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[PMID]:28916520
[Au] Autor:Beitzel CS; Houck BD; Lewis SM; Person AL
[Ad] Endereço:Neuroscience Graduate Program, and.
[Ti] Título:Rubrocerebellar Feedback Loop Isolates the Interposed Nucleus as an Independent Processor of Corollary Discharge Information in Mice.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(42):10085-10096, 2017 Oct 18.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Understanding cerebellar contributions to motor coordination requires deeper insight into how the output structures of the cerebellum, the cerebellar nuclei, integrate their inputs and influence downstream motor pathways. The magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a brainstem premotor structure, is a major target of the interposed nucleus (IN), and has also been described in previous studies to send feedback collaterals to the cerebellum. Because such a pathway is in a key position to provide motor efferent information to the cerebellum, satisfying predictions about the use of corollary discharge in cerebellar computations, we studied it in mice of both sexes. Using anterograde viral tracing, we show that innervation of cerebellum by rubrospinal neuron collaterals is remarkably selective for the IN compared with the cerebellar cortex. Optogenetic activation of the pathway in acute mouse brain slices drove IN activity despite small amplitude synaptic currents, suggesting an active role in IN information processing. Monosynaptic transsynaptic rabies tracing indicated the pathway contacts multiple cell types within the IN. By contrast, IN inputs to the RNm targeted a region that lacked inhibitory neurons. Optogenetic drive of IN inputs to the RNm revealed strong, direct excitation but no inhibition of RNm neurons. Together, these data indicate that the cerebellar nuclei are under afferent control independent of the cerebellar cortex, potentially diversifying its roles in motor control. The common assumption that all cerebellar mossy fibers uniformly collateralize to the cerebellar nuclei and cortex underlies classic models of convergent Purkinje influence on cerebellar output. Specifically, mossy fibers are thought to both directly excite nuclear neurons and drive polysynaptic feedforward inhibition via Purkinje neurons, setting up a fundamental computational unit. Here we present data that challenge this rule. A dedicated cerebellar nuclear afferent comprised of feedback collaterals from premotor rubrospinal neurons can directly modulate IN output independent of Purkinje cell modulation. In contrast to the IN-RNm pathway, the RNm-IN feedback pathway targets multiple cell types, potentially influencing both motor output pathways and nucleo-olivary feedback.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Núcleos Cerebelares/fisiologia
Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia
Inibição Neural/fisiologia
Núcleo Rubro/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia
Feminino
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170917
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1093-17.2017


  2 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28320027
[Au] Autor:Anthofer JM; Steib K; Lange M; Rothenfusser E; Fellner C; Brawanski A; Schlaier J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurosurgery, Universitatsklinikum Regensburg Klinik und Poliklinik fur Neurochirurgie Ringgold Standard Institution, Regensburg, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Distance between Active Electrode Contacts and Dentatorubrothalamic Tract in Patients with Habituation of Stimulation Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation in Essential Tremor.
[So] Source:J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg;78(4):350-357, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:2193-6323
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Some patients under thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor (ET) experience habituation of tremor reduction. The nucleus ventralis intermedius (Vim) is the current main target side for ET in DBS. However, the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT) is considered the relevant structure to stimulate. We investigated the distance between the active contact of the DBS electrode and the DRTT and compared this distance in patients with habituation of tremor reduction and good responders. In this retrospective study, we performed deterministic fiber tracking of the DRTT in 6 patients (12 hemispheres) with ET who underwent DBS in the Vim. We subsequently measured the distance between the active contact of the electrode and the ipsilateral DRTT in both hemispheres. The clinical tremor response of those 6 patients was analyzed accordingly. The distance between the active contact and the DRTT in patients with better and constant clinical tremor reduction was shorter (mean distance: 2.9 ± 2.2 mm standard deviation [SD]) than in patients who showed habituation of their response (mean distance: 6.1 ± 3.9 mm SD). After re-placement of a thalamic electrode inside the DRTT in one patient who experienced unsatisfying tremor reduction due to habituation of stimulation, the tremor alleviation was significant and persistent at a 13-month follow-up. This retrospective analysis suggests that recurrence of ET tremor under chronic DBS might be associated with a larger distance between the DRTT and the active lead contact, in comparison with the smaller distances in patients with persistently good tremor control.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Núcleos Cerebelares/cirurgia
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda
Tremor Essencial/cirurgia
Núcleo Rubro/cirurgia
Núcleos Talâmicos/cirurgia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Eletrodos Implantados
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Recidiva
Estudos Retrospectivos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170321
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0036-1597894


