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[PMID]:28957668
[Au] Autor:Resch JM; Fenselau H; Madara JC; Wu C; Campbell JN; Lyubetskaya A; Dawes BA; Tsai LT; Li MM; Livneh Y; Ke Q; Kang PM; Fejes-Tóth G; Náray-Fejes-Tóth A; Geerling JC; Lowell BB
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
[Ti] Título:Aldosterone-Sensing Neurons in the NTS Exhibit State-Dependent Pacemaker Activity and Drive Sodium Appetite via Synergy with Angiotensin II Signaling.
[So] Source:Neuron;96(1):190-206.e7, 2017 Sep 27.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4199
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sodium deficiency increases angiotensin II (ATII) and aldosterone, which synergistically stimulate sodium retention and consumption. Recently, ATII-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) and aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS neurons) were shown to drive sodium appetite. Here we investigate the basis for NTS neuron activation, identify the circuit by which NTS neurons drive appetite, and uncover an interaction between the NTS circuit and ATII signaling. NTS neurons respond to sodium deficiency with spontaneous pacemaker-like activity-the consequence of "cardiac" HCN and Na 1.5 channels. Remarkably, NTS neurons are necessary for sodium appetite, and with concurrent ATII signaling their activity is sufficient to produce rapid consumption. Importantly, NTS neurons stimulate appetite via projections to the vlBNST, which is also the effector site for ATII-responsive SFO neurons. The interaction between angiotensin signaling and NTS neurons provides a neuronal context for the long-standing "synergy hypothesis" of sodium appetite regulation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aldosterona/fisiologia
Angiotensina II/fisiologia
Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia
Neurônios/fisiologia
Transdução de Sinais
Sódio/fisiologia
Núcleo Solitário/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia
Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/fisiologia
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Transgênicos
Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/fisiologia
Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Núcleos Septais/fisiologia
Sódio/deficiência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels); 0 (NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel); 0 (Scn5a protein, mouse); 11128-99-7 (Angiotensin II); 4964P6T9RB (Aldosterone); 9NEZ333N27 (Sodium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171014
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171014
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170929
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 2696 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28778914
[Au] Autor:Tsai CY; Poon YY; Chen CH; Chan SHH
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China; and.
[Ti] Título:Anomalous baroreflex functionality inherent in floxed and Cre-Lox mice: an overlooked physiological phenotype.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol;313(4):H700-H707, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1539
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The last two decades have seen the emergence of Cre-Lox recombination as one of the most powerful and versatile technologies for cell-specific genetic engineering of mammalian cells. Understandably, the primary concerns in the practice of Cre-Lox recombination are whether the predicted genome has been correctly modified and the targeted phenotypes expressed. Rarely are the physiological conditions of the animals routinely examined because the general assumption is that they are normal. Based on corroborative results from radiotelemetric recording, power spectral analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion tensor imaging in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-floxed mice, the present study revealed that this assumption requires amendment. We found that despite comparable blood pressure and heart rate with C57BL/6 or Cre mice under the conscious state, floxed and Cre-Lox mice exhibited diminished baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and cardiac vagal baroreflex. We further found that the capacity and plasticity of baroreflex of these two strains of mice under isoflurane anesthesia were retarded, as reflected by reduced connectivity between the nucleus tractus solitarii and rostral ventrolateral medulla or nucleus ambiguus. The identification of anomalous baroreflex functionality inherent in floxed and Cre-Lox mice points to the importance of incorporating physiological phenotypes into studies that engage gene manipulations such as Cre-Lox recombination. We established that anomalous baroreflex functionality is inherent in floxed and Cre-Lox mice. These two mouse strains exhibited diminished baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and cardiac vagal baroreflex under the conscious state, retarded capacity and plasticity of baroreflex under isoflurane anesthesia, and reduced connectivity between key nuclei in the baroreflex neural circuits.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Barorreflexo/genética
Pressão Sanguínea/genética
Frequência Cardíaca/genética
Reflexo Anormal/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia
Animais
Animais Geneticamente Modificados
Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos
Barorreflexo/fisiologia
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética
Estado de Consciência
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia
Integrases
Isoflurano/farmacologia
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Vias Neurais
Fenótipo
Reflexo Anormal/efeitos dos fármacos
Reflexo Anormal/fisiologia
Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia
Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
Sistema Vasomotor
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anesthetics, Inhalation); 0 (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor); CYS9AKD70P (Isoflurane); EC 2.7.11.17 (Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2); EC 2.7.11.17 (Camk2a protein, mouse); EC 2.7.7.- (Cre recombinase); EC 2.7.7.- (Integrases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170806
