Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : A12.200.390 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:27773805
[Au] Autor:Camilleri M; Sellin JH; Barrett KE
[Ad] Endereço:Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address: camilleri.michael@mayo.edu.
[Ti] Título:Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Management of Chronic Watery Diarrhea.
[So] Source:Gastroenterology;152(3):515-532.e2, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1528-0012
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chronic watery diarrhea poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is often a disabling condition for patients. Although acute diarrhea is likely to be caused by infection, the causes of chronic diarrhea (>4 weeks in duration) are more elusive. We review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic diarrhea. Drawing on recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of intestinal epithelial transport and barrier function, we discuss how diarrhea can result from a decrease in luminal solute absorption, an increase in secretion, or both, as well as derangements in barrier properties. We also describe the various extraepithelial factors that activate diarrheal mechanisms. Finally, clinical evaluation and tests used in the assessment of patients presenting with chronic diarrhea are reviewed, and an algorithm guiding therapeutic decisions and pharmacotherapy is presented.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diarreia/metabolismo
Absorção Intestinal
Secreções Intestinais
Intestinos/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo
Cromograninas/metabolismo
Doença Crônica
Diarreia/diagnóstico
Diarreia/fisiopatologia
Diarreia/terapia
Fezes/química
Motilidade Gastrointestinal
Seres Humanos
Inflamação
Intestinos/fisiopatologia
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo
Lactoferrina/metabolismo
Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo
Concentração Osmolar
Permeabilidade
Prostaglandinas/metabolismo
Serotonina/metabolismo
Substância P/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chromogranins); 0 (Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex); 0 (Prostaglandins); 333DO1RDJY (Serotonin); 33507-63-0 (Substance P); 9007-41-4 (C-Reactive Protein); EC 3.4.21.- (Lactoferrin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28623924
[Au] Autor:Barreto MSR; Andrade CT; da Silva LCRP; Cabral LM; Flosi Paschoalin VM; Del Aguila EM
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco J, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-598, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:In vitro physiological and antibacterial characterization of ZnO nanoparticle composites in simulated porcine gastric and enteric fluids.
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;13(1):181, 2017 Jun 17.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Diarrhea in piglets is one of the main causes of animal death after weaning; zinc oxide (ZnO) has been used in high doses for the control of this sickness. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized and immobilized on a chitosan/alginate (CH/SA) complex and investigate the antimicrobial activity and in vitro release profile of zinc (Zn ) from these new compounds. The ZnO nanoparticles composites were prepared and combined with CH/SA or CH/SA and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The structure and morphology of the composites were analyzed by characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The crystallite size of ZnO nano was 17 nm and the novel ZnO composites were effective in protecting ZnO in simulated gastric fluid, where Zn reached a concentration six-fold higher than the levels obtained with the unprotected commercial-zinc oxide. In addition, the novel composites suggest effective antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: The results described herein suggest that the novel nano composites may work as an alternative product for pig feeding as verified by the in vitro assays, and may also contribute to lower the zinc released in the environment by fecal excretion in animals waste.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Suco Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos
Nanopartículas
Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alginatos/química
Animais
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem
Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos
Quitosana/química
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
Ácido Glucurônico/química
Ácidos Hexurônicos/química
Secreções Intestinais/efeitos dos fármacos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Nanopartículas/química
Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
Suínos
Difração de Raios X
Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alginates); 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Hexuronic Acids); 8A5D83Q4RW (Glucuronic Acid); 8C3Z4148WZ (alginic acid); 9012-76-4 (Chitosan); SOI2LOH54Z (Zinc Oxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170619
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-017-1101-9


  3 / 2661 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28535126
[Au] Autor:Zawahir S; Gawarammana I; Dargan PI; Abdulghni M; Dawson AH
[Ad] Endereço:a Faculty of Medicine , University of Ruhuna , Galle , Sri Lanka.
[Ti] Título:Activated charcoal significantly reduces the amount of colchicine released from Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media.