  3 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28270752
[Au] Autor:Geed S; McCurdy ML; van Kan PL
[Ad] Endereço:Motor Systems Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, MadisonWI, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, WashingtonDC, USA.
[Ti] Título:Neuronal Correlates of Functional Coupling between Reach- and Grasp-Related Components of Muscle Activity.
[So] Source:Front Neural Circuits;11:7, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1662-5110
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand toward a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, Geed and Van Kan (2016) demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks. Importantly, transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components showed invariant spatiotemporal coupling, which provides a potential mechanism for coordinating forelimb muscles during reach-to-grasp movements. In the present study, we tested whether ensemble discharges of forelimb neurons in the cerebellar nucleus interpositus (NI) and its target, the magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a source of rubrospinal fibers, function as neuronal correlates of the transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components we identified. EFA applied to single-unit discharges of populations of NI and RNm neurons recorded while the same monkeys that were used previously performed the same reach-to-grasp tasks, revealed neuronal components in the ensemble discharges of both NI and RNm neuronal populations with characteristics broadly similar to muscle components. Subsets of NI and RNm neuronal components were strongly and significantly crosscorrelated with subsets of muscle components, suggesting that similar functional units of reach-to-grasp behavior are expressed by NI and RNm neuronal populations and forelimb muscles. Importantly, like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components, their NI and RNm neuronal correlates showed invariant spatiotemporal coupling. Clinical and lesion studies have reported disruption of coupling between reach and grasp following cerebellar damage; the present results expand on those studies by identifying a neuronal mechanism that may underlie cerebellar contributions to spatiotemporal coordination of distal and proximal limb muscles during reaching to grasp. We conclude that finding similar functional units of behavior expressed at multiple levels of information processing along interposito-rubrospinal pathways and forelimb muscles supports the hypothesis that functionally related populations of NI and RNm neurons act synergistically in the control of complex coordinated motor behaviors.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Núcleos Cerebelares/fisiologia
Membro Anterior/fisiologia
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
Neurônios/fisiologia
Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
Núcleo Rubro/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Eletromiografia
Macaca mulatta
Masculino
Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170309
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fncir.2017.00007


  4 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28027456
[Au] Autor:Minbay Z; Serter Kocoglu S; Gok Yurtseven D; Eyigor O
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey. zminbay@uludag.edu.tr.
[Ti] Título:Immunohistochemical localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the rat red nucleus.
[So] Source:Bosn J Basic Med Sci;17(1):29-37, 2017 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1840-4812
[Cp] País de publicação:Bosnia and Herzegovina
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, we aimed to determine the presence as well as the diverse distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits in the rat red nucleus. Using adult Sprague-Dawley rats as the experimental animals, immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 µm thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1, GluK2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. The results showed that all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in the red nucleus. Specific staining was localized in the neuron bodies and processes. However, the pattern of immunoreactivity and the number of labeled neurons changed depending on the type of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and the localization of neurons in the red nucleus. The neurons localized in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus were particularly immunopositive for GluA2, GluA4, GluK2/3, GluK5, GluN1, and GluN2A receptor proteins. In the parvocellular part of the red nucleus, ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit immunoreactivity of variable intensity (lightly to moderately stained) was detected in the neurons. These results suggest that red nucleus neurons in rat heterogeneously express ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits to form functional receptor channels. In addition, the likelihood of the coexpression of different subunits in the same subgroup of neurons suggests the formation of receptor channels with diverse structure by way of different subunit combination, and the possibility of various neuronal functions through these channels in the red nucleus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/metabolismo
Núcleo Rubro/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo
Feminino
Imuno-Histoquímica
Microscopia de Fluorescência
N-Metilaspartato/química
Neurônios/metabolismo
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo
Receptores de Ácido Caínico/metabolismo
Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Receptors, AMPA); 0 (Receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate); 0 (Receptors, Kainic Acid); 0 (Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate); 0 (glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 1); 0 (glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 2); 6384-92-5 (N-Methylaspartate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170403
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170403
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17305/bjbms.2016.1629


