Database : MEDLINE
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  1 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29223047
Author:Upadhyaya P; Zarth AT; Fujioka N; Fritz VA; Hecht SS
Address:Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, 2231 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Title:Identification and analysis of a mercapturic acid conjugate of indole-3-methyl isothiocyanate in the urine of humans who consumed cruciferous vegetables.
Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci; 1072:341-346, 2018 Jan 01.
ISSN:1873-376X
Country of publication:Netherlands
Language:eng
Abstract:Glucobrassicin, a quantitatively significant constituent of Brassica vegetables, gives rise to indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimer di-indolylmethane (DIM) when the vegetables are chewed. I3C and DIM have been extensively studied with respect to their anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the presumed intermediate isothiocyanate in their formation, indole-3-methyl isothiocyanate (IMITC), has to our knowledge never been observed, despite the fact that isothiocyanates derived from cruciferous vegetables are known to have anti-carcinogenic properties. Therefore, we investigated the formation and presence in human urine of IMITC by analyzing for its N-acetylcysteine conjugate, IMITC-NAC, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the biochemical pathways leading to formation of I3C and DIM upon consumption of vegetables rich in glucobrassicin. Standard IMITC-NAC was synthesized and its structure confirmed by NMR and MS. IMITC-NAC was identified in extracts of Brussels sprouts chopped in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. An LC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM method for analysis of IMITC-NAC, with [ C, N]IMITC-NAC as internal standard, was developed and validated. Then, ten subjects (7 females) consumed a salad of Brussels sprouts and cabbage (containing 100-500µmol glucobrassicin) once daily for 3days. Urine was collected at intervals up to 24h after vegetable consumption. Levels of IMITC-NAC in the urine of these 10 subjects ranged from 0.2 to 30.2pmol/mL urine. These results provide the first evidence for the presumed intermediacy of IMITC in the formation of I3C and DIM in humans who consumed Brussels sprouts and cabbage as a source of glucobrassicin.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Indoles); 0 (Isocyanates); EA6EH0IU89 (glucobrassicin); WYQ7N0BPYC (Acetylcysteine)


  2 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28455184
Author:Schweizer F; Heidel-Fischer H; Vogel H; Reymond P
Address:Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
Title:Arabidopsis glucosinolates trigger a contrasting transcriptomic response in a generalist and a specialist herbivore.
Source:Insect Biochem Mol Biol; 85:21-31, 2017 06.
ISSN:1879-0240
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Phytophagous insects have to deal with toxic defense compounds from their host plants. Although it is known that insects have evolved genes and mechanisms to detoxify plant allochemicals, how specialist and generalist precisely respond to specific secondary metabolites at the molecular level is less understood. Here we studied the larval performance and transcriptome of the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist butterfly Pieris brassicae feeding on Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes with different glucosinolate (GS) levels. H. virescens larvae gained significantly more weight on the GS-deficient mutant quadGS compared to wild-type (Col-0) plants. On the contrary, P. brassicae was unaffected by the presence of GS and performed equally well on both genotypes. Strikingly, there was a considerable differential gene expression in H. virescens larvae feeding on Col-0 compared to quadGS. In contrast, compared to H. virescens, P. brassicae displayed a much-reduced transcriptional activation when fed on both plant genotypes. Transcripts coding for putative detoxification enzymes were significantly upregulated in H. virescens, along with digestive enzymes and transposable elements. These data provide an unprecedented view on transcriptional changes that are specifically activated by GS and illustrate differential molecular responses that are linked to adaptation to diet in lepidopteran herbivores.
Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Name of substance:0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Insect Proteins); 0 (cuticle proteins, insects); 0 (storage proteins, Insecta)


  3 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27775133
Author:Förster N; Mewis I; Glatt H; Haack M; Brigelius-Flohé R; Schreiner M; Ulrichs C
Address:Division Urban Plant Ecophysiology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Lentzeallee 55-57, 14195 Berlin, Germany. nadja.foerster@hu-berlin.de.
Title:Characteristic single glucosinolates from Moringa oleifera: Induction of detoxifying enzymes and lack of genotoxic activity in various model systems.
Source:Food Funct; 7(11):4660-4674, 2016 Nov 09.
ISSN:2042-650X
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Abstract:Leaves of Moringa oleifera are used by tribes as biological cancer medicine. Scientific investigations with M. oleifera conducted so far have almost exclusively used total plant extracts. Studies on the activity of single compounds are missing. Therefore, the biological effects of the two main aromatic multi-glycosylated glucosinolates of M. oleifera were investigated in the present study. The cytotoxic effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates were identified for HepG2 cells (NRU assay), for V79-MZ cells (HPRT assay, SCE assay), and for two Salmonella typhimurium strains (Ames test). Genotoxic effects of these glucosinolates were not observed (Ames test, HPRT assay, and SCE assay). Reporter gene assays revealed a significant increase in the ARE-dependent promoter activity of NQO1 and GPx2 indicating an activation of the Nrf2 pathway by M. oleifera glucosinolates. Since both enzymes can also be induced via activation of the AhR, plasmids containing promoters of both enzymes mutated in the respective binding sites (pGL3enh-hNQO1-ARE, pGL3enh-hNQO1-XRE, pGL3bas-hGPX2-mutARE, pGL3bas-hGPX2-mutXRE) were transfected. Analyses revealed that the majority of the stimulating effects was mediated by the ARE motif, whereas the XRE motif played only a minor role. The stimulating effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates could be demonstrated both at the transcriptional (reporter gene assay, real time-PCR) and translational levels (enzyme activity) making them interesting compounds for further investigation.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Plant Extracts); 63231-63-0 (RNA)


