Database : MEDLINE
Search on : F03.625.937 [DeCS Category]
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PMID:29251895
Author:Shannon J; Blythe S; Peters K
Title:NEONATAL ABSTINENCE SYNDROME AND THE ATTACHMENT RELATIONSHIP.
Source:Aust Nurs Midwifery J; 24(6):42, 2016 12.
ISSN:2202-7114
Country of publication:Australia
Language:eng
Abstract:Approximately 4.2% of pregnant women consume illicit drugs during pregnancy (AIHW, 2011). Drug exposed infants are more likely to be born small for gestational age, be pre-term, and be admitted to special care or intensive care nurseries (AIHW, 2007).
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28708838
Author:Wright B; Hackney L; Hughes E; Barry M; Glaser D; Prior V; Allgar V; Marshall D; Barrow J; Kirby N; Garside M; Kaushal P; Perry A; McMillan D
Address:Hull York Medical School, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
Title:Decreasing rates of disorganised attachment in infants and young children, who are at risk of developing, or who already have disorganised attachment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of early parenting interventions.
Source:PLoS One; 12(7):e0180858, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Disorganised attachment patterns in infants have been linked to later psychopathology. Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for families of children with disorganised attachment patterns, which is the attachment pattern leading to most future psychopathology. Several recent government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at risk groups. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of available parenting interventions for families of children at high risk of developing, or already showing, a disorganised pattern of attachment. METHODS: Population: Studies were included if they involved parents or caregivers of young children with a mean age under 13 years who had a disorganised classification of attachment or were identified as at high risk of developing such problems. Included interventions were aimed at parents or caregivers (e.g. foster carers) seeking to improve attachment. Comparators included an alternative intervention, an attention control, treatment as usual or no intervention. The primary outcome was a disorganised pattern in childhood measured using a validated attachment instrument. Studies that did not use a true Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) design were excluded from the review. Both published and unpublished papers were included, there were no restrictions on years since publication and foreign language papers were included where translation services could be accessed within necessary timescales. RESULTS: A comprehensive search of relevant databases yielded 15,298 papers. This paper reports a systematic review as part of an NIHR HTA study identifying studies pre-2012, updated to include all papers to October 2016. Two independent reviewers undertook two stage screening and data extraction of the included studies at all stages. A Cochrane quality assessment was carried out to assess the risk of bias. In total, fourteen studies were included in the review. In a meta-analysis of these fourteen studies the interventions saw less disorganised attachment at outcome compared to the control (OR = 0.50, (0.32, 0.77), p = 0.008). The majority of the interventions targeted maternal sensitivity. We carried out exploratory analyses to examine factors that may influence treatment outcome but these should be treated with caution given that we were limited by small numbers of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting interventions that target parental sensitivity show promise in reducing disorganised attachment. This is limited by few high quality studies and the fact that most studies are with mothers. More high quality randomised controlled trials are required to elucidate this further.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW


