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  1 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29236932
[Au] Autor:Ortigão-Farias JR; Di-Blasi T; Telleria EL; Andorinho AC; Lemos-Silva T; Ramalho-Ortigão M; Tempone AJ; Traub-Csekö YM
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Parasitos e Vetores, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Alternative splicing originates different domain structure organization of Lutzomyia longipalpis chitinases.
[So] Source:Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz;113(2):96-101, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1678-8060
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND The insect chitinase gene family is composed by more than 10 paralogs, which can codify proteins with different domain structures. In Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, a chitinase cDNA from adult female insects was previously characterized. The predicted protein contains one catalytic domain and one chitin-binding domain (CBD). The expression of this gene coincided with the end of blood digestion indicating a putative role in peritrophic matrix degradation. OBJECTIVES To determine the occurrence of alternative splicing in chitinases of L. longipalpis. METHODS We sequenced the LlChit1 gene from a genomic clone and the three spliced forms obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using larvae cDNA. FINDINGS We showed that LlChit1 from L. longipalpis immature forms undergoes alternative splicing. The spliced form corresponding to the adult cDNA was named LlChit1A and the two larvae specific transcripts were named LlChit1B and LlChit1C. The B and C forms possess stop codons interrupting the translation of the CBD. The A form is present in adult females post blood meal, L4 larvae and pre-pupae, while the other two forms are present only in L4 larvae and disappear just before pupation. Two bands of the expected size were identified by Western blot only in L4 larvae. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We show for the first time alternative splicing generating chitinases with different domain structures increasing our understanding on the finely regulated digestion physiology and shedding light on a potential target for controlling L. longipalpis larval development.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Processamento Alternativo/genética
Quitinases/genética
Sistema Digestório/enzimologia
Psychodidae/enzimologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Quitinases/fisiologia
Feminino
Filogenia
Psychodidae/fisiologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 3.2.1.14 (Chitinases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171214
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29261661
[Au] Autor:Raquin V; Merkling SH; Gausson V; Moltini-Conclois I; Frangeul L; Varet H; Dillies MA; Saleh MC; Lambrechts L
[Ad] Endereço:Insect-Virus Interactions Group, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
[Ti] Título:Individual co-variation between viral RNA load and gene expression reveals novel host factors during early dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti midgut.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006152, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dengue virus (DENV) causes more human infections than any other mosquito-borne virus. The current lack of antiviral strategies has prompted genome-wide screens for host genes that are required for DENV infectivity. Earlier transcriptomic studies that identified DENV host factors in the primary vector Aedes aegypti used inbred laboratory colonies and/or pools of mosquitoes that erase individual variation. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing on individual midguts in a field-derived Ae. aegypti population to identify new candidate host factors modulating DENV replication. We analyzed the transcriptomic data using an approach that accounts for individual co-variation between viral RNA load and gene expression. This approach generates a prediction about the agonist or antagonist effect of candidate genes on DENV replication based on the sign of the correlation between gene expression and viral RNA load. Using this method, we identified 39 candidate genes that went undetected by conventional pairwise comparison of gene expression levels between DENV-infected midguts and uninfected controls. Only four candidate genes were detected by both methods, emphasizing their complementarity. We demonstrated the value of our approach by functional validation of a candidate agonist gene encoding a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), which was identified by correlation analysis but not by pairwise comparison. We confirmed that SREBP promotes DENV infection in the midgut by RNAi-mediated gene knockdown in vivo. We suggest that our approach for transcriptomic analysis can empower genome-wide screens for potential agonist or antagonist factors by leveraging inter-individual variation in gene expression. More generally, this method is applicable to a wide range of phenotypic traits displaying inter-individual variation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aedes/virologia
Vírus da Dengue/genética
Dengue/virologia
Insetos Vetores/virologia
Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/genética
Transcriptoma
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sistema Digestório/virologia
Feminino
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
Regulação da Expressão Gênica
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
Seres Humanos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética
Interferência de RNA
RNA Viral/análise
Carga Viral
Replicação Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insect Proteins); 0 (RNA, Viral); 0 (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006152


  3 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29305978
[Au] Autor:Lin J; Xia X; Yu XQ; Shen J; Li Y; Lin H; Tang S; Vasseur L; You M
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian/Taiwan Crops and College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; Institute of Applied Ecology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; Fujian Vocational College of Bioengin
[Ti] Título:Gene expression profiling provides insights into the immune mechanism of Plutella xylostella midgut to microbial infection.