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00346.2017


  3 / 2696 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28701322
[Au] Autor:Carter DA; Choong YT; Connelly AA; Bassi JK; Hunter NO; Thongsepee N; Llewellyn-Smith IJ; Fong AY; McDougall SJ; Allen AM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Functional and neurochemical characterization of angiotensin type 1A receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the mouse.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol;313(4):R438-R449, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1490
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Angiotensin II acts via two main receptors within the central nervous system, with the type 1A receptor (AT R) most widely expressed in adult neurons. Activation of the AT R in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal nucleus receiving central synapses of viscerosensory afferents, modulates cardiovascular reflexes. Expression of the AT R occurs in high density within the NTS of most mammals, including humans, but the fundamental electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics of the AT R-expressing NTS neurons are not known. To address this, we have used a transgenic mouse, in which the AT R promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Approximately one-third of AT R-expressing neurons express the catecholamine-synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and a subpopulation of these stained for the transcription factor paired-like homeobox 2b (Phox2b). A third group, comprising approximately two-thirds of the AT R-expressing NTS neurons, showed Phox2b immunoreactivity alone. A fourth group in the ventral subnucleus expressed neither TH nor Phox2b. In whole cell recordings from slices in vitro, AT R-GFP neurons exhibited voltage-activated potassium currents, including the transient outward current and the M-type potassium current. In two different mouse strains, both AT R-GFP neurons and TH-GFP neurons showed similar AT R-mediated depolarizing responses to superfusion with angiotensin II. These data provide a comprehensive description of AT R-expressing neurons in the NTS and increase our understanding of the complex actions of this neuropeptide in the modulation of viscerosensory processing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurônios/metabolismo
Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo
Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Transgênicos
Neurônios/citologia
Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/genética
Núcleo Solitário/citologia
Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1); 147336-22-9 (Green Fluorescent Proteins); EC 1.14.16.2 (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170714
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00168.2017


  4 / 2696 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28615161
[Au] Autor:Roberts BL; Zhu M; Zhao H; Dillon C; Appleyard SM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.
[Ti] Título:High glucose increases action potential firing of catecholamine neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract by increasing spontaneous glutamate inputs.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol;313(3):R229-R239, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1490
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Glucose is a crucial substrate essential for cell survival and function. Changes in glucose levels impact neuronal activity and glucose deprivation increases feeding. Several brain regions have been shown to respond to glucoprivation, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brain stem. The NTS is the primary site in the brain that receives visceral afferent information from the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholaminergic (CA) subpopulation within the NTS modulates many homeostatic functions including cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, food intake, arousal, and stress. However, it is not known if they respond to changes in glucose. Here we determined whether NTS-CA neurons respond to changes in glucose concentration and the mechanism involved. We found that decreasing glucose concentrations from 5 mM to 2 mM to 1 mM, significantly decreased action potential firing in a cell-attached preparation, whereas increasing it back to 5 mM increased the firing rate. This effect was dependent on glutamate release from afferent terminals and required presynaptic 5-HT Rs. Decreasing the glucose concentration also decreased both basal and 5-HT R agonist-induced increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate inputs onto NTS-CA neurons. Low glucose also blunted 5-HT-induced inward currents in nodose ganglia neurons, which are the cell bodies of vagal afferents. The effect of low glucose in both nodose ganglia cells and in NTS slices was mimicked by the glucokinase inhibitor glucosamine. This study suggests that NTS-CA neurons are glucosensing through a presynaptic mechanism that is dependent on vagal glutamate release, 5-HT R activity, and glucokinase.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia
Catecolaminas/metabolismo
Glucose/metabolismo
Ácido Glutâmico/fisiologia
Neurônios/fisiologia
Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Células Cultivadas
Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia
Feminino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Transgênicos
Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
Núcleo Solitário/citologia
Núcleo Solitário/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Catecholamines); 0 (Neurotransmitter Agents); 3KX376GY7L (Glutamic Acid); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170616
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00413.2016


  5 / 2696 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28609288
[Au] Autor:Osacka J; Horvathova L; Majercikova Z; Kiss A
[Ad] Endereço:.
