Base de dados : MEDLINE
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  1 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29281728
[Au] Autor:Poorghasamians E; Aggabao PC; Wren TAL; Ponrartana S; Gilsanz V
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Vertebral cross-sectional growth: A predictor of vertebral wedging in the immature skeleton.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0190225, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The degree of vertebral wedging, a key structural characteristic of spinal curvatures, has recently been found to be negatively related to vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA). The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relation between vertebral cross-sectional growth and vertebral wedging progression within the immature lumbar spine. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we analyzed the potential association between increases in lumbar vertebral CSA and changes in L5 vertebral wedging in 27 healthy adolescent girls (ages 9-13 years) twice within a two-year period. Vertebral CSA growth was negatively associated with changes in posteroanterior vertebral wedging (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that this relation was independent of gains in age, height, and weight. When compared to the 14 girls whose vertebral wedging progressed, the 13 subjects whose vertebral wedging decreased had significantly greater vertebral cross-sectional growth (0.39 ± 0.25 vs. 0.75 ± 0.23 cm2; p = 0.001); in contrast, there were no significant differences in increases in age, height, or weight between the two groups. Changes in posteroanterior vertebral wedging and the degree of lumbar lordosis (LL) positively correlated (r = 0.56, p = 0.002)-an association that persisted even after adjusting for gains in age, height, and weight. We concluded that in the immature skeleton, vertebral cross-sectional growth is an important determinant of the plasticity of the vertebral body; regression of L5 vertebral wedging is associated with greater lumbar vertebral cross-sectional growth, while progression is the consequence of lesser cross-sectional growth.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Esqueleto
Coluna Vertebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190225


  2 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28934221
[Au] Autor:Qian C; Wong CWY; Wu Z; He Q; Xia H; Tam PKH; Wong KKY; Lui VCH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Surgery, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
[Ti] Título:Stage specific requirement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in embryonic development.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184473, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase for platelet-derived growth factors. Correct timing and level of Pdgfra expression is crucial for embryo development, and deletion of Pdgfra caused developmental defects of multiple endoderm and mesoderm derived structures, resulting in a complex phenotypes including orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib deformities, and omphalocele in mice. However, it is not clear if deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic stages differentially affects these structures. PURPOSE: To address the temporal requirement of Pdgfra in embryonic development. METHODS: We have deleted the Pdgfra in Pdgfra-expressing tissues at different embryonic stages in mice, examined and quantified the developmental anomalies. RESULTS: Current study showed that (i) conditional deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic days (between E7.5 and E10.5) resulted in orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib cage deformities, and omphalocele, and (ii) the day of Pdgfra deletion influenced the combinations, incidence and severities of these anomalies. Deletion of Pdgfra caused apoptosis of Pdgfra-expressing tissues, and developmental defects of their derivatives. CONCLUSION: Orofacial cleft, spina bifida and omphalocele are among the commonest skeletal and abdominal wall defects of newborns, but their genetic etiologies are largely unknown. The remarkable resemblance of our conditional Pdgfra knockout embryos to theses human congenital anomalies, suggesting that dysregulated PDGFRA expression could cause these anomalies in human. Future work should aim at defining (a) the regulatory elements for the expression of the human PDGFRA during embryonic development, and (b) if mutations / sequence variations of these regulatory elements cause these anomalies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia
Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Parede Abdominal/anormalidades
Parede Abdominal/embriologia
Anormalidades Múltiplas/embriologia
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética
Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo
Animais
Apoptose/fisiologia
Fenda Labial/embriologia
Fenda Labial/genética
Fenda Labial/metabolismo
Fissura Palatina/embriologia
Fissura Palatina/genética
Fissura Palatina/metabolismo
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
Técnicas de Inativação de Genes
Hérnia Umbilical/embriologia
Hérnia Umbilical/genética
Hérnia Umbilical/metabolismo
Imuno-Histoquímica
Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética
Esqueleto/anormalidades
Esqueleto/embriologia
Esqueleto/metabolismo
Disrafismo Espinal/embriologia
Disrafismo Espinal/genética
Disrafismo Espinal/metabolismo
Tamoxifeno
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
094ZI81Y45 (Tamoxifen); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184473