[So] Source:Gene;647:21-30, 2018 Mar 20.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Insect gut immunity plays a key role in defense against microorganism infection. The knowledge of insect gut immunity has been obtained mostly from Drosophila melanogaster. Little is known about gut immunity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide. In this study, expressions of the immune-related genes in the midgut of P. xylostella orally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris were profiled by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches. The results revealed that the Toll, IMD, JNK and JAK-STAT pathways and possibly the prophenoloxidase activation system in P. xylostella could be activated by oral infections, and moricins, gloverins and lysozyme2 might act as important effectors against microorganisms. Subsequent knock-down of IMD showed that this gene was involved in regulating the expression of down-stream genes in the IMD pathway. Our work indicates that the Toll, IMD, JNK and JAK-STAT pathways may synergistically modulate immune responses in the P. xylostella midgut, implying a complex and diverse immune system in the midgut of insects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sistema Digestório/microbiologia
Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética
Lepidópteros/genética
Lepidópteros/imunologia
Micoses/genética
Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética
Transcriptoma/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Escherichia coli/imunologia
Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética
Lepidópteros/microbiologia
Mariposas/genética
Mariposas/imunologia
Mariposas/microbiologia
Micoses/imunologia
Pichia/imunologia
Transdução de Sinais/genética
Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia
Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insect Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180107
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29216297
[Au] Autor:Yamashita J; Ohmoto M; Yamaguchi T; Matsumoto I; Hirota J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Life Science and Technology, Graduate School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Skn-1a/Pou2f3 functions as a master regulator to generate Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells in mice.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189340, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Transient receptor potential channel M5 (Trpm5)-expressing cells, such as sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium, solitary chemosensory cells in the nasal respiratory epithelium, and tuft cells in the small intestine, that express taste-related genes function as chemosensory cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Skn-1a/Pou2f3, a POU homeodomain transcription factor is expressed in these Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells, and is necessary for their generation. Trpm5-expressing cells have recently been found in trachea, auditory tube, urethra, thymus, pancreatic duct, stomach, and large intestine. They are considered to be involved in protective responses to potential hazardous compounds as Skn-1a-dependent bitter taste cells, respiratory solitary chemosensory cells, and intestinal tuft cells are. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Skn-1a/Pou2f3 in Trpm5-expressing cells in trachea, auditory tube, urethra, thymus, pancreatic duct, stomach, and large intestine. Skn-1a/Pou2f3 is expressed in a majority of Trpm5-expressing cells in all tissues examined. In Skn-1a/Pou2f3-deficient mice, the expression of Trpm5 as well as marker genes for Trpm5-expressing cells were absent in all tested tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that two types of microvillous cells exist in trachea, urethra, and thymus, Trpm5-positive and Trpm5-negative cells. In Skn-1a/Pou2f3-deficient mice, a considerable proportion of Trpm5-negative and villin-positive microvillous cells remained present in these tissues. Thus, we propose that Skn-1a/Pou2f3 is the master regulator for the generation of the Trpm5-expressing microvillous cells in multiple tissues.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fatores de Transcrição de Octâmero/fisiologia
Canais de Cátion TRPM/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sistema Digestório/citologia
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo
Feminino
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Knockout
Traqueia/citologia
Traqueia/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Octamer Transcription Factors); 0 (Pou2f3 protein, mouse); 0 (TRPM Cation Channels); 0 (Trpm5 protein, mouse)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180122
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180122
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189340


  5 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28939335
[Au] Autor:Gonçalves WG; Fernandes KM; Santana WC; Martins GF; Zanuncio JC; Serrão JE
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900 Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address: wagner.gonzaga@ufv.br.
