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Pesquisa : A10.165.265.521.500 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29179049
[Au] Autor:Michael AR
[Ad] Endereço:Idaho State University, Department of Anthropology, 921S. 8th Avenue, Stop 8005, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA. Electronic address: michamy@isu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Histological estimation of age at death in amputated lower limbs: Issues of disuse, advanced age, and disease in the analysis of pathological bone.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;53:58-61, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Histological studies of healed bone tissue following amputation are relatively rare in the literature. This study describes the histomorphological features of femoral thin sections from six uni- and bi-lateral amputees of documented age and sex. Thin sections were cut from the midshaft of both the right and left femora from each amputee and analyzed following standard forensic methods for histological estimation of age at death from the human femur. The histological age at death estimations for the thin sections from amputated bone were consistently lower than the actual chronological age of each individual, suggesting that the effects of amputation prohibit the effective use of age at death estimation methods. The nature of each amputation is unknown, which suggests that alternative factors could be responsible for the slowed bone turnover seen in the thin sections from the amputated bone. First, it is reasonable to assume that the amputations in this sample could have resulted from complications of diabetes mellitus rather than trauma so the possible effects on bone remodeling due to disease are explored. Second, the mobility of the decedents following their amputations is unknown so the histomorphological results could be due to disuse osteoporosis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Amputação
Amputados
Fêmur/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Reabsorção Óssea
Osso Cortical/patologia
Feminino
Patologia Legal
Osteon/patologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Porosidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28832945
[Au] Autor:Andronowski JM; Pratt IV; Cooper DML
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3908.
[Ti] Título:Occurrence of osteon banding in adult human cortical bone.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;164(3):635-642, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Differentiating human from nonhuman fragmented bone is often accomplished using histological methods if the observation of gross morphology proves insufficient. Linearly oriented primary and/or secondary osteonal systems, commonly referred to as osteon bands, are described as a strong indicator of nonhuman bone, particularly the occurrence of multiple bands. This phenomenon has been conventionally documented using two-dimensional (2D) histology, but such analyses are destructive and typically limited to a single cross-section. Progressive developments in high-resolution X-ray imaging, however, allow for the nondestructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of bone microarchitecture. The primary objective of the current research was to visualize and document the occurrence of osteon banding in adult human cortical bone using high-resolution synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomography (SR micro-CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Synchrotron radiation-based micro-CT scanning was carried out at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) national synchrotron facility. The presence or absence of osteon banding was visualized in human skeletal elements from three adult males with representative samples from all regions of the skeleton (n = 129). If present, osteon banding was described and quantified. RESULTS: Results indicated that 23 of 129 human cortical bone specimens exhibited osteon banding, representing 18% of the sample. Linear arrangements of primary and/or secondary osteons were observed in the following skeletal elements: temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital, clavicle, mandible, femur, tibia, ulna, second metatarsal, and sacrum. DISCUSSION: The present work represents the first 3D examination of inter-element variation in osteon banding in adult human cortical bone. Findings indicate that the presence of multiple osteon bands in a single specimen is not diagnostic of nonhuman bone. As such, osteon banding categorically should not be taken as evidence of nonhuman bone in forensic and archaeological contexts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Osso Cortical/anatomia & histologia
Osteon/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Antropologia Física
Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem
Osteon/diagnóstico por imagem
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Microtomografia por Raio-X
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170824
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23297


  3 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28144850
[Au] Autor:Liu Y; Chen B; Yin D
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China.
[Ti] Título:Effects of direction and shape of osteocyte lacunae on resisting impact and micro-damage of osteon.
[So] Source:J Mater Sci Mater Med;28(3):38, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1573-4838
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Animal bones bear varied impact loadings during in the movements of animals. The impact resistance and micro-damage of bones are influenced by their various microstructures at different length scales. In this paper, according to the microstructure of osteon, three 2-D microstructure models (circumferential ellipse lacunae (Model A), radial elliptical lacunae (Model B) and circular lacunae (Model C) were constructed for investigating the influences of the arranged direction and shape of osteocyte lacunae on resisting impact and micro-damage. Impact analytical results show that the maximal stress of the Model A is the minimum and that of the Model B is the maximal under same boundary conditions, which indicates that the circumferentially elliptical lacunae, whose minor axis is along the radial direction of the osteon (Model A), can enhance impact resistance of osteons effectively. The investigated results of the progressive damage show that the circumferentially ellipse lacunae (Model A) are more benefit to resist micro-damage and that the micro-cracks in the model are mainly along the circumferential direction of the osteon. These investigated results for the novel microstructures found in osteon can serve engineers as guidance in the designs of biomimetic and bioinspired tubular structures or materials for engineering applications.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Osteon/metabolismo
Osteon/fisiologia
Osteócitos/citologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biomimética
Bovinos
Fêmur/patologia
Seres Humanos
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
Modelos Teóricos
Nanoestruturas
Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171021
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171021
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10856-017-5850-6


