Database : MEDLINE
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  1 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28922420
Author:Eerkens JW; Hull B; Goodman J; Evoy A; Kapp JD; Hussain S; Green RE
Address:Department of Anthropology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.
Title:Stable C and N isotope analysis of hair suggest undernourishment as a factor in the death of a mummified girl from late 19th century San Francisco, CA.
Source:PLoS One; 12(9):e0184921, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:The chance discovery of a 1.5-3.5 years old mummified girl presents a unique opportunity to further our understanding of health and disease among children in 19th Century San Francisco. This study focuses on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures in serial samples of hair that cover the last 14 months of her life. Results suggest an initial omnivorous diet with little input from marine resources or C4 plants. Around six months before death δ15N starts a steady increase, with a noticeable acceleration just two months before she died. The magnitude of δ15N change, +1.5‰ in total, is consistent with severe undernourishment or starvation. Cemetery records from this time period in San Francisco indicate high rates of infant and child mortality, mainly due to bacterial-borne infectious diseases, about two orders of magnitude higher than today. Taken together, we hypothesize that the girl died after a prolonged battle with such an illness. Results highlight the tremendous impacts that modern sanitation and medicine have had since the 1800s on human health and lifespan in the United States.
Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Carbon Isotopes); 0 (Nitrogen Isotopes)


  2 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28859116
Author:Alterauge A; Kellinghaus M; Jackowski C; Shved N; Rühli F; Maixner F; Zink A; Rosendahl W; Lösch S
Address:Department of Physical Anthropology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Title:The Sommersdorf mummies-An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany.
Source:PLoS One; 12(8):e0183588, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (DNA, Ancient); 0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)


  3 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28813480
Author:Shin DH; Oh CS; Hong JH; Kim Y; Lee SD; Lee E
Address:Bioanthropology and Paleopathology Lab, Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
Title:Paleogenetic study on the 17th century Korean mummy with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Source:PLoS One; 12(8):e0183098, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:While atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is known to be common among modern people exposed to various risk factors, recent paleopathological studies have shown that it affected ancient populations much more frequently than expected. In 2010, we investigated a 17th century Korean female mummy with presumptive ASCVD signs. Although the resulting report was a rare and invaluable conjecture on the disease status of an ancient East Asian population, the diagnosis had been based only on anatomical and radiological techniques, and so could not confirm the existence of ASCVD in the mummy. In the present study, we thus performed a paleogenetic analysis to supplement the previous conventional diagnosis of ASCVD. In aDNA extracted from the same Korean mummy, we identified the risk alleles of seven different SNPs (rs5351, rs10757274, rs2383206, rs2383207, rs10757278, rs4380028 and rs1333049) that had already been revealed to be the major risk loci of ASCVD in East Asian populations. The reliability of this study could be enhanced by cross-validation using two different analyses: Sanger and SNaPshot techniques. We were able to establish that the 17th century Korean female had a strong genetic predisposition to increased risk of ASCVD. The current paleogenetic diagnosis, the first of its kind outside Europe, re-confirms its utility as an adjunct modality for confirmatory diagnosis of ancient ASCVD.
Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28678801
Author:Artioli G; Angelini I; Kaufmann G; Canovaro C; Dal Sasso G; Villa IM
Address:Department of Geosciences, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy.
Title:Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New evidence from the Alpine Iceman's copper axe.
Source:PLoS One; 12(7):e0179263, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:25 years after the discovery in the Ötztal Italian Alps, the 5,300-year-old mummy keeps providing key information on human biological and medical conditions, aspects of everyday life and societal organization in the Copper Age. The hand axe found with the body of the Alpine Iceman is one of the rare copper objects that is firmly dated to the early Copper Age because of the radiocarbon dating of the axe wooden shaft. Here we report the measurement of the lead isotope ratios of the copper blade. The results unambiguously indicate that the source of the metal is the ore-rich area of Southern Tuscany, despite ample evidence that Alpine copper ore sources were known and exploited at the time. The experimental results are discussed within the framework of all the available coeval archaeometallurgical data in Central-Southern Europe: they show that the Alps were a neat cultural barrier separating distinct metal circuits. The direct evidence of raw metal or object movement between Central Italy and the Alps is surprising and provides a new perspective on long-distance relocation of goods and relationships between the early Copper Age cultures in the area. The result is in line with the recent investigations re-evaluating the timing and extent of copper production in Central Italy in the 4th millennium BC.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Ice); 789U1901C5 (Copper)