  3 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28880302
[Au] Autor:Callaway E
[Ti] Título:Skeleton plundered from Mexican cave was one of the Americas' oldest.
[So] Source:Nature;549(7670):14-15, 2017 08 30.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carbonato de Cálcio/química
Cavernas
Datação Radiométrica/métodos
Esqueleto
Roubo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Arqueologia/métodos
DNA Antigo/análise
DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação
Seres Humanos
Índios Centro-Americanos
Índios Norte-Americanos
Masculino
México
Montana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ancient); H0G9379FGK (Calcium Carbonate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature.2017.22521


  4 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28854194
[Au] Autor:Stinnesbeck W; Becker J; Hering F; Frey E; González AG; Fohlmeister J; Stinnesbeck S; Frank N; Terrazas Mata A; Benavente ME; Avilés Olguín J; Aceves Núñez E; Zell P; Deininger M
[Ad] Endereço:Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234, Heidelberg, Germany.
[Ti] Título:The earliest settlers of Mesoamerica date back to the late Pleistocene.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183345, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Preceramic human skeletal remains preserved in submerged caves near Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, reveal conflicting results regarding 14C dating. Here we use U-series techniques for dating a stalagmite overgrowing the pelvis of a human skeleton discovered in the submerged Chan Hol cave. The oldest closed system U/Th age comes from around 21 mm above the pelvis defining the terminus ante quem for the pelvis to 11311±370 y BP. However, the skeleton might be considerable older, probably as old as 13 ky BP as indicated by the speleothem stable isotope data. The Chan Hol individual confirms a late Pleistocene settling of Mesoamerica and represents one of the oldest human osteological remains in America.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cavernas
Fósseis
Paleontologia/métodos
Datação Radiométrica/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
México
Pelve/anatomia & histologia
Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia
Tório/metabolismo
Fatores de Tempo
Urânio/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Carbon Radioisotopes); 4OC371KSTK (Uranium); 60YU5MIG9W (Thorium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170831
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183345


  5 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28827837
[Au] Autor:Alhazmi A; Vargas E; Palomo JM; Hans M; Latimer B; Simpson S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Timing and rate of spheno-occipital synchondrosis closure and its relationship to puberty.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183305, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: This study examines the relationship between spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) closure and puberty onset in a modern American population. It also investigates the timing and the rate of SOS closure in males and females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample includes cross-sectional and longitudinal 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 741 individuals (361 males and 380 females) aged 6-20 years. Each CBCT scan is visualized in the mid-sagittal plane, and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is scored as completely open, partially fused, mostly fused, and completely fused. The Menarche commencement is used as an indicator of puberty onset in females. RESULTS: Mean ages of open, partially-fused, mostly-fused, and completely fused SOS were 11.07, 12.95, 14.44, and 16.41 years in males, and 9.75, 11.67, 13.25, and 15.25 in females, respectively. The results show there is a significant association between the SOS closure stage and the commencement of menarche (Fisher's Exact Test p < 0.001). It was found that females had a higher SOS closure rate (38.60%) per year than males at the age of 10 years. The closure rate in males appears slower than females at age 10, but it lasts a longer time, ranging between 22 and 26% per year from age 11 to 14 years. CONCLUSION: There is a significant relationship between puberty onset and SOS closure, suggesting its closure is at least partially affected by systemic, hormonal changes in the growing adolescent. Also, SOS closure occurs at a faster rate and at an earlier age in females compared to males.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos
Puberdade
Esqueleto/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170823
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183305