  4 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28121024
[Au] Autor:Keenan KE; Mears CS; Skedros JG
[Ad] Endereço:Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, George E. Whalen Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.
[Ti] Título:Utility of osteon circularity for determining species and interpreting load history in primates and nonprimates.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;162(4):657-681, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Histomorphological analyses of bones are used to estimate an individual's chronological age, interpret a bone's load history, and differentiate species. Among various histomorphological characteristics that can influence mechanical properties of cortical bone, secondary osteon (Haversian system) population density and predominant collagen fiber orientation are particularly important. Cross-sectional shape characteristics of secondary osteons (On.Cr = osteon circularity, On.El = osteon ellipticality) are considered helpful in these contexts, but more robust proof is needed. We sought to determine if variations in osteon shape characteristics are sufficient for accurately differentiating species, load-complexity categories, and regional habitual strain-mode distributions (e.g., tension vs. compression regions). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Circularly polarized light images were obtained from 100-micron transverse sections from diaphyses of adult deer calcanei; sheep calcanei, radii, and tibiae; equine calcanei, radii, and third metacarpals (MC3s); chimpanzee femora; and human femora and fibulae. Osteon cross-sectional area (On.Ar), On.Cr, and On.El were quantified indiscriminately and in the contexts of load-complexity and regional strain-mode distributions. RESULTS: On.Cr and On.El, when examined independently in terms of all data, or mean (nested) data, for each bone, exceeded 80% accuracy in the inter-species comparisons only with respect to distinguishing humans from nonhumans. Correct classification among the nonhuman species was <70%. When On.Cr and On.El were coupled together and with On.Ar in discriminant function analyses (nested and unnested data) there were high misclassifications in all but human vs. nonhuman comparisons. DISCUSSION: Frequent misclassifications in nonhuman comparisons might reflect influences of habitual load complexity and/or strain-mode distributions, or other factors not accounted for by these two considerations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Osteon/anatomia & histologia
Osteon/fisiologia
Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anatomia Transversal
Animais
Cervos
Diáfises/anatomia & histologia
Diáfises/fisiologia
Fêmur/anatomia & histologia
Fêmur/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Pan troglodytes
Ovinos
Especificidade da Espécie
Tíbia/anatomia & histologia
Tíbia/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170620
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170620
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23154


  5 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27864963
[Au] Autor:Ulhøi MP; Meldgaard K; Steiniche T; Odgaard A; Vesterby A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, DK-8200, Arhus N, Denmark.
[Ti] Título:Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength.
[So] Source:J Forensic Sci;62(1):131-136, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:1556-4029
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. CONCLUSION: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone strength. It is questionable whether this per se increases fracture risk.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alcoolismo/complicações
Densidade Óssea
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Absorciometria de Fóton
Adulto
Idoso
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Feminino
Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem
Colo do Fêmur/patologia
Osteon/diagnóstico por imagem
Osteon/patologia
Seres Humanos
Ílio/diagnóstico por imagem
Ílio/patologia
Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem
Vértebras Lombares/patologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estresse Mecânico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.13256


  6 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27491825
[Au] Autor:Nganvongpanit K; Siengdee P; Buddhachat K; Brown JL; Klinhom S; Pitakarnnop T; Angkawanish T; Thitaram C
[Ad] Endereço:Animal Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand. korakot.n@cmu.ac.th.
[Ti] Título:Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).
[So] Source:Anat Sci Int;92(4):554-568, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1447-073X
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Elefantes/anatomia & histologia
Fêmur/anatomia & histologia
Fíbula/anatomia & histologia
Úmero/anatomia & histologia
Rádio (Anatomia)/anatomia & histologia
Costelas/anatomia & histologia
Tíbia/anatomia & histologia
Ulna/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem
Fêmur/metabolismo
Fíbula/diagnóstico por imagem
Fíbula/metabolismo
Osteon
Hematopoese
Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem
Úmero/metabolismo
Minerais/análise
Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem
Rádio (Anatomia)/metabolismo
Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem
Costelas/metabolismo
Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem
Tíbia/metabolismo
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
Ulna/diagnóstico por imagem
Ulna/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Minerals)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160806
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12565-016-0361-y


