to synthetic dyes, but their chemical instability has limited their widespread use. Temperature, pH, water activity, oxygen, light, chelating agents, the presence of other compounds, pigment concentration, storage, and processing conditions are the most important factors affecting their stability. It is, therefore, very important to establish optimum processing conditions to maximize the stability of betalains and their extraction yields, focusing on their effective use as natural food colorants, functional ingredients and value-added food products.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Name of substance:0 (Food Coloring Agents); 0 (Pigments, Biological); 0 (Plant Extracts); 37279-84-8 (Betalains)


  7 / 154 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28121183
Author:Montenegro CF; Kwong DA; Minow ZA; Davis BA; Lozada CF; Casazza GA
Address:a Sports Performance Laboratory, University of California Davis Sports Medicine Program, 3301 C St., Suite 1600, Sacramento, CA 95816, USA.
Title:Betalain-rich concentrate supplementation improves exercise performance and recovery in competitive triathletes.
Source:Appl Physiol Nutr Metab; 42(2):166-172, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1715-5320
Country of publication:Canada
Language:eng
Abstract:We aimed to determine the effects of a betalain-rich concentrate (BRC) of beetroots, containing no sugars or nitrates, on exercise performance and recovery. Twenty-two (9 men and 13 women) triathletes (age, 38 ± 11 years) completed 2 double-blind, crossover, randomized trials (BRC and placebo) starting 7 days apart. Each trial was preceded by 6 days of supplementation with 100 mg·day of BRC or placebo. On the 7th day of supplementation, exercise trials commenced 120 min after ingestion of 50 mg BRC or placebo and consisted of 40 min of cycling (75 ± 5% maximal oxygen consumption) followed by a 10-km running time trial (TT). Subjects returned 24 h later to complete a 5-km running TT to assess recovery. Ten-kilometer TT duration (49.5 ± 8.9 vs. 50.8 ± 10.3 min, p = 0.03) was faster with the BRC treatment. Despite running faster, average heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between treatments. Five-kilometer TT duration (23.2 ± 4.4 vs 23.9 ± 4.7 min, p = 0.003), 24 h after the 10-km TT, was faster in 17 of the 22 subjects with the BRC treatment. Creatine kinase, a muscle damage marker, increased less (40.5 ± 22.5 vs. 49.7 ± 21.5 U·L , p = 0.02) from baseline to after the 10-km TT and subjective fatigue increased less (-0.05 ± 6.1 vs. 3.23 ± 6.1, p = 0.05) from baseline to 24 h after the 10-km TT with BRC. In conclusion, BRC supplementation improved 10-km TT performance in competitive male and female triathletes. Improved 5-km TT performances 24 h after the 10-km TT and the attenuated increase of creatine kinase and fatigue suggest an increase in recovery while taking BRC.
Publication type:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Name of substance:37279-84-8 (Betalains)


  8 / 154 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28098998
Author:Belhadj Slimen I; Najar T; Abderrabba M
Address:Department of Animal, Food and Halieutic Resources, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia , 43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, 1082 Tunis, Tunisia.
Title:Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Betalains.
Source:J Agric Food Chem; 65(4):675-689, 2017 Feb 01.
ISSN:1520-5118
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Betalains are vacuolar pigments composed of a nitrogenous core structure, betalamic acid. Betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA/its glucosyl derivates) or amino acids/derivates to form violet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. These pigments have gained the curiosity of scientific researchers in recent decades. Their importance was increased not only by market orientation toward natural colorants and antioxidants but also by their safety and health promoting properties. To date, about 78 betalains have been identified from plants of about 17 families. In this review, all of the identified pigments are presented, followed by a comprehensive discussion of their structure-activity relationship.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Pigments, Biological); 0 (Plant Extracts); 37279-84-8 (Betalains)


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PMID:27719921
Author:Farabegoli F; Scarpa ES; Frati A; Serafini G; Papi A; Spisni E; Antonini E; Benedetti S; Ninfali P
Address:Department of Pharmacology and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
Title:Betalains increase vitexin-2-O-xyloside cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 cancer cells.
Source:Food Chem; 218:356-364, 2017 Mar 01.
ISSN:0308-8146
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. (BVc) seeds, betaxanthin (R1) and betacyanin (R2) fractions from Beta vulgaris var. rubra L. (BVr) roots were combined and tested for cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 colon cancer cells. XVX was the most cytotoxic molecule, but the combination of XVX with R1 and R2 significantly prolonged its cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was mediated by the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as shown by an increase in Bcl2-like protein 4, cleaved Poly ADP-Ribosyl Polymerase 1 and cleaved Caspase 3 levels with a parallel decrease in anti-apoptotic protein B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 levels. R1 and R2, used alone or in combination, reduced oxidative stress triggered by H O in CaCo-2 cells. Betalains dampened cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 mRNA expression after lipopolysaccharide induction in CaCo-2, showing an anti-inflammatory action. Our results support the use of a cocktail of R1, R2 and XVX as a chemopreventive tool against colon cancer.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Glycosides); 0 (IL8 protein, human); 0 (Interleukin-8); 0 (Nuclear Proteins); 0 (PARP4 protein, human); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 0 (vitexin-2-O-xyloside); 37279-84-8 (Betalains); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide); EC 1.14.99.1 (Cyclooxygenase 2); EC 1.14.99.1 (PTGS2 protein, human); EC 3.4.22.- (CASP3 protein, human); EC 3.4.22.- (Caspase 3)


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PMID:27542480
Author:Mereddy R; Chan A; Fanning K; Nirmal N; Sultanbawa Y
Address:Innovative Food Technologies, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia. Electronic address: ram.mereddy@daf.qld.gov.au.
Title:Betalain rich functional extract with reduced salts and nitrate content from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) using membrane separation technology.
Source:Food Chem; 215:311-7, 2017 Jan 15.
ISSN:0308-8146
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:An initial laboratory-scale evaluation of separation characteristics of membranes with nominal molecular weight cut-offs (NMWCO) ranging from 30kD down to 0.5kD indicated effective separation of betalains in the 0.5kD region. Subsequent pilot-level trials using 1kD, loose reverse osmosis (LRO) and reverse osmosis (RO) spiral-wound membranes showed LRO membrane to be very efficient with up to 96% salt and 47% other dissolved solids removed while retaining majority of the pigment (∼98%) in the betalain rich extract (BRE). The total betalain content in the BRE increased up to 46%, the highest recovery reported so far at pilot scale level. Interestingly, more than 95% of the nitrates were removed from the BRE after the three diafiltrations. These studies indicate that membrane technology is the most efficient technique to produce BRE with highly reduced amounts of salts and nitrate content.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Nitrates); 37279-84-8 (Betalains); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride)



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