  5 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27545971
[Au] Autor:Guan X; Xuan M; Gu Q; Xu X; Huang P; Wang N; Shen Z; Xu J; Luo W; Zhang M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
[Ti] Título:Influence of regional iron on the motor impairments of Parkinson's disease: A quantitative susceptibility mapping study.
[So] Source:J Magn Reson Imaging;45(5):1335-1342, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1522-2586
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: Because the roles of striatal-thalamo-cortical and cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuits in the heterogeneous motor impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD) are becoming recognized, this study was designed to investigate the relationships between regional iron in the cardinal subcortical nuclei in these circuits and the different motor impairments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two PD patients and 40 normal subjects were included and accepted for Enhanced T -Star Weighted Angiography Scanning (3.0T). According to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, patients were divided into tremor-dominant (PD-TD) and akinetic/rigid-dominant groups (PD-AR). The intergroup differences of magnetic susceptibility in those cardinal nuclei were measured. Correlation analyses between magnetic susceptibility and motor impairments were performed in all patients. RESULTS: Nigral magnetic susceptibility significantly increased for each PD group compared with controls (P < 0.001 for PD-TD; P = 0.001 for PD-AR). Magnetic susceptibility in the dentate nucleus (DN) and red nucleus (RN) for the PD-TD patients were significantly increased compared with controls (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Magnetic susceptibility in these regions was also significantly correlated with tremor severity (r = 0.444, P = 0.001 for DN; r = 0.418, P = 0.001 for RN). Significant correlation between caudate magnetic susceptibility and akinetic/rigid severity were observed (r = -0.322, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that nigral iron accumulation is a common characteristic in PD, while iron accumulation in the DN and RN is correlated with tremor symptoms. Our data also indicate that caudate iron content may be a potential marker for akinetic/rigid progression. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1335-1342.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
Ferro/análise
Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Angiografia
Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem
Progressão da Doença
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Destreza Motora
Doença de Parkinson/patologia
Núcleo Rubro/diagnóstico por imagem
Fatores Sexuais
Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem
Tremor
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160823
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jmri.25434


  6 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27598250
[Au] Autor:Langkammer C; Pirpamer L; Seiler S; Deistung A; Schweser F; Franthal S; Homayoon N; Katschnig-Winter P; Koegl-Wallner M; Pendl T; Stoegerer EM; Wenzel K; Fazekas F; Ropele S; Reichenbach JR; Schmidt R; Schwingenschuh P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
[Ti] Título:Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(9):e0162460, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. METHODS: The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. RESULTS: Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. CONCLUSION: The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem
Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem
Núcleo Rubro/diagnóstico por imagem
Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem
Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Feminino
Globo Pálido/efeitos dos fármacos
Globo Pálido/metabolismo
Globo Pálido/patologia
Seres Humanos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador
Ferro/metabolismo
Levodopa/uso terapêutico
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico
Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo
Doença de Parkinson/patologia
Núcleo Rubro/efeitos dos fármacos
Núcleo Rubro/metabolismo
Núcleo Rubro/patologia
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos
Substância Negra/metabolismo
Substância Negra/patologia
Tálamo/efeitos dos fármacos
Tálamo/metabolismo
Tálamo/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antiparkinson Agents); 46627O600J (Levodopa); E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170804
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170804
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160907
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0162460