[So] Source:Clin Toxicol (Phila);55(8):914-918, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1556-9519
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Poisoning with Gloriosa superba, a plant containing colchicine, is common in Sri Lanka. OBJECTIVES: This study was to estimate release of colchicine from 5 g of different parts of Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media, and examine the binding efficacy of activated charcoal (AC) to colchicine within this model. METHODS: A USP dissolution apparatus-II was used to prepare samples for analysis of colchicine using HPLC. RESULTS: Cumulative colchicine release from tuber in gastric media at 120 minutes was significantly higher (2883 µg/g) than in intestinal media (1015 µg/g) (p < .001). Mean ± SD cumulative colchicine concentration over 2 hours from tuber, leaves and trunk in gastric medium was 2883.15 ± 1295.63, 578.25 ± 366.26 and 345.60 ± 200.08 µg/g respectively and the release in intestinal media was 1014.75 ± 268.16, 347.40 ± 262.61 and 251.55 ± 285.72 µg/g respectively. Introduction of 50 g of AC into both media made colchicine undetectable (<0.1 µg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The tuber released the highest quantity of colchicine. The colchicine release and elapse time to achieve saturated, equilibrium dissolution mainly depends on physicochemical properties of plant part. Significant in vitro binding of colchicine to AC suggests that AC has a role in decontamination of patients presenting to hospital after ingestion of Gloriosa superba.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antídotos/farmacologia
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia
Colchicina/envenenamento
Suco Gástrico/química
Secreções Intestinais/química
Liliaceae/envenenamento
Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Colchicina/química
Liberação Controlada de Fármacos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Cinética
Liliaceae/química
Folhas de Planta/química
Folhas de Planta/envenenamento
Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia
Caules de Planta/química
Caules de Planta/envenenamento
Tubérculos/química
Tubérculos/envenenamento
Solubilidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antidotes); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); SML2Y3J35T (Colchicine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170807
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170807
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15563650.2017.1325897


  4 / 2661 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28387713
[Au] Autor:Bel Y; Banyuls N; Chakroun M; Escriche B; Ferré J
[Ad] Endereço:ERI BIOTECMED and Department of Genetics, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner, 50, BURJASSOT, 46100 Valencia, Spain. yolanda.bel@uv.es.
[Ti] Título:Insights into the Structure of the Vip3Aa Insecticidal Protein by Protease Digestion Analysis.
[So] Source:Toxins (Basel);9(4), 2017 Apr 07.
[Is] ISSN:2072-6651
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Vip3 proteins are secretable proteins from whose mode of action is still poorly understood. In this study, the activation process for Vip3 proteins was closely examined in order to better understand the Vip3Aa protein stability and to shed light on its structure. The Vip3Aa protoxin (of 89 kDa) was treated with trypsin at concentrations from 1:100 to 120:100 (trypsin:Vip3A, : ). If the action of trypsin was not properly neutralized, the results of SDS-PAGE analysis (as well as those with midgut juice) equivocally indicated that the protoxin could be completely processed. However, when the proteolytic reaction was efficiently stopped, it was revealed that the protoxin was only cleaved at a primary cleavage site, regardless of the amount of trypsin used. The 66 kDa and the 19 kDa peptides generated by the proteases co-eluted after gel filtration chromatography, indicating that they remain together after cleavage. The 66 kDa fragment was found to be extremely resistant to proteases. The trypsin treatment of the protoxin in the presence of SDS revealed the presence of secondary cleavage sites at S-509, and presumably at T-466 and V-372, rendering C-terminal fragments of approximately 29, 32, and 42 kDa, respectively. The fact that the predicted secondary structure of the Vip3Aa protein shows a cluster of beta sheets in the C-terminal region of the protein might be the reason behind the higher stability to proteases compared to the rest of the protein, which is mainly composed of alpha helices.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proteínas de Bactérias/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade
Secreções Intestinais/metabolismo
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos
Peptídeos/metabolismo
Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
Proteólise
Tripsina/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Peptides); 0 (Vip3A protein, Bacillus thuringiensis); EC 3.4.21.4 (Trypsin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170408
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 2661 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28336548
[Au] Autor:Kishida K; Pearce SC; Yu S; Gao N; Ferraris RP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey; and.