  6 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28814613
[Au] Autor:Okamoto K; Nakashima T; Shinohara M; Negishi-Koga T; Komatsu N; Terashima A; Sawa S; Nitta T; Takayanagi H
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Osteoimmunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Precu
[Ti] Título:Osteoimmunology: The Conceptual Framework Unifying the Immune and Skeletal Systems.
[So] Source:Physiol Rev;97(4):1295-1349, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1210
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The immune and skeletal systems share a variety of molecules, including cytokines, chemokines, hormones, receptors, and transcription factors. Bone cells interact with immune cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Osteoimmunology was created as a new interdisciplinary field in large part to highlight the shared molecules and reciprocal interactions between the two systems in both heath and disease. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays an essential role not only in the development of immune organs and bones, but also in autoimmune diseases affecting bone, thus effectively comprising the molecule that links the two systems. Here we review the function, gene regulation, and signal transduction of osteoimmune molecules, including RANKL, in the context of osteoclastogenesis as well as multiple other regulatory functions. Osteoimmunology has become indispensable for understanding the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We review the various osteoimmune pathologies, including the bone destruction in RA, in which pathogenic helper T cell subsets [such as IL-17-expressing helper T (Th17) cells] induce bone erosion through aberrant RANKL expression. We also focus on cellular interactions and the identification of the communication factors in the bone marrow, discussing the contribution of bone cells to the maintenance and regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitors cells. Thus the time has come for a basic reappraisal of the framework for understanding both the immune and bone systems. The concept of a unified osteoimmune system will be absolutely indispensable for basic and translational approaches to diseases related to bone and/or the immune system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Imunidade
Esqueleto/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alergia e Imunologia
Animais
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia
Comunicação Celular
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Osteoclastos/metabolismo
Osteologia
Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo
Ligante RANK/imunologia
Ligante RANK/metabolismo
Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/imunologia
Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo
Transdução de Sinais
Esqueleto/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Osteoprotegerin); 0 (RANK Ligand); 0 (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B); 0 (TNFRSF11A protein, human)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170927
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170927
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170818
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/physrev.00036.2016


  7 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28813431
[Au] Autor:Maga AM; Beck RMD
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Craniofacial Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Skeleton of an unusual, cat-sized marsupial relative (Metatheria: Marsupialiformes) from the middle Eocene (Lutetian: 44-43 million years ago) of Turkey.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0181712, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We describe a near-complete, three-dimensionally preserved skeleton of a metatherian (relative of modern marsupials) from the middle Eocene (Lutetian: 44-43 million years ago) Lülük member of the Uzunçarsidere Formation, central Turkey. With an estimated body mass of 3-4 kg, about the size of a domestic cat (Felis catus) or spotted quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), it is an order of magnitude larger than the largest fossil metatherians previously known from the Cenozoic of the northern hemisphere. This new taxon is characterised by large, broad third premolars that probably represent adaptations for hard object feeding (durophagy), and its craniodental morphology suggests the capacity to generate high bite forces. Qualitative and quantitative functional analyses of its postcranial skeleton indicate that it was probably scansorial and relatively agile, perhaps broadly similar in locomotor mode to the spotted quoll, but with a greater capacity for climbing and grasping. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a total evidence dataset comprising 259 morphological characters and 9kb of DNA sequence data from five nuclear protein-coding genes, using both undated and "tip-and-node dating" approaches, place the new taxon outside the marsupial crown-clade, but within the clade Marsupialiformes. It demonstrates that at least one metatherian lineage evolved to occupy the small-medium, meso- or hypo-carnivore niche in the northern hemisphere during the early Cenozoic, at a time when there were numerous eutherians (placentals and their fossil relatives) filling similar niches. However, the known mammal fauna from Uzunçarsidere Formation appears highly endemic, and geological evidence suggests that this region of Turkey was an island for at least part of the early Cenozoic, and so the new taxon may have evolved in isolation from potential eutherian competitors. Nevertheless, the new taxon reveals previously unsuspected ecomorphological disparity among northern hemisphere metatherians during the first half of the Cenozoic.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fósseis
Marsupiais/anatomia & histologia
Marsupiais/classificação
Esqueleto
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia
Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem
Filogenia
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
Turquia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0181712