  3 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28701098
Author:Schlüter-Müller S
Address:Universität Basel Schanzenstr. 13 CH-4056 Basel Schweiz UPK Basel.
Title:AIT (Adolescent Identity Treatment) ­ ein integratives Therapiekonzept zur Behandlung von Persönlichkeitsstörungen. [AIT (Adolescent Identity Treatment) - an Integrative Treatment Model for the Treatment of Personality Disorders].
Source:Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr; 66(6):392-403, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:0032-7034
Country of publication:Germany
Language:ger
Abstract:AIT (Adolescent Identity Treatment) - an Integrative Treatment Model for the Treatment of Personality Disorders Personality disorders are patterns of maladaptive personality traits that have an impact on the individual throughout the life span. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a very severe, but treatable mental disorder. Identity disturbance is seen as the central construct for detecting severe personality pathology - and, most notably, borderline personality disorder - in adults and adolescents. Crises in the development of identity usually resolve into a normal and consolidated identity with flexible and adaptive functioning whereas identity diffusion is viewed as a lack of integration of the concept of the self and significant others. It is seen as the basis for subsequent personality pathology, including that of borderline personality disorder. Although BPD has its onset in adolescence and emerging adulthood the diagnosis is often delayed. In most cases, specific treatment is only offered late in the course of the disorder and to relatively few individuals. Adolescent Identity Treatment (AIT) is a treatment model that focuses on identity pathology as the core characteristic of personality disorders. This model integrates specific techniques for the treatment of adolescent personality pathology on the background of object-relation theories and modified elements of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy. Moreover, psychoeducation, a behavior-oriented homeplan and intensive family work is part of AIT.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28401844
Author:Humphreys KL; Nelson CA; Fox NA; Zeanah CH
Address:Tulane University.
Title:Signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years: Effects of institutional care history and high-quality foster care.
Source:Dev Psychopathol; 29(2):675-684, 2017 May.
ISSN:1469-2198
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Two disorders of attachment have been consistently identified in some young children following severe deprivation in early life: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. However, less is known about whether signs of these disorders persist into adolescence. We examined signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years in 111 children who were abandoned at or shortly after birth and subsequently randomized to care as usual or to high-quality foster care, as well as in 50 comparison children who were never institutionalized. Consistent with expectations, those who experienced institutional care in early life had more signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years than children never institutionalized. In addition, using a conservative intent-to-treat approach, those children randomized to foster care had significantly fewer signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder than those randomized to care as usual. Analyses within the ever institutionalized group revealed no effects of the age of placement into foster care, but number of caregiving disruptions experienced and the percentage of the child's life spent in institutional care were significant predictors of signs of attachment disorders assessed in early adolescence. These findings indicate that adverse caregiving environments in early life have enduring effects on signs of attachment disorders, and provide further evidence that high-quality caregiving interventions are associated with reductions in both reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL


  5 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28401838
Author:Fearon RM; Tomlinson M; Kumsta R; Skeen S; Murray L; Cooper PJ; Morgan B
Address:University College London.
Title:Poverty, early care, and stress reactivity in adolescence: Findings from a prospective, longitudinal study in South Africa.
Source:Dev Psychopathol; 29(2):449-464, 2017 May.
ISSN:1469-2198
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:A considerable body of evidence suggests that early caregiving may affect the short-term functioning and longer term development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Despite this, most research to date has been cross-sectional in nature or restricted to relatively short-term longitudinal follow-ups. More important, there is a paucity of research on the role of caregiving in low- and middle-income countries, where the protective effects of high-quality care in buffering the child's developing stress regulation systems may be crucial. In this paper, we report findings from a longitudinal study (N = 232) conducted in an impoverished periurban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa. We measured caregiving sensitivity and security of attachment in infancy and followed children up at age 13 years, when we conducted assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity, as indexed by salivary cortisol during the Trier Social Stress Test. The findings indicated that insecure attachment was predictive of reduced cortisol responses to social stress, particularly in boys, and that attachment status moderated the impact of contextual adversity on stress responses: secure children in highly adverse circumstances did not show the blunted cortisol response shown by their insecure counterparts. Some evidence was found that sensitivity of care in infancy was also associated with cortisol reactivity, but in this case, insensitivity was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity, and only for girls. The discussion focuses on the potentially important role of caregiving in the long-term calibration of the stress system and the need to better understand the social and biological mechanisms shaping the stress response across development in low- and middle-income countries.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)