[Ti] Título:Nutrient sensing by absorptive and secretory progenies of small intestinal stem cells.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol;312(6):G592-G605, 2017 Jun 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1547
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Nutrient sensing triggers responses by the gut-brain axis modulating hormone release, feeding behavior and metabolism that become dysregulated in metabolic syndrome and some cancers. Except for absorptive enterocytes and secretory enteroendocrine cells, the ability of many intestinal cell types to sense nutrients is still unknown; hence we hypothesized that progenitor stem cells (intestinal stem cells, ISC) possess nutrient sensing ability inherited by progenies during differentiation. We directed via modulators of Wnt and Notch signaling differentiation of precursor mouse intestinal crypts into specialized organoids each containing ISC, enterocyte, goblet, or Paneth cells at relative proportions much higher than in situ as determined by mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry of cell type biomarkers. We identified nutrient sensing cell type(s) by increased expression of fructolytic genes in response to a fructose challenge. Organoids comprised primarily of enterocytes, Paneth, or goblet, but not ISC, cells responded specifically to fructose without affecting nonfructolytic genes. Sensing was independent of Wnt and Notch modulators and of glucose concentrations in the medium but required fructose absorption and metabolism. More mature enterocyte- and goblet-enriched organoids exhibited stronger fructose responses. Remarkably, enterocyte organoids, upon forced dedifferentiation to reacquire ISC characteristics, exhibited a markedly extended lifespan and retained fructose sensing ability, mimicking responses of some dedifferentiated cancer cells. Using an innovative approach, we discovered that nutrient sensing is likely repressed in progenitor ISCs then irreversibly derepressed during specification into sensing-competent absorptive or secretory lineages, the surprising capacity of Paneth and goblet cells to detect fructose, and the important role of differentiation in modulating nutrient sensing. Small intestinal stem cells differentiate into several cell types transiently populating the villi. We used specialized organoid cultures each comprised of a single cell type to demonstrate that ) differentiation seems required for nutrient sensing, ) secretory goblet and Paneth cells along with enterocytes sense fructose, suggesting that sensing is acquired after differentiation is triggered but before divergence between absorptive and secretory lineages, and ) forcibly dedifferentiated enterocytes exhibit fructose sensing and lifespan extension.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diferenciação Celular
Linhagem da Célula
Frutose/metabolismo
Absorção Intestinal
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo
Secreções Intestinais/metabolismo
Intestino Delgado/metabolismo
Células-Tronco/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Células Cultivadas
Enterócitos/metabolismo
Enterócitos/secreção
Frutoquinases/genética
Frutoquinases/metabolismo
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica
Genótipo
Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética
Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo
Células Caliciformes/metabolismo
Células Caliciformes/secreção
Mucosa Intestinal/citologia
Mucosa Intestinal/secreção
Secreções Intestinais/secreção
Intestino Delgado/citologia
Intestino Delgado/secreção
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Camundongos Knockout
Organoides/metabolismo
Organoides/secreção
Celulas de Paneth/metabolismo
Celulas de Paneth/secreção
Fenótipo
Transdução de Sinais
Células-Tronco/secreção
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative); 0 (Slc2a5 protein, mouse); 30237-26-4 (Fructose); EC 2.7.1.- (Fructokinases); EC 2.7.1.3 (ketohexokinase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170325
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00416.2016


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[PMID]:28232326
[Au] Autor:de Boer JF; Schonewille M; Dikkers A; Koehorst M; Havinga R; Kuipers F; Tietge UJ; Groen AK
[Ad] Endereço:From the Departments of Pediatrics (J.F.d.B., M.S., A.D., M.K., R.H., F.K., U.J.F.T., A.K.G.) and Laboratory Medicine (F.K., A.K.G.), University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands. j.f.de.boer@umcg.nl.
[Ti] Título:Transintestinal and Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Both Contribute to Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Rats-Brief Report.