[Ti] Título:Post-embryonic changes in the hindgut of honeybee Apis mellifera workers: Morphology, cuticle deposition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation.
[So] Source:Dev Biol;431(2):194-204, 2017 11 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-564X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In insects, the hindgut is a homeostatic region of the digestive tract, divided into pylorus, ileum, and rectum, that reabsorbs water, ions, and small molecules produced during hemolymph filtration. The hindgut anatomy in bee larvae is different from that of adult workers. This study reports the morphological changes and cellular events that occur in the hindgut during the metamorphosis of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We describe the occurrence of autophagosomes and the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells and cuticle, suggesting that cuticular degradation begins in prepupae, with the cuticle being reabsorbed and recycled by autophagosomes in white- and pink-eyed pupae, followed by the deposition of new cuticle in light-brown-eyed pupae. In L5S larvae and prepupae, the hindgut undergoes cell proliferation in the anterior and posterior ends. In the pupae, the pylorus, ileum, and rectum regions are differentiated, and cell proliferation ceases in dark-brown-eyed pupae. Apoptosis occurs in the hindgut from the L5S larval to the pink-eyed pupal stage. In light-brown- and dark-brown-eyed pupae, the ileum epithelium changes from pseudostratified to simple only after the production of the basal lamina, whereas the rectal epithelium is always flattened. In black-eyed pupae, ileum epithelial cells have large vacuoles and subcuticular spaces, while in adult forager workers these cells have long invaginations in the cell apex and many mitochondria, indicating a role in the transport of compounds. Our findings show that hindgut morphogenesis is a dynamic process, with tissue remodeling and cellular events taking place for the formation of different regions of the organ, the reconstruction of a new cuticle, and the remodeling of visceral muscles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Apoptose
Abelhas/anatomia & histologia
Abelhas/embriologia
Sistema Digestório/citologia
Sistema Digestório/embriologia
Hierarquia Social
Tegumento Comum/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Autofagia
Abelhas/ultraestrutura
Caspase 3/metabolismo
Proliferação Celular
Sistema Digestório/ultraestrutura
Histonas/metabolismo
Larva/citologia
Larva/ultraestrutura
Pupa/citologia
Pupa/ultraestrutura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Histones); EC 3.4.22.- (Caspase 3)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171111
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171111
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170924
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28934290
[Au] Autor:Hopkins MJ; Chen F; Hu S; Zhang Z
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184982, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop") under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia
Artrópodes/fisiologia
Evolução Biológica
Biota
Sistema Digestório/ultraestrutura
Preservação Biológica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Fósseis
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184982


  7 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28934286
[Au] Autor:Arfken A; Song B; Bowman JS; Piehler M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Virginia, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Denitrification potential of the eastern oyster microbiome using a 16S rRNA gene based metabolic inference approach.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0185071, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a foundation species providing significant ecosystem services. However, the roles of oyster microbiomes have not been integrated into any of the services, particularly nitrogen removal through denitrification. We investigated the composition and denitrification potential of oyster microbiomes with an approach that combined 16S rRNA gene analysis, metabolic inference, qPCR of the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ), and N2 flux measurements. Microbiomes of the oyster digestive gland, the oyster shell, and sediments adjacent to the oyster reef were examined based on next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Denitrification potentials of the microbiomes were determined by metabolic inferences using a customized denitrification gene and genome database with the paprica (PAthway PRediction by phylogenetIC plAcement) bioinformatics pipeline. Denitrification genes examined included nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), which was further subdivided by genotype into clade I (nosZI) or clade II (nosZII). Continuous flow through experiments measuring N2 fluxes were conducted with the oysters, shells, and sediments to compare denitrification activities. Paprica properly classified the composition