  4 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29190278
Author:Rechner O; Neugart S; Schreiner M; Wu S; Poehling HM
Address:Section of Phytomedicine, Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Hannover, Germany.
Title:Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?
Source:PLoS One; 12(11):e0188522, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Coumaric Acids); 0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Indoles); 0 (Kaempferols); 731P2LE49E (kaempferol); 9IKM0I5T1E (Quercetin)


  5 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28945821
Author:Lee YS; Ku KM; Becker TM; Juvik JA
Address:Department of Medical Biotechnology, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, South Korea.
Title:Chemopreventive glucosinolate accumulation in various broccoli and collard tissues: Microfluidic-based targeted transcriptomics for by-product valorization.
Source:PLoS One; 12(9):e0185112, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Anticarcinogenic Agents); 0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Imidoesters); 0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (RNA, Plant); 163ENC977A (gluconasturtiin); 21973-56-8 (glucoerucin); EC 1.6.5.2 (NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose)


  6 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28805380
Author:Hinds L; Kenny O; Hossain MB; Walsh D; Sheehy E; Evans P; Gaffney M; Rai DK
Title:Evaluating the Antibacterial Properties of Polyacetylene and Glucosinolate Compounds with Further Identification of Their Presence within Various Carrot (Daucus carota) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Cultivars Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Diode Array Detector and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analyses.
Source:J Agric Food Chem; 65(33):7186-7191, 2017 Aug 23.
ISSN:1520-5118
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Ongoing consumer concerns over using synthetic additives in foods has strongly influenced efforts worldwide to source suitable natural alternatives. In this study, the antibacterial efficacy of polyacetylene and glucosinolate compounds was evaluated against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Falcarinol [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 18.8-37.6 µg/mL] demonstrated the best overall antibacterial activity, while sinigrin (MIC = 46.9-62.5 µg/mL) was the most active glucosinolate compound. High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector analysis showed falcarinol [85.13-244.85 µg/g of dry weight (DW)] to be the most abundant polyacetylene within six of the eight carrot (Daucus carota) cultivars investigated. Meanwhile, sinigrin (100.2-244.3 µg/g of DW) was the most abundant glucosinolate present within the majority of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cultivars investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The high abundance of both falcarinol and sinigrin within these respective species suggests that they could serve as potential sources of natural antibacterial agents for use as such in food products.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Food Additives); 0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Plant Extracts); 25067-58-7 (Polyacetylenes)


  7 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28732049
Author:Keith RA; Mitchell-Olds T
Address:University Program in Genetics and Genomics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.
Title:Testing the optimal defense hypothesis in nature: Variation for glucosinolate profiles within plants.
Source:PLoS One; 12(7):e0180971, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Plants employ highly variable chemical defenses against a broad community of herbivores, which vary in their susceptibilities to specific compounds. Variation in chemical defenses within the plant has been found in many species; the ecological and evolutionary influences on this variation, however, are less well-understood. One central theory describing the allocation of defenses in the plant is the Optimal Defense Hypothesis (ODH), which predicts that defenses will be concentrated in tissues that are of high fitness value to the plant. Although the ODH has been repeatedly supported within vegetative tissues, few studies have compared vegetative and reproductive tissues, and the results have not been conclusive. We quantified variation in glucosinolate profile and tissue value between vegetative and reproductive tissues in Boechera stricta, a close relative of Arabidopsis. B. stricta manufactures glucosinolates, a set of defensive compounds that vary genetically and are straightforward to quantify. Genetic diversity in glucosinolate profile has been previously demonstrated to be important to both herbivory and fitness in B. stricta; however, the importance of glucosinolate variation among tissues has not. Here, we investigate whether allocation of glucosinolates within the plant is consistent with the ODH. We used both clipping experiments on endogenous plants and ambient herbivory in a large-scale transplant experiment at three sites to quantify fitness effects of loss of rosette leaves, cauline leaves, and flowers and fruits. We measured glucosinolate concentration in leaves and fruits in the transplant experiment, and asked whether more valuable tissues were more defended. We also investigated within-plant variation in other aspects of the glucosinolate profile. Our results indicated that damage to fruits had a significantly larger effect on overall fitness than damage to leaves, and that fruits had much higher concentrations of glucosinolates, supporting the ODH. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study to explicitly compare both tissue value and chemical defense concentrations between vegetative and reproductive tissues under natural conditions.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Glucosinolates)