  5 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28569832
Author:Watson T
Title:Mummy DNA unravels ancient Egyptians' ancestry.
Source:Nature; 546(7656):17, 2017 05 30.
ISSN:1476-4687
Country of publication:England
Language:eng
Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; NEWS; COMMENT
Name of substance:9007-49-2 (DNA)


  6 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28492703
Author:Arnay-de-la-Rosa M; González-Reimers E; Pou-Hernández S; Marrero-Salas E; García-Avila C
Address:Dpto. De Geografía e Historia. Facultad de Humanidades. Universidad de La Laguna.
Title:Prehispanic (Guanches) mummies and natrium salts in burial caves of Las Cañadas del Teide (Tenerife).
Source:Anthropol Anz; 74(2):143-153, 2017 Jul 01.
ISSN:0003-5548
Country of publication:Germany
Language:eng
Abstract:ABSTRACT: The prehispanic population of Tenerife (Guanches) buried their dead in caves. Many corpses are totally or partially mummified. Embalming procedures are largely unknown, besides some information recorded by chroniclers and the general idea that environmental conditions in some areas may favour natural mummification. Detailed observation of burial caves containing mummified corpses revealed the presence of a white mineral in form of crusts or powder that was not present in the vast majority of non-burial caves, especially in basaltic and trachybasaltic lava flows. We analysed these crusts and they consist of natrium carbonate salts. Therefore, we conducted a search visiting 30 caves, 3 of them harbouring mummified corpses, and made analyses if there were natrium salts in these caves and their amount. One burial cave was located in trachyphonolitic lava flow, and two further caves in trachybasaltic and basaltic lava flows. There was a significant association between presence of natrium salts and use of the cave as a burial site (χ = 9.37; = 0.0259). The semiquantitatively assessed amount of natrium salts was also by far higher in burial caves than in non-burial ones (Z = 2.58, = 0.01). There are no reports that support the use of natrium salts in the embalming process among the Guanches, but we found a clear-cut relationship between the presence and/or amount of natrium salts in caves and their use as burial sites by the prehispanic population buried in the central highlands, suggesting an intentional use of caves containing this mineral as burial caves, based perhaps on the observation of the ability of natrium salts to preserve corpses.
Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Name of substance:0 (Salts); 9NEZ333N27 (Sodium)


  7 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28439696
Author:Cecchetto G; Bajanowski T; Cecchi R; Favretto D; Grabherr S; Ishikawa T; Kondo T; Montisci M; Pfeiffer H; Bonati MR; Shokry D; Vennemann M; Ferrara SD
Address:Department of Legal and Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Public Health, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Title:Back to the Future - Part 1. The medico-legal autopsy from ancient civilization to the post-genomic era.
Source:Int J Legal Med; 131(4):1069-1083, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1437-1596
Country of publication:Germany
Language:eng
Abstract:Part 1 of the review "Back to the Future" examines the historical evolution of the medico-legal autopsy and microscopy techniques, from Ancient Civilization to the Post-Genomic Era. In the section focusing on "The Past", the study of historical sources concerning the origins and development of the medico-legal autopsy, from the Bronze Age until the Middle Ages, shows how, as early as 2000 BC, the performance of autopsies for medico-legal purposes was a known and widespread practice in some ancient civilizations in Egypt, the Far East and later in Europe. In the section focusing on "The Present", the improvement of autopsy techniques by Friedrich Albert Zenker and Rudolf Virchow and the contemporary development of optical microscopy techniques for forensic purposes during the 19th and 20th centuries are reported, emphasizing, the regulation of medico-legal autopsies in diverse nations around the world and the publication of international guidelines or best practices elaborated by International Scientific Societies. Finally, in "The Future" section, innovative robotized and advanced microscopy systems and techniques, including their possible use in the bio-medicolegal field, are reported, which should lead to the improvement and standardization of the autopsy methodology, thereby achieving a more precise identification of natural and traumatic pathologies.
Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  8 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28423167
Author:Sereno D; Akhoundi M; Dorkeld F; Oury B; Momen H; Perrin P
Address:IRD UMR 177 (IRD, CIRAD), Centre IRD de Montpellier, Montpellier 34394, France.
Title:What pre-Columbian mummies could teach us about South American leishmaniases?
Source:Pathog Dis; 75(3), 2017 Apr 01.
ISSN:2049-632X
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:A recent report on the taxonomic profile of the human gut microbiome in pre-Columbian mummies (Santiago-Rodriguez et al. 2016) gives for the first time evidence of the presence of Leishmania DNA (sequences similar to Leishmania donovani according to the authors) that can be reminiscent of visceral leishmaniasis during the pre-Columbian era. It is commonly assumed that Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) was introduced into the New World by the Iberian conquest. This finding is really surprising and must be put into perspective with what is known from an AVL epidemiological and historical point of view. Beside L. infantum, there are other species that are occasionally reported to cause AVL in the New World. Among these, L. colombiensis is present in the region of pre-Columbian mummies studied. Other explanations for these findings include a more ancient introduction of a visceral species of Leishmania from the Old World or the existence of a yet unidentified endemic species causing visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Unfortunately, very few molecular data are known about this very long pre-Columbian period concerning the circulating species of Leishmania and their diversity in America.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Name of substance:0 (DNA, Protozoan)