of microbiomes, showing similar classification results from Silva, Greengenes and RDP databases. Microbiomes of the oyster digestive glands and shells were quite different from each other and from the sediments. The relative abundance of denitrifying bacteria inferred by paprica was higher in oysters and shells than in sediments suggesting that oysters act as hotspots for denitrification in the marine environment. Similarly, the inferred nosZI gene abundances were also higher in the oyster and shell microbiomes than in the sediment microbiome. Gene abundances for nosZI were verified with qPCR of nosZI genes, which showed a significant positive correlation (F1,7 = 14.7, p = 6.0x10-3, R2 = 0.68). N2 flux rates were significantly higher in the oyster (364.4 ± 23.5 µmol N-N2 m-2 h-1) and oyster shell (355.3 ± 6.4 µmol N-N2 m-2 h-1) compared to the sediment (270.5 ± 20.1 µmol N-N2 m-2 h-1). Thus, bacteria carrying nosZI genes were found to be an important denitrifier, facilitating nitrogen removal in oyster reefs. In addition, this is the first study to validate the use of 16S gene based metabolic inference as a method for determining microbiome function, such as denitrification, by comparing inference results with qPCR gene quantification and rate measurements.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Crassostrea/metabolismo
Crassostrea/microbiologia
Desnitrificação/fisiologia
Microbiota/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Exoesqueleto/metabolismo
Exoesqueleto/microbiologia
Animais
Biologia Computacional
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo
Sistema Digestório/microbiologia
Modelos Lineares
Microbiota/genética
Nitrogênio/metabolismo
North Carolina
Oceanos e Mares
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Rios
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185071


  8 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28840814
[Au] Autor:Boscaro V; James ER; Fiorito R; Hehenberger E; Karnkowska A; Del Campo J; Kolisko M; Irwin NAT; Mathur V; Scheffrahn RH; Keeling PJ
[Ad] Endereço:1​Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Molecular characterization and phylogeny of four new species of the genus Trichonympha (Parabasalia, Trichonymphea) from lower termite hindguts.
[So] Source:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol;67(9):3570-3575, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1466-5034
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Members of the genus Trichonympha are among the most well-known, recognizable and widely distributed parabasalian symbionts of lower termites and the wood-eating cockroach species of the genus Cryptocercus. Nevertheless, the species diversity of this genus is largely unknown. Molecular data have shown that the superficial morphological similarities traditionally used to identify species are inadequate, and have challenged the view that the same species of the genus Trichonympha can occur in many different host species. Ambiguities in the literature, uncertainty in identification of both symbiont and host, and incomplete samplings are limiting our understanding of the systematics, ecology and evolution of this taxon. Here we describe four closely related novel species of the genus Trichonympha collected from South American and Australian lower termites: Trichonympha hueyi sp. nov. from Rugitermes laticollis, Trichonympha deweyi sp. nov. from Glyptotermes brevicornis, Trichonympha louiei sp. nov. from Calcaritermes temnocephalus and Trichonympha webbyae sp. nov. from Rugitermes bicolor. We provide molecular barcodes to identify both the symbionts and their hosts, and infer the phylogeny of the genus Trichonympha based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences. The analysis confirms the considerable divergence of symbionts of members of the genus Cryptocercus, and shows that the two clades of the genus Trichonympha harboured by termites reflect only in part the phylogeny of their hosts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sistema Digestório/microbiologia
Hypermastigia/classificação
Isópteros/microbiologia
Filogenia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Austrália
Composição de Bases
Equador
Hypermastigia/genética
Hypermastigia/isolamento & purificação
Peru
RNA de Protozoário/genética
RNA Ribossômico/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Simbiose
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170826
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.002169


  9 / 21707 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28823530
[Au] Autor:Mason CJ; Long DC; McCarthy EM; Nagachar N; Rosa C; Scully ED; Tien M; Hoover K
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Entomology and Center for Chemical Ecology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address: cjm360@psu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Within gut physicochemical variation does not correspond to distinct resident fungal and bacterial communities in the tree-killing xylophage, Anoplophora glabripennis.