[Ti] Título:Eff ect of a single asenapine treatment on Fos expression in the brain catecholamine-synthesizing neurons: impact of a chronic mild stress preconditioning.
[So] Source:Endocr Regul;51(2):73-83, 2017 Apr 25.
[Is] ISSN:1210-0668
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Fos protein expression in catecholamine-synthesizing neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNC, A8), pars reticulata (SNR, A9), and pars lateralis (SNL), the ventral tegmental area (VTA, A10), the locus coeruleus (LC, A6) and subcoeruleus (sLC), the ventrolateral pons (PON-A5), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS-A2), the area postrema (AP), and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM-A1) was quantitatively evaluated aft er a single administration of asenapine (ASE) (designated for schizophrenia treatment) in male Wistar rats preconditioned with a chronic unpredictable variable mild stress (CMS) for 21 days. Th e aim of the present study was to reveal whether a single ASE treatment may 1) activate Fos expression in the brain areas selected; 2) activate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-synthesizing cells displaying Fos presence; and 3) be modulated by CMS preconditioning. METHODS: Control (CON), ASE, CMS, and CMS+ASE groups were used. CMS included restraint, social isolation, crowding, swimming, and cold. Th e ASE and CMS+ASE groups received a single dose of ASE (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) and CON and CMS saline (300 µl/rat, s.c.). The animals were sacrificed 90 min aft er the treatments. Fos protein and TH-labeled immunoreactive perikarya were analyzed on double labeled histological sections and enumerated on captured pictures using combined light and fluorescence microscope illumination. RESULTS: Saline or CMS alone did not promote Fos expression in any of the structures investigated. ASE alone or in combination with CMS elicited Fos expression in two parts of the SN (SNC, SNR) and the VTA. Aside from some cells in the central gray tegmental nuclei adjacent to LC, where a small number of Fos profiles occurred, none or negligible Fos occurrence was detected in the other structures investigated including the LC and sLC, PON-A5, NTS-A2, AP, and VLM-A1. CMS preconditioning did not infl uence the level of Fos induction in the SN and VTA elicited by ASE administration. Similarly, the ratio between the amount of free Fos and Fos colocalized with TH was not aff ected by stress preconditioning in the SNC, SNR, and the VTA. CONCLUSIONS: Th e present study provides an anatomical/functional knowledge about the nature of the acute ASE treatment on the catecholamine-synthesizing neurons activity in certain brain structures and their missing interplay with the CMS preconditioning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antipsicóticos/farmacologia
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Condicionamento (Psicologia)
Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/efeitos dos fármacos
Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Área Postrema/citologia
Área Postrema/efeitos dos fármacos
Área Postrema/metabolismo
Encéfalo/citologia
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Catecolaminas/biossíntese
Imuno-Histoquímica
Locus Cerúleo/citologia
Locus Cerúleo/efeitos dos fármacos
Locus Cerúleo/metabolismo
Masculino
Bulbo/citologia
Bulbo/efeitos dos fármacos
Bulbo/metabolismo
Microscopia de Fluorescência
Neurônios/metabolismo
Parte Compacta da Substância Negra/citologia
Parte Compacta da Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos
Parte Compacta da Substância Negra/metabolismo
Parte Reticular da Substância Negra/citologia
Parte Reticular da Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos
Parte Reticular da Substância Negra/metabolismo
Ponte/citologia
Ponte/efeitos dos fármacos
Ponte/metabolismo
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo
Ratos
Ratos Wistar
Núcleo Solitário/citologia
Núcleo Solitário/efeitos dos fármacos
Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo
Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia
Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos
Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antipsychotic Agents); 0 (Catecholamines); 0 (Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings); 0 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos); EC 1.14.16.2 (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase); JKZ19V908O (Asenapine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170614
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 2696 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28576943
[Au] Autor:Bokiniec P; Shahbazian S; McDougall SJ; Berning BA; Cheng D; Llewellyn-Smith IJ; Burke PGR; McMullan S; Mühlenhoff M; Hildebrandt H; Braet F; Connor M; Packer NH; Goodchild AK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 New South Wales, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Polysialic Acid Regulates Sympathetic Outflow by Facilitating Information Transfer within the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(27):6558-6574, 2017 Jul 05.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Expression of the large extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia), is restricted in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodeling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release, and behavior. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both and polySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS. Electron microscopy demonstrated polySia at sites that influence neurotransmission: the extracellular space, fine astrocytic processes, and neuronal terminals. Removing polySia from the NTS had functional consequences. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings revealed altered intrinsic membrane properties, enhancing voltage-gated K currents and increasing intracellular Ca Viscerosensory afferent processing was also disrupted, dampening low-frequency excitatory input and potentiating high-frequency sustained currents at second-order neurons. Removal of polySia in the NTS of anesthetized rats increased sympathetic nerve activity, whereas functionally related enzymes that do not alter polySia expression had little effect. These data indicate that polySia is required for the normal transmission of information through the NTS and that changes in its expression alter sympathetic outflow. polySia is abundant in multiple but discrete brain regions, including sensory nuclei, in both the adult rat and human, where it may regulate neuronal function by mechanisms identified here. All cells are coated in glycans (sugars) existing predominantly as glycolipids, proteoglycans, or glycoproteins formed by the most complex form of posttranslational modification, glycosylation. How these glycans influence brain function is only now beginning to be elucidated. The adult nucleus of the solitary tract has abundant polysialic acid (polySia) and is a major site of integration, receiving viscerosensory information which controls critical homeostatic functions. Our data reveal that polySia is a determinant of neuronal behavior and excitatory transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract, regulating sympathetic nerve activity. polySia is abundantly expressed at distinct brain sites in adult, including major sensory nuclei, suggesting that sensory transmission may also be influenced via mechanisms described here. These findings hint at the importance of elucidating how other glycans influence neural function.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vias Aferentes/fisiologia
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia
Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo
Núcleo Solitário/fisiologia
Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Distribuição Tecidual
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Sialic Acids); 0 (polysialic acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170604
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0200-17.2017


  7 / 2696 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28575174
[Au] Autor:Ong ZY; Bongiorno DM; Hernando MA; Grill HJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.
[Ti] Título:Effects of Endogenous Oxytocin Receptor Signaling in Nucleus Tractus Solitarius on Satiation-Mediated Feeding and Thermogenic Control in Male Rats.
[So] Source:Endocrinology;158(9):2826-2836, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-7170
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Central oxytocin receptor (OT-R) signaling reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure, but the central sites and mechanisms mediating these effects are unresolved. We showed previously that pharmacological activation of OT-R in hindbrain/nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) amplifies the intake-inhibitory effects of gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Unexplored were the energetic effects of hindbrain OT-R agonism and the physiological relevance of NTS OT-R signaling on food intake and energy expenditure control. Using a virally mediated OT-R knockdown (KD) strategy and a range of behavioral paradigms, this study examined the role of endogenous NTS OT-R signaling on satiation-mediated food intake inhibition and thermogenic control. Results showed that, compared with controls, NTS OT-R KD rats consumed larger meals, were less responsive to the intake-inhibitory effects of a self-ingested preload, and consumed more chow following a 24-hour fast. These data indicate that NTS OT-R signaling is necessary for normal satiation control. Whereas both control and NTS OT-R KD rats increased core temperature following high-fat diet maintenance (relative to chow maintenance), the percent increase in core temperature was greater in control compared with NTS OT-R KD rats during the light cycle. Hindbrain oxytocin agonist delivery increased core temperature in both control and NTS OT-R KD rats and the percent increase relative to vehicle treatment was not significantly different between groups. Together, data reveal a critical role for endogenous NTS OT-R signaling in mediating the intake-inhibitory effects of endogenous GI satiation signals and in diet-induced thermogenesis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ingestão de Alimentos/genética
Receptores de Ocitocina/fisiologia
Saciação/fisiologia
Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo
Termogênese/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Regulação do Apetite/genética
Dieta Hiperlipídica
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia
Masculino
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Ratos Transgênicos
Receptores de Ocitocina/genética
Transdução de Sinais/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Receptors, Oxytocin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1210/en.2017-00200


  8 / 2696 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28494183
[Au] Autor:Dezieck L; Hafez Z; Conicella A; Blohm E; O'Connor MJ; Schwarz ES; Mullins ME
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Emergency Medicine , University of Massachusetts Medical School , Worcester , MA , USA.