  6 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28401837
Author:Bailey HN; Tarabulsy GM; Moran G; Pederson DR; Bento S
Address:University of Guelph.
Title:New insight on intergenerational attachment from a relationship-based analysis.
Source:Dev Psychopathol; 29(2):433-448, 2017 May.
ISSN:1469-2198
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Research on attachment transmission has focused on variable-centered analyses, where hypotheses are tested by examining linear associations between variables. The purpose of this study was to apply a relationship-centered approach to data analysis, where adult states of mind, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment were conceived as being three components of a single, intergenerational relationship. These variables were assessed in 90 adolescent and 99 adult mother-infant dyads when infants were 12 months old. Initial variable-centered analyses replicated the frequently observed associations between these three core attachment variables. Relationship-based, latent class analyses then revealed that the most common pattern among young mother dyads featured maternal unresolved trauma, insensitive interactive behavior, and disorganized infant attachment (61%), whereas the most prevalent adult mother dyad relationship pattern involved maternal autonomy, sensitive maternal behavior, and secure infant attachment (59%). Three less prevalent relationship patterns were also observed. Moderation analyses revealed that the adolescent-adult mother distinction differentiated between secure and disorganized intergenerational relationship patterns, whereas experience of traumatic events distinguished between disorganized and avoidant patterns. Finally, socioeconomic status distinguished between avoidant and secure patterns. Results emphasize the value of a relationship-based approach, adding an angle of understanding to the study of attachment transmission.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28401835
Author:Quevedo K; Waters TE; Scott H; Roisman GI; Shaw DS; Forbes EE
Address:University of Minnesota.
Title:Brain activity and infant attachment history in young men during loss and reward processing.
Source:Dev Psychopathol; 29(2):465-476, 2017 May.
ISSN:1469-2198
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan). Results indicated that individuals with a history of insecure attachment showed hyperactivity in (a) reward- and emotion-related (e.g., basal ganglia and amygdala) structures and (b) emotion regulation and self-referential processing (cortical midline structures) in response to positive and negative outcomes (and anticipation of those outcomes). Further, the neural activation of individuals with a history of disorganized attachment suggested that they had greater emotional reactivity in anticipation of reward and employed greater cognitive control when negative outcomes were encountered. Overall, results suggest that the quality of early attachments has lasting impacts on brain function and reward processing.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28401834
Author:Martin MJ; Sturge-Apple ML; Davies PT; Romero CV; Buckholz A
Address:University of Rochester.
Title:A process model of the implications of spillover from coparenting conflicts into the parent-child attachment relationship in adolescence.
Source:Dev Psychopathol; 29(2):417-431, 2017 May.
ISSN:1469-2198
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Drawing on a two-wave, multimethod, multi-informant design, this study provides the first test of a process model of spillover specifying why and how disruptions in the coparenting relationship influence the parent-adolescent attachment relationship. One hundred ninety-four families with an adolescent aged 12-14 (M age = 12.4) were followed for 1 year. Mothers and adolescents participated in two experimental tasks designed to elicit behavioral expressions of parent and adolescent functioning within the attachment relationship. Using a novel observational approach, maternal safe haven, secure base, and harshness (i.e., hostility and control) were compared as potential unique mediators of the association between conflict in the coparenting relationship and adolescent problems. Path models indicated that, although coparenting conflicts were broadly associated with maternal parenting difficulties, only secure base explained the link to adolescent adjustment. Adding further specificity to the process model, maternal secure base support was uniquely associated with adolescent adjustment through deficits in adolescents' secure exploration. Results support the hypothesis that coparenting disagreements undermine adolescent adjustment in multiple domains specifically by disrupting mothers' ability to provide a caregiving environment that supports adolescent exploration during a developmental period in which developing autonomy is a crucial stage-salient task.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 487 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28401833
Author:Kobak R; Zajac K; Abbott C; Zisk A; Bounoua N
Address:University of Delaware.
Title:Atypical dimensions of caregiver-adolescent interaction in an economically disadvantaged sample.
Source:Dev Psychopathol; 29(2):405-416, 2017 May.
ISSN:1469-2198
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The Goal-Corrected Partnership Adolescent Coding System (GPACS) has shown promise in assessing a secure as well as three atypical patterns of parent-adolescent interaction during a conflict discussion. The current study of 186 economically disadvantaged families examines the degree to which four GPACS patterns: secure/collaborative, hostile/punitive, role confused, and disoriented, prospectively predict adolescents' social competence and maladaptive behavior (internalizing, externalizing, and risk behaviors) at age 15 years after controlling for these social behaviors at age 13 years and contemporaneous GPACS scores. Adolescents from secure/collaborative dyads at age 13 were more likely to have a secure state of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview at age 15 and showed higher levels of teachers' ratings of empathy and lower levels of teachers' ratings of externalizing behaviors at age 15 years. Adolescents in disoriented dyads showed higher levels of teacher-rated internalizing problems, while male adolescents in role confused dyads reported higher levels of involvement in risk behaviors, including unprotected sexual activity and substance use problems.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE


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PMID:28401832
Author:Poehlmann-Tynan J; Burnson C; Runion H; Weymouth LA
Address:University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Title:Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.
Source:Dev Psychopathol; 29(2):389-404, 2017 May.
ISSN:1469-2198
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES



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