  7 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27505060
[Au] Autor:Nakayama T; Miyajima S; Nishino H; Narita J; Abe H; Yamamoto N
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Fish Biology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Nucleus Ruber of Actinopterygians.
[So] Source:Brain Behav Evol;88(1):25-42, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9743
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Nucleus ruber is known as an important supraspinal center that controls forelimb movements in tetrapods, and the rubral homologue may serve similar functions in fishes (motor control of pectoral fin). However, two apparently different structures have been identified as 'nucleus ruber' in actinopterygians. One is nucleus ruber of Goldstein (1905) (NRg), and the other nucleus ruber of Nieuwenhuys and Pouwels (1983) (NRnp). It remains unclear whether one of these nuclei (or perhaps both) is homologous to tetrapod nucleus ruber. To resolve this issue from a phylogenetic point of view, we have investigated the distribution of tegmental neurons retrogradely labeled from the spinal cord in eight actinopterygian species. We also investigated the presence/absence of the two nuclei with Nissl- or Bodian-stained brain section series of an additional 28 actinopterygian species by comparing the morphological features of candidate rubral neurons with those of neurons revealed by the tracer studies. Based on these analyses, the NRg was identified in all actinopterygians investigated in the present study, while the NRnp appears to be absent in basal actinopterygians. The phylogenetic distribution pattern indicates that the NRg is the more likely homologue of nucleus ruber, and the NRnp may be a derived nucleus that emerged during the course of actinopterygian evolution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia
Peixes/fisiologia
Atividade Motora/fisiologia
Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Núcleo Rubro/anatomia & histologia
Núcleo Rubro/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Peixes/anatomia & histologia
Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia
Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico
Filogenia
Medula Espinal/anatomia & histologia
Medula Espinal/fisiologia
Coloração e Rotulagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170719
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170719
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160810
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000447442