[Ti] Título:Resolution of cannabis hyperemesis syndrome with topical capsaicin in the emergency department: a case series.
[So] Source:Clin Toxicol (Phila);55(8):908-913, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1556-9519
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is characterized by symptoms of cyclic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting in the setting of prolonged cannabis use. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor may be involved in this syndrome. Topical capsaicin is a proposed treatment for CHS; it binds TRPV1 with high specificity, impairing substance P signaling in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius via overstimulation of TRPV1. This may explain its apparent antiemetic effect in this syndrome. PURPOSE: We describe a series of thirteen cases of suspected cannabis hyperemesis syndrome treated with capsaicin in the emergency departments of two academic medical centers. METHODS: A query of the electronic health record at both centers identified thirteen patients with documented daily cannabis use and symptoms consistent with CHS who were administered topical capsaicin cream for symptom management. RESULTS: All 13 patients experienced symptom relief after administration of capsaicin cream. CONCLUSION: Topical capsaicin was associated with improvement in symptoms of CHS after other treatments failed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem
Capsaicina/administração & dosagem
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
Abuso de Maconha/complicações
Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos
Náusea/tratamento farmacológico
Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/administração & dosagem
Vômito/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico
Dor Abdominal/etiologia
Dor Abdominal/metabolismo
Adulto
Antieméticos/efeitos adversos
Área Postrema/efeitos dos fármacos
Área Postrema/metabolismo
Capsaicina/efeitos adversos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Massachusetts
Meia-Idade
Missouri
Náusea/diagnóstico
Náusea/etiologia
Náusea/metabolismo
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/efeitos adversos
Núcleo Solitário/efeitos dos fármacos
Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo
Síndrome
Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores
Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
Resultado do Tratamento
Vômito/diagnóstico
Vômito/etiologia
Vômito/metabolismo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antiemetics); 0 (Sensory System Agents); 0 (TRPV Cation Channels); 0 (TRPV1 protein, human); S07O44R1ZM (Capsaicin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170807
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170807
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170512
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15563650.2017.1324166


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[PMID]:28482247
[Au] Autor:Argo A; Spatola GF; Zerbo S; Sortino C; Lanzarone A; Uzzo ML; Pitruzzella A; Farè F; Roda G; Gambaro V; Procaccianti P; Karch SB
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother-Child Care "G. D'Alessandro", Forensic Section, Via Del Vespro, 133, 90127, Palermo, Italy. Electronic address: antonella.argo@unipa.it.
[Ti] Título:A possible biomarker for methadone related deaths.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;49:8-14, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Methadone (MTH) concentrations in those dying of MTH toxicity totally overlap concentrations where the presence of MTH is only an incidental finding, making it very difficult to make distinctions in actual cases. A biomarker, be it anatomical or biochemical for MTH toxicity is badly needed, particularly if that markers were known to disrupt effective ventilation. Because the brainstem houses the regulatory centers for cardiorespiratory-control enters, it would seem to be the most likely anatomical site to seek abnormalities in cardiorespiratory control. OBJECTIVE: To locate and describe the cells of nucleus of the solitary tract (TS)(NTS) in human brainstem and determine if neuronal cell death, either necrotic or apoptotic, within the TS of humans is more common in deaths due directly to MTH toxicity than with in the solitary tract itself. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This was a single cohort study of MTH related decedents autopsied at a large university hospital. Each decedent had a recent history of non medical/illicit MTH use and had been pronounced dead in the field, prior to ever reaching the hospital. Complete autopsy and complete toxicology testing were performed on the formalin fixed brains of each individual. Multiple blocks were prepared of the area of interest, namely the tissue lying immediately between the inferior and the super colliculi. This volume, by definition, would have included the area of the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM), the location of the TS. Immunohistochemistry studies utilizing caspase-9 reaction (a protease enzyme involved in the process of preprogrammed death) were performed in order to estimate the degree and proportion of neuronal apoptosis, and also access the degree