[So] Source:J Insect Physiol;102:27-35, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1611
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Insect guts harbor diverse microbial assemblages that can be influenced by multiple factors, including gut physiology and interactions by the host with its environment. The Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis; Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is an invasive tree-killing insect that harbors a diverse consortium of fungal and bacterial gut associates that provision nutrients and facilitate lignocellulose digestion. The physicochemical conditions of the A. glabripennis gut and how these conditions may influence the microbial composition across gut regions are unknown. In this study, we used microsensors to measure in situ oxygen concentrations, pH, and redox potential along the length of the A. glabripennis larval gut from two North American populations. We then analyzed and compared bacterial and fungal gut communities of A. glabripennis within individual hosts along the length of the gut using 16S and ITS1 amplicon sequencing. The A. glabripennis midgut lumen was relatively anoxic (<0.01kPa) with a pH gradient from 5.5 to 9, moving anterior to posterior. Redox potential was higher in the anterior midgut relative to posterior regions. No differences in physicochemistry were measured between the two populations of the beetle, but the two populations harbored different communities of bacteria and fungi. However, microbial composition of the A. glabripennis gut microbiota did not differ among gut regions despite physicochemical differences. Unlike other insect systems that have distinct gut compartmentalization and corresponding microbial assemblages, the A. glabripennis gut lacks dramatic morphological modifications, which may explain why discrete microbial community structures were not found along the digestive system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/classificação
Coleópteros/microbiologia
Coleópteros/fisiologia
Fungos/classificação
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bactérias/genética
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Coleópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética
Sistema Digestório/química
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo
Sistema Digestório/microbiologia
Fungos/genética
Fungos/isolamento & purificação
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Larva/microbiologia
Larva/fisiologia
Massachusetts
New York
Oxirredução
Oxigênio/metabolismo
RNA Bacteriano/genética
RNA Fúngico/genética
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ribosomal Spacer); 0 (RNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Fungal); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); S88TT14065 (Oxygen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170822
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28787565
[Au] Autor:Tan ETT; Al Jassim R; D'Arcy BR; Fletcher MT
[Ad] Endereço:Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Health and Food Sciences Precinct , Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia.
[Ti] Título:In Vitro Biodegradation of Hepatotoxic Indospicine in Indigofera spicata and Its Degradation Derivatives by Camel Foregut and Cattle Rumen Fluids.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;65(34):7528-7534, 2017 Aug 30.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The known accumulation of the hepatotoxin indospicine in tissues of camels and cattle grazing Indigofera pasture plants is unusual in that free amino acids would normally be expected to be degraded during the fermentation processes in these foregut fermenters. In this study, in vitro experiments were carried out to examine the degradability of indospicine of Indigofera spicata by camel and cattle foregut microbiota. In the first experiment, a 48 h in vitro incubation was carried out using foregut fluid samples that were collected from 15 feral camels and also a fistulated cow. Degradability of indospicine ranged between 97% and 99%, with the higher value of 99% for camels. A pooled sample of foregut fluids from three camels that were on a roughage diet was used in a second experiment to examine the time-dependent degradation of indospicine present in the plant materials. Results indicated that camels' foregut fluids have the ability to biodegrade ∼99% of the indospicine in I. spicata within 48 h of incubation and produced 2-aminopimelamic acid and 2-aminopimelic acid. The time-dependent degradation analysis showed rapid indospicine degradation (65 nmol/h) during the first 8-18 h of incubation followed by a slower degradation rate (12 nmol/h) between 18 and 48 h. Indospicine degradation products were also degraded toward the end of the experiment. The results of these in vitro degradation studies suggest that dietary indospicine may undergo extensive degradation in the foregut of the camel, resulting in trace levels after 48 h. The retention time for plant material in the camel foregut varies depending on feed quality, and the results of this study together with the observed accumulation of indospicine in camel tissues suggest that, although indospicine can be degraded by foregut fermentation, this degradation is not complete before the passage of the digesta into the intestine.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal/análise
Camelus/metabolismo
Bovinos/metabolismo
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo
Indigofera/metabolismo
Norleucina/análogos & derivados
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal/toxicidade
Animais
Indigofera/química
Indigofera/toxicidade
Modelos Biológicos
Norleucina/química
Norleucina/metabolismo
Norleucina/toxicidade
Rúmen/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
832C8OV84S (Norleucine); X29Q4D9671 (indospicine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170809
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02492



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