[So] Source:Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol;37(4):643-646, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1524-4636
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Reverse cholesterol transport comprises efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and its subsequent removal from the body with the feces and thereby protects against formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Because of lack of suitable animal models that allow for evaluation of the respective contributions of biliary cholesterol secretion and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) to macrophage reverse cholesterol transport under physiological conditions, the relative importance of both pathways in this process has remained controversial. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To separate cholesterol traffic via the biliary route from TICE, bile flow was mutually diverted between rats, continuously, for 3 days. Groups of 2 weight-matched rats were designated as a pair, and both rats were equipped with cannulas in the bile duct and duodenum. Bile from rat 1 was diverted to the duodenum of rat 2, whereas bile from rat 2 was rerouted to the duodenum of rat 1. Next, rat 1 was injected with [ H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages. [ H]Cholesterol secreted via the biliary route was consequently diverted to rat 2 and could thus be quantified from the feces of that rat. On the other hand, [ H]cholesterol tracer in the feces of rat 1 reflected macrophage-derived cholesterol excreted via TICE. Using this setup, we found that 63% of the label secreted with the fecal neutral sterols had travelled via the biliary route, whereas 37% was excreted via TICE. CONCLUSIONS: TICE and biliary cholesterol secretion contribute to macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in rats. The majority of macrophage-derived cholesterol is however excreted via the hepatobiliary route.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bile/metabolismo
Colesterol/metabolismo
Duodeno/metabolismo
Secreções Intestinais/metabolismo
Macrófagos/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bile/secreção
Transporte Biológico
Duodeno/secreção
Fezes/química
Eliminação Hepatobiliar
Eliminação Intestinal
Secreções Intestinais/secreção
Masculino
Modelos Animais
Ratos Wistar
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
97C5T2UQ7J (Cholesterol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170621
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170621
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170225
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.308558


  7 / 2661 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28205234
[Au] Autor:Yadlapalli JSK; Albayati ZAF; Penthala NR; Hendrickson HP; Crooks PA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.
[Ti] Título:Stability studies of potent opioid analgesic, morphine-6-O-sulfate in various buffers and biological matrices by HPLC-DAD analysis.
[So] Source:Biomed Chromatogr;31(9), 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1099-0801
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The 6-O-sulfate ester of morphine (M6S) has previously been shown to be an analgesic with greater potency and fewer side effects than morphine. However, being a sulfate ester derivative of morphine, the question exists as to whether this compound is stable in biological fluids and tissues with regard to pH- and esterase-mediated degradation. To date, no studies have focused on the stability profile of M6S across the physiologically relevant pH range of 1.2-7.4. In addition, the stability of M6S is not known in rat plasma and rat brain homogenate, or in simulated rat gastric and intestinal fluids. This study determines the stability profile of M6S (utilized as the sodium salt) and demonstrates that M6S is highly stable and resilient to either enzymatic- or pH-dependent hydrolysis in vitro.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos Opioides/análise
Analgésicos Opioides/química
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Derivados da Morfina/análise
Derivados da Morfina/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Analgésicos Opioides/sangue
Animais
Química Encefálica
Estabilidade de Medicamentos
Suco Gástrico/química
Seres Humanos
Secreções Intestinais/química
Modelos Lineares
Masculino
Modelos Biológicos
Derivados da Morfina/sangue
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics, Opioid); 0 (Morphine Derivatives); 0 (morphine-6-O-sulfate)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/bmc.3957


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[PMID]:28176047
[Au] Autor:Greenwood-Van Meerveld B; Johnson AC; Grundy D
[Ad] Endereço:University of Oklahoma and VA Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Beverley-Greenwood@ouhsc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Gastrointestinal Physiology and Function.
