Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : A13.114 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 651 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28934330
[Au] Autor:Dalton HA; Wood BJ; Widowski TM; Guerin MT; Torrey S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:An analysis of beak shape variation in two ages of domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) using landmark-based geometric morphometrics.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0185159, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective of this study was to assess beak shape variation in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and determine the effects of age, sex, and beak size on beak shape variation using geometric morphometrics. Dorsal and right lateral images were taken of 2442 turkeys at 6 and 18.5 weeks of age. Landmarks were digitized in tpsDig in three analyses of the dorsal upper mandible, lateral upper mandible, and lateral lower mandible shape of each turkey at both ages. The coordinate data were then subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate regression, and a canonical variates analysis (CVA) with a Procrustes ANOVA in MorphoJ. For the dorsal images, three principal components (PCs) showed beak shape variation ranged from long, narrow, and pointed to short, wide, and blunt upper mandibles at both ages (6 weeks: 95.36%, 18.5 weeks: 92.21%). Three PCs showed the lateral upper mandible shape variation ranged from long, wide beaks with long, curved beak tips to short, narrow beaks with short, pointed beak tips at both ages (6 weeks: 94.91%, 18.5 weeks: 94.33%). Three PCs also explained 97.80% (6 weeks) and 97.11% (18.5 weeks) of the lateral lower mandible shape variation ranging from wide and round to narrow and thin lower mandibles with superior/inferior beak tip shifts. Beak size accounted for varying proportions of the beak shape variation (0.96-54.76%; P < 0.0001) in the three analyses of each age group. For all the analyses, the CVA showed sexual dimorphism in beak shape (P < 0.0001) with female upper mandibles appearing wider and blunter dorsally with long, curved beak tips laterally. Whereas male turkey upper mandibles had a narrow, pointed dorsal appearance and short, pointed beak tips laterally. Future applications of beak shape variability could have a genetic and welfare value by incorporating beak shape variation to select for specific turkey beak phenotypes as an alternative to beak treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bico/anatomia & histologia
Perus/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185159


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[PMID]:28760683
[Au] Autor:Rico-Guevara A; Rubega MA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Integrative Biology, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address: a.rico@berkeley.edu.
[Ti] Título:Functional morphology of hummingbird bill tips: their function as tongue wringers.
[So] Source:Zoology (Jena);123:1-10, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2720
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Nectarivores are animals that have evolved adaptations to efficiently exploit floral nectar as the main source of energy in their diet. It is well known that hummingbirds can extract nectar with impressive speed from flowers. However, despite decades of study on nectar intake rates, the mechanism by which feeding is ultimately achieved - the release of nectar from the tongue so that it can pass into the throat and be ingested - has not been elucidated. By using microCT scanning and macro high-speed videography we scrutinized the morphology and function of hummingbird bill tips, looking for answers about the nectar offloading process. We found near the bill tip, in an area of strong lateral compression of internal mandibular width, that the tomia (cutting edges of the bill) are thinner, partially inrolled, and hold forward-directed serrations. Aligned with these structures, a prominent pronglike structure projects upward and forward from the internal mandibular keel. Distal to this mandibular prong, another smaller maxillary prong protrudes downwards from the keel of the palate. Four shallow basins occur at the base of the mandibular prong on the mandibular floor. Of these, two are small basins located proximally and at the sides of the mandibular prong. A third, slightly larger basin is positioned distally to the first two and directly under the maxillary prong. And the fourth basin, the largest, is found more proximally where the bill becomes thicker, as seen from the side. We documented that this group of structures is integrated into the area of the bill where tongue extrusion occurs, and we hypothesize that they function to enhance the nectar release at each lick. We suggest that this "wringer", operated by bill and tongue movements, helps to move nectar towards the throat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bico/anatomia & histologia
Bico/fisiologia
Aves/anatomia & histologia
Aves/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Língua/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Língua/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170925
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170925
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170802
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28513558
[Au] Autor:Cheled-Shoval S; Behrens M; Korb A; Di Pizio A; Meyerhof W; Uni Z; Niv MY
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Animal Science, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food, and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Shira.cheled@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds.
[So] Source:Molecules;22(5), 2017 May 17.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors-ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1), caffeine (ggTas2r2), erythromycin and (+)-catechin (ggTas2r7), and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs) were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Galinhas/metabolismo
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
Limiar Gustativo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Aprendizagem da Esquiva
Bico
Cafeína/química
Catequina/química
Eritromicina/química
Expressão Gênica
Células HEK293
Seres Humanos
Ligantes
Nicotina/química
Quinina/química
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética
Transfecção
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ligands); 0 (Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled); 3G6A5W338E (Caffeine); 63937KV33D (Erythromycin); 6M3C89ZY6R (Nicotine); 8R1V1STN48 (Catechin); A7V27PHC7A (Quinine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170524
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170524
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170518
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28355250
[Au] Autor:Tyrrell LP; Fernández-Juricic E
[Ad] Endereço:Purdue University, Department of Biological Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Avian binocular vision: It's not just about what birds can see, it's also about what they can't.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(3):e0173235, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:With the exception of primates, most vertebrates have laterally placed eyes. Binocular vision in vertebrates has been implicated in several functions, including depth perception, contrast discrimination, etc. However, the blind area in front of the head that is proximal to the binocular visual field is often neglected. This anterior blind area is important when discussing the evolution of binocular vision because its relative length is inversely correlated with the width of the binocular field. Therefore, species with wider binocular fields also have shorter anterior blind areas and objects along the mid-sagittal plane can be imaged at closer distances. Additionally, the anterior blind area is of functional significance for birds because the beak falls within this blind area. We tested for the first time some specific predictions about the functional role of the anterior blind area in birds controlling for phylogenetic effects. We used published data on visual field configuration in 40 species of birds and measured beak and skull parameters from museum specimens. We found that birds with proportionally longer beaks have longer anterior blind areas and thus narrower binocular fields. This result suggests that the anterior blind area and beak visibility do play a role in shaping binocular fields, and that binocular field width is not solely determined by the need for stereoscopic vision. In visually guided foragers, the ability to see the beak-and how much of the beak can be seen-varies predictably with foraging habits. For example, fish- and insect-eating specialists can see more of their own beak than birds eating immobile food can. But in non-visually guided foragers, there is no consistent relationship between the beak and anterior blind area. We discuss different strategies-wide binocular fields, large eye movements, and long beaks-that minimize the potential negative effects of the anterior blind area. Overall, we argue that there is more to avian binocularity than meets the eye.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia
Aves/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Visão Binocular/fisiologia
Campos Visuais/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bico/anatomia & histologia
Bico/fisiologia
Aves/anatomia & histologia
Aves/classificação
Olho/anatomia & histologia
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia
Feminino
Masculino
Tamanho do Órgão
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170824
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170824
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170330
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0173235


