Database : MEDLINE
Search on : D02.675.276.136.555 [DeCS Category]
References found : 39 [refine]
Displaying: 1 .. 10   in format [Large]

page 1 of 4 go to page            

  1 / 39 MEDLINE  
              next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26873098
Author:Clifford T; Constantinou CM; Keane KM; West DJ; Howatson G; Stevenson EJ
Address:Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK. tom.clifford@northumbria.ac.uk.
Title:The plasma bioavailability of nitrate and betanin from Beta vulgaris rubra in humans.
Source:Eur J Nutr; 56(3):1245-1254, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1436-6215
Country of publication:Germany
Language:eng
Abstract:PURPOSE: To evaluate the plasma bioavailability of betanin and nitric oxide (NOx) after consuming beetroot juice (BTJ) and whole beetroot (BF). BTJ and BF were also analysed for antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content (TPC) and betalain content. METHODS: Ten healthy males consumed either 250 ml of BTJ, 300 g of BF or a placebo drink, in a randomised, crossover design. Venous plasma samples were collected pre (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-ingestion. Betanin content in BTJ, BF and plasma was analysed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS). Antioxidant capacity was estimated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and polyphenol content using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric methods [gallic acid equivalents (GAE)] and betalain content spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: TEAC was 11.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L for BTJ and 3.4 ± 0.4 µmol/g for BF. Both BTJ and BF contained a number of polyphenols (1606.9 ± 151 mg/GAE/L and 1.67 ± 0.1 mg/GAE/g, respectively), betacyanins (68.2 ± 0.4 mg/betanin equivalents/L and 19.6 ± 0.6 mg/betanin equivalents/100 g, respectively) and betaxanthins (41.7 ± 0.7 mg/indicaxanthin equivalents/L and 7.5 ± 0.2 mg/indicaxanthin equivalents/100 g, respectively). Despite high betanin contents in both BTJ (~194 mg) and BF (~66 mg), betanin could not be detected in the plasma at any time point post-ingestion. Plasma NOx was elevated above baseline for 8 h after consuming BTJ and 5 h after BF (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal that BTJ and BF are rich in phytonutrients and may provide a useful means of increasing plasma NOx bioavailability. However, betanin, the major betalain in beetroot, showed poor bioavailability in plasma.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Nitrates); 0 (Polyphenols); 0 (Pyridines); 0 (indicaxanthin); 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide); 37279-84-8 (Betalains)


  2 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:28071025
Author:Mikolajczyk-Bator K; Pawlak S
Address:Department of Natural Science and Quality Assurance, Poznan University of Economics and Business, Poland.
Title:The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.
Source:Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment; 15(3):257-265, 2016 Jul-Sep.
ISSN:1898-9594
Country of publication:Poland
Language:eng
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). METHODS: Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. RESULTS: After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating additionally 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Both groups of betalain pigments (betacyanins and betaxanthins) exhibit antioxidant capacity before and after heating. Violet beatacyjanins are 3 times more stable when heated than yellow betaxanthins.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Betaxanthins); 37279-84-8 (Betalains); 5YJC992ZP6 (betanin)


  3 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:27211682
Author:Mata A; Ferreira JP; Semedo C; Serra T; Duarte CM; Bronze MR
Address:Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-019 Lisboa, Portugal.
Title:Contribution to the characterization of Opuntia spp. juices by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.
Source:Food Chem; 210:558-65, 2016 Nov 01.
ISSN:0308-8146
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Opuntia spp. fruits are considered as health promoting foods due to the diversity of bioactive molecules found in these fruits. The composition in organic acids, flavonols and betalains in the Opuntia ficus-indica juice from a region of Portugal was accomplished for the first time by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in negative and positive mode. The methodology used allowed the detection of 44 compounds, from which 32 were identified. Isorhamnetin derivatives were the dominant flavonol glycosides. A total of 9 betalains including 6 betaxanthins and 3 betacyanin were also detected in the fruit juice samples and indicaxanthin, betanin and isobetanin were the major pigments. Phenolic acid and phenylpyruvic acid derivatives were also identified. To our knowledge, it is the first time derivative compounds from piscidic acid, phenolic compounds and betalains are characterized in cactus pear juice using a single LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Flavonols); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Pyridines); 0 (indicaxanthin); 07X3IB4R4Z (3-methylquercetin); 9IKM0I5T1E (Quercetin)