  8 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28624116
[Au] Autor:Iglikowska A; Najorka J; Voronkov A; Chelchowski M; Kuklinski P
[Ad] Endereço:Marine Ecology Department, Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstanców Warszawy 55, 81-712, Sopot, Poland. Electronic address: iglikowska@iopan.gda.pl.
[Ti] Título:Variability in magnesium content in Arctic echinoderm skeletons.
[So] Source:Mar Environ Res;129:207-218, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0291
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, 235 measurements of magnesium concentration in echinoderm's skeletons were compiled, including 30 species and 216 specimens collected from northern and western Barents Sea. We aimed to reveal the scale of Mg variation in the skeletons of Arctic echinoderms. Furthermore, we attempted to examine whether the Mg concentration in echinoderm skeletons is determined primarily by biological factors or is a passive result of environmental influences. We found that the Mg concentration in echinoderm skeletons was characteristic for particular echinoderm classes or was even species-specific. The highest Mg contents were observed in asteroids, followed by ophiuroids, crinoids, and holothuroids, with the lowest values in echinoids. These results strongly imply that biological factors play an important role in controlling the incorporation of Mg into the skeletons of the studied individuals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Equinodermos/metabolismo
Magnésio/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Regiões Árticas
Biodiversidade
Filogenia
Densidade Demográfica
Esqueleto/química
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
I38ZP9992A (Magnesium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170619
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28562238
[Au] Autor:Normore R; Greene H; DeLong A; Furey A
[Ad] Endereço:From the Department of Surgery, Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, NL (Normore, Greene, Delong, Furey).
[Ti] Título:The Orthopedic Trauma Symposium: improving care of orthopedic injuries in Haiti.
[So] Source:Can J Surg;60(4):228-235, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1488-2310
[Cp] País de publicação:Canada
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Although single-trip volunteer medical teams can provide much-needed acute trauma care following natural disasters, their ability to leave a legacy of improved care in the region is often limited. One way to improve treatment of traumatic injuries is through conference-based teaching, such as the Orthopedic Trauma Symposium (OTS), which took place in Haiti in 2014. However, there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such teaching tools. We evaluated the OTS and the potential benefits of future iterations of the course. METHODS: A survey consisting of 5-point Likert scale questions as well as qualitative open feedback assessed respondents' opinions regarding the value, content and delivery of the OTS. Respondents were classified dichotomously in terms of their role in the OTS (instructor v. participant) to measure any meaningful difference in feedback. RESULTS: In total, 84% of all participants agreed that course content was clearly communicated, and 98% agreed that instructors were knowledgeable in the topics covered. Moreover, 87% of all participants responded that they would apply the training in their medical practices going forward. CONCLUSION: Haitian physicians, residents and medical students responded favourably to the OTS. Open-ended questions offered concise, attainable improvements for future iterations of the course. Organizations committed to improving medical care in low- and middle-income countries should take note of these findings while continuing to develop the OTS and similar initiatives globally.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração
Educação Médica/organização & administração
Ortopedia/educação
Esqueleto/lesões
Ensino/normas
Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Congressos como Assunto/normas
Educação Médica/normas
Haiti
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170803
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170803
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170601
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1154 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28405026
[Au] Autor:Nesbitt SJ; Butler RJ; Ezcurra MD; Barrett PM; Stocker MR; Angielczyk KD; Smith RMH; Sidor CA; Niedzwiedzki G; Sennikov AG; Charig AJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.
[Ti] Título:The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan.
[So] Source:Nature;544(7651):484-487, 2017 04 27.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The relationship between dinosaurs and other reptiles is well established, but the sequence of acquisition of dinosaurian features has been obscured by the scarcity of fossils with transitional morphologies. The closest extinct relatives of dinosaurs either have highly derived morphologies or are known from poorly preserved or incomplete material. Here we describe one of the stratigraphically lowest and phylogenetically earliest members of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), Teleocrater rhadinus gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Triassic epoch. The anatomy of T. rhadinus provides key information that unites several enigmatic taxa from across Pangaea into a previously unrecognized clade, Aphanosauria. This clade is the sister taxon of Ornithodira (pterosaurs and birds) and shortens the ghost lineage inferred at the base of Avemetatarsalia. We demonstrate that several anatomical features long thought to characterize Dinosauria and dinosauriforms evolved much earlier, soon after the bird-crocodylian split, and that the earliest avemetatarsalians retained the crocodylian-like ankle morphology and hindlimb proportions of stem archosaurs and early pseudosuchians. Early avemetatarsalians were substantially more species-rich, widely geographically distributed and morphologically diverse than previously recognized. Moreover, several early dinosauromorphs that were previously used as models to understand dinosaur origins may represent specialized forms rather than the ancestral avemetatarsalian morphology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aves/classificação
Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia
Dinossauros/classificação
Fósseis
Filogenia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/anatomia & histologia
Jacarés e Crocodilos/classificação
Animais
Aves/anatomia & histologia
Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia
Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia
Tanzânia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature22037



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