  7 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27084365
[Au] Autor:Nganvongpanit K; Pradit W; Pitakarnnop T; Phatsara M; Chomdej S
[Ad] Endereço:Animal Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50100, Thailand. korakot.n@cmu.ac.th.
[Ti] Título:Differences in osteon structure histomorphometry between puppyhood and adult stages in the Golden Retriever.
[So] Source:Anat Sci Int;92(4):483-492, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1447-073X
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Osteon structure has been widely studied in mammals, but osteon structure in dogs has received relatively little attention, especially in terms of whether aging has any effect on osteon structure. The aim of this study was to compare the osteon structure of both flat (scapula and os coxae) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpus, femur and tibia) of male puppy and adult Golden Retrievers. We examined five parameters: Haversian canal diameter, Haversian canal area, osteon diameter, osteon area, and number of lacunae per osteon. Our results show that the values for Haversian canal diameter were significantly higher in the os coxae and tibia, but significantly lower in the femur of adult dogs as compared to those of puppies. The Haversian canal diameter of the other bones investigated did not show any significant differences between puppies and adult dogs. The Haversian canal area was significantly greater in the os coxae, radius and femur of adult dogs than in those of puppies. The osteon diameter and area of every bone examined were significantly smaller in puppies than in adult dogs. Lastly, the number of lacunae per osteon showed the same trend as osteon diameter and area. Plexiform bone could be found in three bones in puppies, i.e. the femur, humerus and tibia. Overall, the results of this study should provide basic knowledge on the microanatomy of cortical bone in dogs and on the possible influence age.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento
Cães/anatomia & histologia
Osteon/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Úmero/anatomia & histologia
Masculino
Ossos Pélvicos/anatomia & histologia
Rádio (Anatomia)/anatomia & histologia
Tíbia/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160417
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12565-016-0345-y


  8 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28155688
[Au] Autor:Wu X; Wang N; Wang Z; Yu W; Wang Y; Guo Y; Chen W
[Ad] Endereço:Shanxi Key Lab. of Material Strength & Structural Impact and College of Mechanics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Título:Mathematically modeling fluid flow and fluid shear stress in the canaliculi of a loaded osteon.
[So] Source:Biomed Eng Online;15(Suppl 2):149, 2016 Dec 28.
[Is] ISSN:1475-925X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Mechanical load-induced intraosseous pressure gradients may result in some fluid stimuli effects, such as fluid flow and fluid shear stress (FSS), which may enable bone cells to detect external mechanical signals. Interstitial bone fluid flow is known to occur in lacunar-canalicular porosity (PLC). METHODS: In order to characterize lacunar-canalicular fluid flow behavior, a hierarchical osteon system is developed. The osteon is modeled as a poroelastic annular cylinder with two types of impermeable boundary cases considered on its outer wall: one is elastic restrained (Case I), whereas the other is displacement confined (Case II). Analytical solutions such as canalicular fluid velocity, pressure, fluid flow rate (FFR), and shear stress are obtained. RESULTS: Results show that the amplitudes of FFR and FSS are proportional to strain amplitude and frequency. However, the key loading factor governing canalicular fluid flow behavior is the strain rate. The larger canalicular radius is, the larger amplitudes of FFR and FSS generalized, especially, the FSS amplitude is proportional to canalicular radius. In addition, both FFR and FSS amplitudes produced in case II are larger than those of case I. CONCLUSION: Strain rate can be acted as a representative loading parameter governing the canalicular fluid flow behavior under a physiological state. This model can facilitate better understanding the load induced the fluid permeation in the PLC. The approach can also be used to analyze the structure of the proteoglycan matrix in the fluid space surrounding the osteocytic process in the canaliculus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Osso e Ossos/fisiologia
Osteon/fisiologia
Resistência ao Cisalhamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Elasticidade
Seres Humanos
Hidrodinâmica
Modelos Biológicos
Modelos Estatísticos
Porosidade
Reologia
Estresse Mecânico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12938-016-0267-x