  8 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27485712
[Au] Autor:Ding CP; Xue YS; Yu J; Guo YJ; Zeng XY; Wang JY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.
[Ti] Título:The Red Nucleus Interleukin-6 Participates in the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spared Nerve Injury.
[So] Source:Neurochem Res;41(11):3042-3051, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1573-6903
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Previous studies have demonstrated that the red nucleus (RN) is involved in the regulation of neuropathic pain and plays both facilitated and inhibitory roles through different cytokines. Here, we aim to investigate the expression changes and roles of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pleiotropic cytokine, as well as its receptor (IL-6R) in the RN of rats with neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury (SNI). Immunohistochemistry indicated that IL-6 and IL-6R were weakly expressed in the RN of normal rats, and were mainly co-localized with neurons and oligodendrocytes. Following SNI, the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-6R in the RN did not show obvious changes at 1 week and 2 weeks postinjury. However, both of them were significantly increased in the RN contralateral (but not ipsilateral) to the nerve ligation side at 3 weeks postinjury, and co-localized not only with neurons and oligodendrocytes, but also with numerous astrocytes. Injection of different doses of anti-IL-6 antibody (100, 250, 500 ng) into the RN contralateral to the nerve ligation side at 3 weeks postinjury dose-dependently increased the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) of rats and alleviated SNI-induced mechanical allodynia. Conversely, injection of different doses of recombinant rat IL-6 (5.0, 10, 20 ng) into the unilateral RN of normal rats dose-dependently decreased the PWT of contralateral (but not ipsilateral) hind paw and evoked significant mechanical allodynia, which was similar to SNI-induced neuropathic allodynia. These results further support the conclusion that the RN is involved in the modulation of neuropathic pain, and suggest that IL-6 and IL-6R in the RN play a facilitated role in the later maintenance of SNI-induced neuropathic pain.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Interleucina-6/farmacologia
Tecido Nervoso/lesões
Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Núcleo Rubro/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Hiperalgesia/metabolismo
Interleucina-6/administração & dosagem
Interleucina-6/metabolismo
Masculino
Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo
Neuralgia/metabolismo
Neurônios/metabolismo
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Núcleo Rubro/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Interleukin-6); 0 (Nerve Growth Factors)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160804
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1614 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27385801
[Au] Autor:Del Rio-Bermudez C; Plumeau AM; Sattler NJ; Sokoloff G; Blumberg MS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa;
[Ti] Título:Spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in the developing cerebellorubral system.
[So] Source:J Neurophysiol;116(3):1316-27, 2016 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The development of the cerebellar system depends in part on the emergence of functional connectivity in its input and output pathways. Characterization of spontaneous activity within these pathways provides insight into their functional status in early development. In the present study we recorded extracellular activity from the interpositus nucleus (IP) and its primary downstream target, the red nucleus (RN), in unanesthetized rats at postnatal days 8 (P8) and P12, a period of dramatic change in cerebellar circuitry. The two structures exhibited state-dependent activity patterns and age-related changes in rhythmicity and overall firing rate. Importantly, sensory feedback (i.e., reafference) from myoclonic twitches (spontaneous, self-generated movements that are produced exclusively during active sleep) drove neural activity in the IP and RN at both ages. Additionally, anatomic tracing confirmed the presence of cerebellorubral connections as early as P8. Finally, inactivation of the IP and adjacent nuclei using the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol caused a substantial decrease in neural activity in the contralateral RN at both ages, as well as the disappearance of rhythmicity; twitch-related activity in the RN, however, was preserved after IP inactivation, indicating that twitch-related reafference activates the two structures in parallel. Overall, the present findings point to the contributions of sleep-related spontaneous activity to the development of cerebellar networks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia
Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Cerebelo/fisiologia
Neurônios/fisiologia
Núcleo Rubro/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Núcleo Rubro/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos
Animais
Cerebelo/citologia
Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos
Eletromiografia
Feminino
Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia
Masculino
Microeletrodos
Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos
Movimento/fisiologia
Muscimol/farmacologia
Vias Neurais/citologia
Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos
Vias Neurais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Neurônios/citologia
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Periodicidade
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo
Núcleo Rubro/citologia
Núcleo Rubro/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (GABA-A Receptor Agonists); 0 (Receptors, GABA-A); 2763-96-4 (Muscimol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170902
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170902
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160708
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/jn.00461.2016


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Texto completo
[PMID]:27257130
[Au] Autor:Aghoghovwia BE; Oorschot DE
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anatomy, Otago School of Medical Sciences, and the Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
[Ti] Título:Absolute number of parvicellular and magnocellular neurons in the red nucleus of the rat midbrain: a stereological study.
[So] Source:J Anat;229(3):406-15, 2016 09.
[Is] ISSN:1469-7580
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The absolute number of parvicellular and magnocellular neurons in the red nucleus was estimated using design-based stereological counting methods and systematic random sampling techniques. Six young adult male rats, and a complete set of serial 40-µm glycolmethacrylate sections for each rat, were used to quantify neuronal numbers. After a random start, a systematic subset (i.e. every third) of the serial sections was used to estimate the total volume of the red nucleus using Cavalieri's method. The same set of sampled sections was used to estimate the number of neurons in a known subvolume (i.e. the numerical density Nv ) by the optical disector method. Multiplication of the total volume by Nv yielded the absolute number of neurons. It was found that the right red nucleus consisted, on average, of 8400 parvicellular neurons (with a coefficient of variation of 0.16) and 7000 magnocellular neurons (0.12). These total neuronal numbers provide important data for the transfer of information through these nuclei and for species comparisons.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurônios/citologia
Núcleo Rubro/citologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Contagem de Células
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170821
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170821
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160604
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/joa.12495



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