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[PMID]:28254901
[Au] Autor:Grant BR; Grant PR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. rgrant@princeton.edu prgrant@princeton.edu.
[Ti] Título:Watching speciation in action.
[So] Source:Science;355(6328):910-911, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Interação Gene-Ambiente
Especiação Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Migração Animal
Animais
Bico/anatomia & histologia
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética
Olho/anatomia & histologia
Tentilhões/anatomia & histologia
Tentilhões/genética
Peixes/anatomia & histologia
Peixes/genética
Aptidão Genética
Variação Genética
Mutação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA Transposable Elements)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170304
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aam6411


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[PMID]:28150364
[Au] Autor:Weinstein BG; Graham CH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.
[Ti] Título:Persistent bill and corolla matching despite shifting temporal resources in tropical hummingbird-plant interactions.
[So] Source:Ecol Lett;20(3):326-335, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1461-0248
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:By specialising on specific resources, species evolve advantageous morphologies to increase the efficiency of nutrient acquisition. However, many specialists face variation in resource availability and composition. Whether specialists respond to these changes depends on the composition of the resource pulses, the cost of foraging on poorly matched resources, and the strength of interspecific competition. We studied hummingbird bill and plant corolla matching during seasonal variation in flower availability and morphology. Using a hierarchical Bayesian model, we accounted for the detectability and spatial overlap of hummingbird-plant interactions. We found that despite seasonal pulses of flowers with short-corollas, hummingbirds consistently foraged on well-matched flowers, leading to low niche overlap. This behaviour suggests that the costs of searching for rare and more specialised resources are lower than the benefit of switching to super-abundant resources. Our results highlight the trade-off between foraging efficiency and interspecific competition, and underline niche partitioning in maintaining tropical diversity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aves/anatomia & histologia
Comportamento Alimentar
Flores/anatomia & histologia
Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Bico/anatomia & histologia
Aves/fisiologia
Equador
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Estações do Ano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/ele.12730


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[PMID]:28146475
[Au] Autor:Cooney CR; Bright JA; Capp EJR; Chira AM; Hughes EC; Moody CJA; Nouri LO; Varley ZK; Thomas GH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
[Ti] Título:Mega-evolutionary dynamics of the adaptive radiation of birds.
[So] Source:Nature;542(7641):344-347, 2017 02 16.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The origin and expansion of biological diversity is regulated by both developmental trajectories and limits on available ecological niches. As lineages diversify, an early and often rapid phase of species and trait proliferation gives way to evolutionary slow-downs as new species pack into ever more densely occupied regions of ecological niche space. Small clades such as Darwin's finches demonstrate that natural selection is the driving force of adaptive radiations, but how microevolutionary processes scale up to shape the expansion of phenotypic diversity over much longer evolutionary timescales is unclear. Here we address this problem on a global scale by analysing a crowdsourced dataset of three-dimensional scanned bill morphology from more than 2,000 species. We find that bill diversity expanded early in extant avian evolutionary history, before transitioning to a phase dominated by packing of morphological space. However, this early phenotypic diversification is decoupled from temporal variation in evolutionary rate: rates of bill evolution vary among lineages but are comparatively stable through time. We find that rare, but major, discontinuities in phenotype emerge from rapid increases in rate along single branches, sometimes leading to depauperate clades with unusual bill morphologies. Despite these jumps between groups, the major axes of within-group bill-shape evolution are remarkably consistent across birds. We reveal that macroevolutionary processes underlying global-scale adaptive radiations support Darwinian and Simpsonian ideas of microevolution within adaptive zones and accelerated evolution between distinct adaptive peaks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bico/anatomia & histologia
Evolução Biológica
Aves/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Crowdsourcing
Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto
Feminino
Masculino
Fenótipo
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature21074