  9 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28403237
Author:Panzer S; Wittig H; Zesch S; Rosendahl W; Blache S; Müller-Gerbl M; Hotz G
Address:Department of Radiology, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany.
Title:Evidence of neurofibromatosis type 1 in a multi-morbid Inca child mummy: A paleoradiological investigation using computed tomography.
Source:PLoS One; 12(4):e0175000, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: In this study, an Inca bundle was examined using computed tomography (CT). The primary aim was to determine the preservation status of bony and soft tissues, the sex, the age at the time of death, possible indicators for disease or even the cause of death, as well as the kind of mummification. A secondary aim was to obtain a brief overview of the wrapping in order to gain additional information on the cultural background. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bundle belongs to the Museum of Cultures in Basel, Switzerland, and was bought in Munich, Germany, in 1921. Radiocarbon dating of the superficial textile yielded a calibrated age between 1480 and 1650 AD. The mummy was investigated using multi-slice CT with slice thickness of 0.75 mm and 110 kilovolt. For standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation, a recently developed checklist was applied. RESULTS: CT revealed the mummy of a seven to nine year old boy with superior preservation of bony and soft tissues allowing detailed assessment. Indicators of neurofibromatosis type 1 (paravertebral and cutaneous neurofibromas, a breast neurofibroma, sphenoid wing dysplasia), Chagas disease (dilatation of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, and large amounts of feces), and lung infection (pleural adherence, calcifications), probably due to tuberculosis, were found. Furthermore, signs of peri-mortem violence (transection of the chest and a defect in the abdominal wall) were detected. CT images revealed a carefully performed wrapping. CONCLUSION: CT examination of the Inca bundle proved to be an important non-destructive examination method. Standardized assessment, especially of the soft tissue structures, allowed for diagnoses of several diseases, indicating a multi-morbid child at the time of death. The careful wrapping pointed to a ceremonial burial. Within the cultural background, the signs of fatal violence were discussed as a possible result of war, murder, accident, or human sacrifice.
Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 1115 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28395568
Author:Shin DH; Kim YS; Yoo DS; Kim MJ; Oh CS; Hong JH; Lee E; Chai JY; Seo M
Address:Bioanthropology and Paleopathology Lab, Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro (Yongon-dong), Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, South Korea. Correspondence should be sent to M. Seo at: bbbenji@naver.com.
Title:A Case of Ectopic Paragonimiasis in a 17th Century Korean Mummy.
Source:J Parasitol; 103(4):399-403, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1937-2345
Country of publication:United States
Language:eng
Abstract:Archaeoparasitological studies on fossilized feces obtained from Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) mummies have provided invaluable data on the patterns of parasitic infection in pre-modern Korean societies. In our recent radiological investigation of a 17th century Joseon mummy discovered in Cheongdo (South Korea), we located a liver mass just below the diaphragm. Anatomical dissection confirmed the presence of a mass of unknown etiology. A subsequent parasitological examination of a sample of the mass revealed a large number of ancient Paragonimus sp. eggs, making the current report the first archaeoparasitological case of liver abscess caused by ectopic paragonimiasis.
Publication type:CASE REPORTS; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE



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