[So] Source:Handb Exp Pharmacol;239:1-16, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0171-2004
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract. GI diseases refer to diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The major symptoms of common GI disorders include recurrent abdominal pain and bloating, heartburn, indigestion/dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. GI disorders rank among the most prevalent disorders, with the most common including esophageal and swallowing disorders, gastric and peptic ulcer disease, gastroparesis or delayed gastric emptying, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many GI disorders are difficult to diagnose and their symptoms are not effectively managed. Thus, basic research is required to drive the development of novel therapeutics which are urgently needed. One approach is to enhance our understanding of gut physiology and pathophysiology especially as it relates to gut-brain communications since they have clinical relevance to a number of GI complaints and represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of conditions including inflammatory diseases of the GI tract such as IBD and functional gut disorders such as IBS.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia
Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Suco Gástrico/secreção
Absorção Gastrointestinal
Gastroenteropatias/imunologia
Motilidade Gastrointestinal
Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia
Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação
Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia
Trato Gastrointestinal/secreção
Seres Humanos
Secreções Intestinais/secreção
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/164_2016_118


  9 / 2661 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28161834
[Au] Autor:Taschler U; Hasenoehrl C; Storr M; Schicho R
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
[Ti] Título:Cannabinoid Receptors in Regulating the GI Tract: Experimental Evidence and Therapeutic Relevance.
[So] Source:Handb Exp Pharmacol;239:343-362, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0171-2004
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cannabinoid receptors are fundamentally involved in all aspects of intestinal physiology, such as motility, secretion, and epithelial barrier function. They are part of a broader entity, the so-called endocannabinoid system which also includes their endocannabinoid ligands and the ligands' synthesizing/degrading enzymes. The system has a strong impact on the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and is believed to maintain homeostasis in the gut by controlling hypercontractility and by promoting regeneration after injury. For instance, genetic knockout of cannabinoid receptor 1 leads to inflammation and cancer of the intestines. Derivatives of Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol, such as nabilone and dronabinol, activate cannabinoid receptors and have been introduced into the clinic to treat chemotherapy-induced emesis and loss of appetite; however, they may cause many psychotropic side effects. New drugs that interfere with endocannabinoid degradation to raise endocannabinoid levels circumvent this obstacle and could be used in the future to treat emesis, intestinal inflammation, and functional disorders associated with visceral hyperalgesia.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Endocanabinoides/metabolismo
Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo
Transdução de Sinais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Suco Gástrico/secreção
Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia
Motilidade Gastrointestinal
Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia
Trato Gastrointestinal/secreção
Seres Humanos
Secreções Intestinais/secreção
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Endocannabinoids); 0 (Receptors, Cannabinoid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/164_2016_105


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[PMID]:28106271
[Au] Autor:Tran T; Fatouros DG; Vertzoni M; Reppas C; Müllertz A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
[Ti] Título:Mapping the intermediate digestion phases of human healthy intestinal contents from distal ileum and caecum at fasted and fed state conditions.
[So] Source:J Pharm Pharmacol;69(3):265-273, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7158
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To investigate at the ultrastructural level, the colloidal phases formed in the lumen of the distal ileum and caecum of healthy adults. METHODS: Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) was employed to image the intermediate colloidal phases of human intestinal contents collected from distal ileum and caecum of two healthy volunteers under fasted and fed state conditions. KEY FINDINGS: In samples collected both in the fasted and fed states, Cryo-TEM study revealed the presence of large spherical unilamellar and occasionally bi-lamellar and oligolamellar vesicles with diameters ranging from 50 to 200 nm for both volunteers in distal ileum and caecum. Bilayer fragments were frequently observed in caecal samples. Plate-like structures resembling the morphology of cholesterol plates were visualised in all samples. Elongated structures were observed in the fed state in distal ileum and caecum for both volunteers, whereas no micellar structures could be detected for all samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a framework for understanding the structure of colloidal phases, and it may assist in elucidating the role of dosing conditions on drug absorption from the distal ileum and caecum.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ceco/metabolismo
Ceco/ultraestrutura
Jejum/fisiologia
Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/ultraestrutura
Íleo/metabolismo
Íleo/ultraestrutura
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Colesterol/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
Secreções Intestinais/metabolismo
Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
97C5T2UQ7J (Cholesterol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170608
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170608
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jphp.12686



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