of classical necrosis within the NTS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of neuronal apoptosis and/or necrosis within the NTS. RESULTS: Cells displaying evidence of early apoptosis and advanced apoptosis, consisting primarily of nuclear fragmentation, admixed with other neurons displaying the features of classic necrosis were found. Evidence of classic necrosis was identifiable in most of the controls, though minor degrees of apoptosis were identifiable with Caspase staining and quantitative image analysis of immunohistochemical stains. CONCLUSIONS: and Relevance: Our study shows that neurons, primarily along the TS, but occasionally in other cell nuclei (even controls) are vulnerable, both to direct MTH toxicity (via apoptosis) and indirectly (via hypoxia leading to classical cell necrosis). When MTH is found to be present in significant concentrations, but apoptotic lesions are absent, it would be reasonable to assume that MTH was not primarily the cause of cardiorespiratory arrest.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Metadona/envenenamento
Entorpecentes/envenenamento
Neurônios/patologia
Núcleo Solitário/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Apoptose
Tronco Encefálico/patologia
Caspase 9/metabolismo
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Patologia Legal
Toxicologia Forense
Seres Humanos
Imuno-Histoquímica
Masculino
Metadona/análise
Entorpecentes/análise
Necrose
Envenenamento/diagnóstico
Estudos Retrospectivos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Narcotics); EC 3.4.22.- (Caspase 9); UC6VBE7V1Z (Methadone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170509
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28476920
[Au] Autor:Beaumont E; Campbell RP; Andresen MC; Scofield S; Singh K; Libbus I; KenKnight BH; Snyder L; Cantrell N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee; beaumont@etsu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Cervical vagus nerve stimulation augments spontaneous discharge in second- and higher-order sensory neurons in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol;313(2):H354-H367, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1539
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) currently treats patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, depression, and heart failure. The mild intensities used in chronic VNS suggest that primary visceral afferents and central nervous system activation are involved. Here, we measured the activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in anesthetized rats using clinically styled VNS. Our chief findings indicate that VNS at threshold bradycardic intensity activated NTS neuron discharge in one-third of NTS neurons. This VNS directly activated only myelinated vagal afferents projecting to second-order NTS neurons. Most VNS-induced activity in NTS, however, was unsynchronized to vagal stimuli. Thus, VNS activated unsynchronized activity in NTS neurons that were second order to vagal afferent C-fibers as well as higher-order NTS neurons only polysynaptically activated by the vagus. Overall, cardiovascular-sensitive and -insensitive NTS neurons were similarly activated by VNS: 3/4 neurons with monosynaptic vagal A-fiber afferents, 6/42 neurons with monosynaptic vagal C-fiber afferents, and 16/21 polysynaptic NTS neurons. Provocatively, vagal A-fibers indirectly activated C-fiber neurons during VNS. Elevated spontaneous spiking was quantitatively much higher than synchronized activity and extended well into the periods of nonstimulation. Surprisingly, many polysynaptic NTS neurons responded to half the bradycardic intensity used in clinical studies, indicating that a subset of myelinated vagal afferents is sufficient to evoke VNS indirect activation. Our study uncovered a myelinated vagal afferent drive that indirectly activates NTS neurons and thus central pathways beyond NTS and support reconsideration of brain contributions of vagal afferents underpinning of therapeutic impacts. Acute vagus nerve stimulation elevated activity in neurons located in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract. Such stimuli directly activated only myelinated vagal afferents but indirectly activated a subpopulation of second- and higher-order neurons, suggesting that afferent mechanisms and central neuron activation may be responsible for vagus nerve stimulation efficacy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Potenciais de Ação
Potenciais Evocados
Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/fisiologia
Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/fisiologia
Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia
Núcleo Solitário/fisiologia
Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos
Nervo Vago/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Barorreflexo
Pressão Sanguínea
Bradicardia/etiologia
Bradicardia/fisiopatologia
Frequência Cardíaca
Masculino
Modelos Animais
Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Estimulação do Nervo Vago/efeitos adversos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170507
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00070.2017



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