  9 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27968706
[Au] Autor:Bucchi C; Borie E; Arias A; Dias FJ; Fuentes R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Integral Dentistry, Research Centre in Dental Sciences (CICO), Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. cristina.bucchi@ufrontera.cl.
[Ti] Título:Radiopacity of alloplastic bone grafts measured with cone beam computed tomography: An analysis in rabbit calvaria.
[So] Source:Bosn J Basic Med Sci;17(1):61-66, 2016 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1840-4812
[Cp] País de publicação:Bosnia and Herzegovina
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Availability of adequate bone structure for dental implants is still a problem in dentistry. Alloplastic grafts, which promote bone regeneration, are used as bone substitutes in orthopedic and oral surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of three different synthetic bone grafts in rabbit calvaria, over 3 months, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Four critical-size defects were made on the calvaria of 11 rabbits. The lesions were classified into three groups according to the alloplastic grafts they received: Osteon® 70/30, Osteon collagen®, and Osteon II® groups. The fourth group received blood clot, and served as a control. The bone samples were collected and analyzed with CBCT after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month. One month after surgery, the lesions that received Osteon® 70/30 and Osteon collagen® grafts showed the highest radiopacity compared to the lesions with Osteon II® and blood clot. After the 2nd month, the radiopacity values between the three groups that received the grafts were more similar compared to the group with blood clot. After the 3rd month, the lesions with Osteon® 70/30 graft showed the highest radiopacity values, followed by Osteon collagen® and Osteon II® groups. The group that received blood clot showed the lowest radiopacity values. In conclusion, the grafts used in this study had higher radiopacity values compared to blood clot. Among the grafts used, the Osteon® 70/30 graft showed the highest radiopacity values in the 3-month period.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substitutos Ósseos
Transplante Ósseo
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico
Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Resinas Acrílicas/química
Animais
Coagulação Sanguínea
Regeneração Óssea
Colágeno/química
Osteon/química
Seres Humanos
Coelhos
Proteínas Recombinantes/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Acrylic Resins); 0 (Bone Substitutes); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 9007-34-5 (Collagen); 96728-15-3 (Radio-Opaque acrylic resin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170403
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170403
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17305/bjbms.2016.1482


  10 / 781 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27391607
[Au] Autor:Klein N; Sander PM; Krahl A; Scheyer TM; Houssaye A
[Ad] Endereço:Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Diverse Aquatic Adaptations in Nothosaurus spp. (Sauropterygia)-Inferences from Humeral Histology and Microanatomy.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(7):e0158448, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Mid-diaphyseal cortical bone tissue in humeri of Nothosaurus spp. consists of coarse parallel-fibered bone, finer and higher organized parallel-fibered bone, and lamellar bone. Vascular canals are mainly arranged longitudinally and radially in a dominantly radial system. Blood vessels are represented by simple vascular canals, incompletely lined primary osteons, and fully developed primary osteons. Nothosaurus spp. shows a variety of diaphyseal microanatomical patterns, ranging from thick to very thin-walled cortices. In the early Anisian (Lower Muschelkalk), small- and large-bodied Nothosaurus spp. generally exhibit bone mass increase (BMI). In the middle to late Anisian (Middle Muschelkalk) small-bodied nothosaurs retain BMI whereas larger-bodied forms tend to show a decrease in bone mass (BMD). During the latest Anisian to early Ladinian (Upper Muschelkalk), small- and few large-bodied nothosaurs retain BMI, whereas the majority of large-bodied forms exhibit BMD. The stratigraphically youngest nothosaurs document five microanatomical categories, two of which are unique among marine amniotes: One consists of a very heterogeneously distributed spongy periosteal organization, the other of very thin-walled cortices. The functional significance of the two unique microanatomical specializations seen in large-bodied nothosaurs is the reduction of bone mass, which minimizes inertia of the limbs, and thus saves energy during locomotion. Transitions between the various microanatomical categories are rather gradual. Our results suggest that small-bodied Nothosaurus marchicus and other, not further assignable small-bodied nothosaurs seem to have been bound to near-shore, shallow marine environments throughout their evolution. Some large-bodied Nothosaurus spp. followed the same trend but others became more active swimmers and possibly inhabited open marine environments. The variety of microanatomical patterns may be related to taxonomic differences, developmental plasticity, and possibly sexual dimorphism. Humeral microanatomy documents the diversification of nothosaur species into different environments to avoid intraclade competition as well as competition with other marine reptiles. Nothosaur microanatomy indicates that knowledge of processes involved in secondary aquatic adaptation and their interaction are more complex than previously believed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia
Osteon/anatomia & histologia
Periósteo/anatomia & histologia
Tíbia/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia
Dinossauros/fisiologia
Periósteo/fisiologia
Tíbia/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170720
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170720
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160709
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0158448



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