  4 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26683006
Author:Polturak G; Breitel D; Grossman N; Sarrion-Perdigones A; Weithorn E; Pliner M; Orzaez D; Granell A; Rogachev I; Aharoni A
Address:Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 7610001, Israel.
Title:Elucidation of the first committed step in betalain biosynthesis enables the heterologous engineering of betalain pigments in plants.
Source:New Phytol; 210(1):269-83, 2016 Apr.
ISSN:1469-8137
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Betalains are tyrosine-derived red-violet and yellow pigments, found in plants only of the Caryophyllales order. Although much progress has been made in recent years in the understanding of the betalain biosynthetic process, many questions remain open with regards to several of the proposed steps in the pathway. Most conspicuous by its absence is the characterization of the first committed step in the pathway, namely the 3-hydroxylation of tyrosine to form l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). We used transcriptome analysis of the betalain-producing plants red beet (Beta vulgaris) and four o'clocks (Mirabilis jalapa) to identify a novel, betalain-related cytochrome P450-type gene, CYP76AD6, and carried out gene silencing and recombinant expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and yeast cells to examine its functionality. l-DOPA formation in red beet was found to be redundantly catalyzed by CYP76AD6 together with a known betalain-related enzyme, CYP76AD1, which was previously thought to only catalyze a succeeding step in the pathway. While CYP76AD1 catalyzes both l-DOPA formation and its subsequent conversion to cyclo-DOPA, CYP76AD6 uniquely exhibits only tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The new findings enabled us to metabolically engineer entirely red-pigmented tobacco plants through heterologous expression of three genes taking part in the fully decoded betalain biosynthetic pathway.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 37279-84-8 (Betalains); 63-84-3 (Dihydroxyphenylalanine); 9035-51-2 (Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System)


  5 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26439130
Author:Naselli F; Belshaw NJ; Gentile C; Tutone M; Tesoriere L; Livrea MA; Caradonna F
Address:Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), Universitx00E0; di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
Title:Phytochemical Indicaxanthin Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth and Affects the DNA Methylation Status by Influencing Epigenetically Modifying Enzyme Expression and Activity.
Source:J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics; 8(3):114-27, 2015.
ISSN:1661-6758
Country of publication:Switzerland
Language:eng
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Recently, we have shown anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of indicaxanthin associated with epigenetic modulation of the onco-suppressor p16INK4a in the human colon cancer cell line CACO2. In the present study, the epigenetic activity of indicaxanthin and the mechanisms involved were further investigated in other colorectal cancer cell lines. METHODS: LOVO1, CACO2, HT29, HCT116, and DLD1 cells were used to evaluate the potential influence of consistent dietary concentrations of indicaxanthin on DNA methylation, and the epigenetic mechanisms involved were researched. RESULTS: Indicaxanthin exhibited anti-proliferative activity in all cell lines but HT29, induced demethylation in the promoters of some methylation-silenced onco-suppressor genes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis (p16INK4a, GATA4, and ESR1), and left unchanged others which were basally hypermethylated (SFRP1 and HPP1). In apparent contrast, cell exposure to indicaxanthin increased DNMT gene expression, although indicaxanthin appeared to be an inhibitor of DNMT activity. Indicaxanthin also increased the expression of genes involved in DNA demethylation. Finally, an in silico molecular modelling approach suggested stable binding of indicaxanthin at the DNMT1 catalytic site. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to new knowledge in the field of phytochemicals and specifically suggest dietary indicaxanthin as a potential epigenetic agent to protect colon cells against tumoral alterations.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Pyridines); 0 (indicaxanthin)


  6 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26243178
Author:Slatnar A; Stampar F; Veberic R; Jakopic J
Address:Univ. of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy Dept, Chair for Fruit, Wine, and Vegetable Growing, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Title:HPLC-MS(n) Identification of Betalain Profile of Different Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) Parts and Cultivars.
Source:J Food Sci; 80(9):C1952-8, 2015 Sep.
ISSN:1750-3841
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The distribution of betalains in peel, flesh, and petioles of yellow and red beetroot cultivars has been investigated using an High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with electrospray mass spectrometry. Differences in the levels of betacyanins and betaxanthins between different colored cultivars were individually determined for 3 plant parts. The content of almost all analyzed compounds decreased in the following order: peel > flesh > petiole. Betanin/isobetanin pigments comprised a major portion of the relative peak area measured in red beetroot peel. Isobetanin relative peak areas were also high in leaf petioles (68.94% to 74.16%) of red colored cultivars. However, betacyanins were completely absent from the extracts of all analyzed parts of yellow beet. Glutamine-bx represented a very high relative peak area (59.54% to 64.18%) in flesh of red-colored cultivars analyzed in the study. Our results indicate that red beet cultivars can be utilized as a potential source of red and yellow natural colorants. However, differences in pigment composition among different beetroot parts must be considered and in order to maximize the pigment yields petioles can also be used as a source rich in specific betalain compounds.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Food Coloring Agents); 0 (Pigments, Biological); 37279-84-8 (Betalains); 5YJC992ZP6 (betanin)


  7 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26227670
Author:Allegra M; Carletti F; Gambino G; Tutone M; Attanzio A; Tesoriere L; Ferraro G; Sardo P; Almerico AM; Livrea MA
Address:Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, University of Palermo , Via M. Cipolla 74, 90121 Palermo, Italy.
Title:Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.
Source:J Agric Food Chem; 63(33):7353-60, 2015 Aug 26.
ISSN:1520-5118
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 µmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Pyridines); 0 (Receptors, Glutamate); 0 (indicaxanthin)