  8 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28686731
Author:Schaefer HL; Brandes H; Ulber B; Becker HC; Vidal S
Address:Department for Crop Sciences, Division of Plant Pathology and Plant Protection, Section of Agricultural Entomology, Goettingen, Georg-August University, Germany.
Title:Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.).
Source:PLoS One; 12(7):e0180807, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Glucosinolates)


  9 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28651048
Author:Ban Y; Khan NA; Yu P
Address:Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan , Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A8, Canada.
Title:Nutritional and Metabolic Characteristics of Brassica carinata Co-products from Biofuel Processing in Dairy Cows.
Source:J Agric Food Chem; 65(29):5994-6001, 2017 Jul 26.
ISSN:1520-5118
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The increased utilization of Brassica carinata in the biofuel industry in Canada has resulted in the large-scale production of co-products that can be potentially exploited as alternative protein ingredients in dairy ration. The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritive value of carinata presscake and meal for dairy cows in terms of (1) nutrient and antinutrient composition, (2) rumen degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber, (3) hourly effective degradation ratio and potential N to energy synchronization, (4) intestinal digestion of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and (5) total metabolizable protein (MP) supply to the small intestine. Samples (n = 3) of carinata meal, carinata presscake, and canola meal (as reference feed), collected from three consecutive batches, were evaluated. In comparison to canola meal, carinata presscake and meal had greater (p < 0.05) contents of CP [39.7 versus 48.5 and 53.5% dry matter (DM)], with a high proportion of soluble crude protein (24.0 versus 53.0 and 72.6% CP), resulting in their extensive degradation (59.2 versus 76.3 and 89.3% CP) in the rumen. As a result, carinata presscake and meal supplied smaller (p < 0.05) quantities (92 and 136 g/kg of DM) of MP compared to canola meal (153 g/kg of DM). The contents of glucosinolates were greater (p < 0.05) in carinata presscake (168.5 µmol/g) and meal (115.2 µmol/g) compared to canola meal (3.4 µmol/g), limiting its utilization as a ruminant feed. Carinata co-products can be used as an alternative feed protein source, given their nutrient composition, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestion characteristics, provided that the high glucosinolate content can be reduced.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Biofuels); 0 (Dietary Fiber); 0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Waste Products)


  10 / 1429 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28640868
Author:Davoine C; Abreu IN; Khajeh K; Blomberg J; Kidd BN; Kazan K; Schenk PM; Gerber L; Nilsson O; Moritz T; Björklund S
Address:Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Title:Functional metabolomics as a tool to analyze Mediator function and structure in plants.
Source:PLoS One; 12(6):e0179640, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Mediator is a multiprotein transcriptional co-regulator complex composed of four modules; Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase. It conveys signals from promoter-bound transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II and thus plays an essential role in eukaryotic gene regulation. We describe subunit localization and activities of Mediator in Arabidopsis through metabolome and transcriptome analyses from a set of Mediator mutants. Functional metabolomic analysis based on the metabolite profiles of Mediator mutants using multivariate statistical analysis and heat-map visualization shows that different subunit mutants display distinct metabolite profiles, which cluster according to the reported localization of the corresponding subunits in yeast. Based on these results, we suggest localization of previously unassigned plant Mediator subunits to specific modules. We also describe novel roles for individual subunits in development, and demonstrate changes in gene expression patterns and specific metabolite levels in med18 and med25, which can explain their phenotypes. We find that med18 displays levels of phytoalexins normally found in wild type plants only after exposure to pathogens. Our results indicate that different Mediator subunits are involved in specific signaling pathways that control developmental processes and tolerance to pathogen infections.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Arabidopsis Proteins); 0 (Galactolipids); 0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (MED18 protein, Arabidopsis); 0 (Mediator Complex); 0 (Nuclear Proteins); 0 (Oxylipins); 0 (PFT1 protein, Arabidopsis); 0 (Phenols); 8DUH1N11BX (Tryptophan)



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