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[PMID]:27736222
[Au] Autor:Swisher SD; Phillips KL; Tobias JR; Cullen JM; Gieger TL; Grunkemeyer VL
[Ti] Título:External Beam Radiation Therapy of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Beak of an African Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh).
[So] Source:J Avian Med Surg;30(3):250-256, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1082-6742
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Squamous cell carcinoma has been reported in a variety of bird species, most commonly psittacine and gallinaceous birds. The long-term prognosis in nongallinaceous birds is generally poor if complete surgical excision is not possible. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rhinotheca was diagnosed in a 34-year-old timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus timneh) with a 2-year history of beak abnormalities. No evidence of metastasis or local invasion were found on results of radiographs or computed tomography scan. The bird was treated with surgical debulking and palliative megavoltage radiation therapy. After 4 radiation treatments, the affected tissue was necrotic and was debrided to reveal healthy granulation tissue. The bird died approximately 7 months after diagnosis and 4 months after cessation of radiation treatment. At the time of death, a small scab lesion remained at the left oral commissure, but no visible tumor regrowth was evident. A postmortem examination was not performed, however, and tumor recurrence could not be ruled out in this bird.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bico/patologia
Doenças das Aves/radioterapia
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia
Masculino
Papagaios
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170127
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170127
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161014
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27561967
[Au] Autor:Ligon RA; Butler MW
[Ad] Endereço:Arizona State University, School of Life Sciences, PO Box 874601, Tempe, AZ, 85287-4601 USA; Cornell University, Lab of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. Electronic address: russell.ligon@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Body mass and immune function, but not bill coloration, predict dominance in female mallards.
[So] Source:Behav Processes;131:59-67, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8308
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Competition over indivisible resources is common and often costly. Therefore, selection should favor strategies, including efficient communication, that minimize unnecessary costs associated with such competition. For example, signaling enables competitors to avoid engaging in costly asymmetrical contests. Recently, bill coloration has been identified as an information-rich signal used by some birds to mediate aggressive interactions and we evaluated this possibility in female mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Specifically, we conducted two rounds of competitive interactions among groups of unfamiliar adult female ducks. By recording all aggressive behaviors exhibited by each individual, as well as the identity of attack recipients, we were able to assign dominance scores and evaluate links between numerous physiological, morphological, and experimental variables that we predicted would influence contest outcome and dominance. Contrary to our predictions, dominance was not linked to any aspect of bill coloration, access to dietary carotenoids during development, two of three measures of immune function, or ovarian follicle maturation. Instead, heavier birds were more dominant, as were those with reduced immune system responses to an experimentally administered external immunostimulant, phytohemagglutinin. These results suggest that visual signals are less useful during the establishment of dominance hierarchies within multi-individual scramble competitions, and that immune function is correlated with contest strategies in competitions for access to limited resources.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agressão/fisiologia
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia
Patos/fisiologia
Imunidade/fisiologia
Predomínio Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bico
Feminino
Pigmentação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160827
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27497203
[Au] Autor:Speer B; Powers LV
[Ad] Endereço:The Medical Center for Birds, 3805 Main Street, Oakley, CA 94561, USA. Electronic address: avnvet@aol.com.
[Ti] Título:Anatomy and Disorders of the Beak and Oral Cavity of Birds.
[So] Source:Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract;19(3):707-36, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1558-4232
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cranial kinesis of the avian beak is complex; particularly in birds with prokinetic beak movement, such as psittacine birds. A number of diseases can result in damage to the bony and soft tissue structures of the beak and can lead to secondary pathology, such as beak deviation, abnormal rhamphothecal growth and wear, and opportunistic infections. A solid understanding of species-specific anatomic variations is essential before attempting rhamphothecal restoration or surgical repair. Many diseases of the oral cavity can appear similar on initial clinical evaluation and therefore warrant appropriate diagnostic testing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bico/anatomia & histologia
Doenças das Aves/patologia
Aves/anatomia & histologia
Boca/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160807
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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