  8 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26169206
Author:Tesoriere L; Attanzio A; Allegra M; Livrea MA
Address:Department of Biological Chemical and Pharmaceutical Science and Technologies (STEBICEF),Università di Palermo,Via M. Cipolla 74,90123Palermo,Italy.
Title:Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.
Source:Br J Nutr; 114(3):368-75, 2015 Aug 14.
ISSN:1475-2662
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 µM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 µm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 µm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Phosphatidylserines); 0 (Pyridines); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 0 (Sterols); 0 (indicaxanthin); GAN16C9B8O (Glutathione); K7Q1JQR04M (Dinoprostone); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)


  9 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26141372
Author:Giménez PJ; Fernández-López JA; Angosto JM; Obón JM
Address:Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT), Paseo Alfonso XIII 52, E-30203, Cartagena, Murcia, Spain.
Title:Comparative Thermal Degradation Patterns of Natural Yellow Colorants Used in Foods.
Source:Plant Foods Hum Nutr; 70(4):380-7, 2015 Dec.
ISSN:1573-9104
Country of publication:Netherlands
Language:eng
Abstract:There is a great interest in natural yellow colorants due to warnings issued about certain yellow food colorings of synthetic origin. However, no comparative studies have been reported of their thermal stability. For this reason, the thermal stabilities of six natural yellow colorants used in foods--lutein, riboflavin, curcumin, ß-carotene, gardenia yellow and Opuntia betaxanthins--were studied in simple solutions over a temperature range 30-90 °C. Spectral properties and visual color were investigated during 6 h of heat treatment. Visual color was monitored from the CIEL*a*b* parameters. The remaining absorbance at maximum wavelength and the total color difference were used to quantify color degradation. The rate of color degradation increased as the temperature rose. The results showed that the thermal degradation of the colorants followed a first-order reaction kinetics. The reaction rate constants and half-life periods were determined as being central to understanding the color degradation kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. Activation energies ranged from 3.2 kJmol(-1) (lutein) to 43.7 kJmol(-1) (Opuntia betaxanthins). ß-carotene and lutein exhibited high thermal stability, while betaxanthins and riboflavin degraded rapidly as temperature increased. Gardenia yellow and curcumin were in an intermediate position.
Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Food Coloring Agents); 0 (Pigments, Biological); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Solutions); 01YAE03M7J (beta Carotene); F32BA2H92Z (gardenia yellow); IT942ZTH98 (Curcumin); TLM2976OFR (Riboflavin); X72A60C9MT (Lutein)


  10 / 39 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text
PMID:26101148
Author:Khan MI; Giridhar P
Address:Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570020, India. Electronic address: imtiyaj@gauhati.ac.in.
Title:Plant betalains: Chemistry and biochemistry.
Source:Phytochemistry; 117:267-95, 2015 Sep.
ISSN:1873-3700
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Betalains are vacuolar pigments composed of a nitrogenous core structure, betalamic acid [4-(2-oxoethylidene)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid]. Betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-l-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine/its glucosyl derivatives), or amino acids/derivatives to form variety of betacyanins (violet) and betaxanthins (yellow), respectively. About 75 betalains have been structurally unambiguously identified from plants of about 17 families (known till date) out of 34 families under the order Caryophyllales, wherein they serve as chemosystematic markers. In this review, all the identified betalain structures are presented with relevant discussion. Also, an estimated annual production potential of betalains has been computed for the first time. In addition, mutual exclusiveness of anthocyanins and betalains has been discussed in the wake of new evidences. An inclusive list of betalain-accumulating plants reported so far has been presented here to highlight pigment occurrence and accumulation pattern. Betalain synthesis starts with hydroxylation of tyrosine to DOPA, and subsequent cleavage of aromatic ring of DOPA resulting to betalamic acid formation. This pathway consists of two key enzymes namely, bifunctional tyrosinase (hydroxylation and oxidation) and DOPA dioxygenase (O2-dependent aromatic ring cleavage). Various spontaneous cyclisation, condensation and glucosylation steps complement the extended pathway, which has been presented here comprehensively. The biosynthesis is affected by various ecophysiological factors including biotic and abiotic elicitors that can be manipulated to increase pigment production for commercial scale extraction. Betalains are completely safe to consume, and contribute to health.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
Name of substance:0 (Betacyanins); 0 (Betaxanthins); 0 (Fungal Proteins); 37279-84-8 (Betalains); EC 1.13.- (Oxygenases); EC 1.14.99.- (dodA protein, Amanita muscaria)



page 1 of 4 go to page            
   


Refine the search
  Database : MEDLINE Advanced form   

    Search in field  
1  
2
3
 
           



Search engine: iAH v2.6 powered by WWWISIS

BIREME/PAHO/WHO - Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information