Base de dados : MEDLINE
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  1 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29324899
[Au] Autor:Kisidayová S; Pristas P; Zimovcáková M; Blanár Wencelová M; Homol'ová L; Mihaliková K; Cobanová K; Gresáková L; Váradyová Z
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Animal Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice, Slovakia.
[Ti] Título:The effects of high dose of two manganese supplements (organic and inorganic) on the rumen microbial ecosystem.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191158, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Little is known about the effects of the high dose and types of manganese supplements on rumen environment at manganese intake level close above the limit of 150 mg/kg of dry feed matter. The effects of high dose of two manganese supplements (organic and inorganic) on rumen microbial ecosystem after four months of treatment of 18 lambs divided into three treatment groups were studied. We examined the enzyme activities (α-amylase, xylanase, and carboxymethyl cellulase), total and differential microscopic counts of rumen ciliates, total microscopic counts of bacteria, and fingerprinting pattern of the eubacterial and ciliates population analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Lambs were fed a basal diet with a basal Mn content (34.3 mg/kg dry matter; control) and supplemented either with inorganic manganous sulfate or organic Mn-chelate hydrate (daily 182.7, 184 mg/kg dry matter of feed, respectively). Basal diet, offered twice daily, consisted of ground barley and hay (268 and 732 g/kg dry matter per animal and day). The rumens of the lambs harbored ciliates of the genera of Entodinium, Epidinium, Diplodinium, Eudiplodinium, Dasytricha, and Isotricha. No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in the total ciliate number, the number of ciliates at the genus level, as well as the total number of bacteria. Organic Mn did decrease the species richness and diversity of the eubacterial population examined by PCR-DGGE. No effects of type of Mn supplement on the enzyme activities were observed. In comparison to the control, α-amylase specific activities were decreased and carboxymethyl-cellulase specific activities were increased by the Mn supplements. Xylanase activities were not influenced. In conclusion, our results suggested that the intake of tested inorganic and organic manganese supplements in excess may affect the specific groups of eubacteria. More studies on intake of Mn supplements at a level close to the limit can reveal if the changes in microbial population impact remarkably the other rumen enzymatic activities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecossistema
Manganês/administração & dosagem
Microbiota
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal
Animais
Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Rúmen/metabolismo
Ovinos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
42Z2K6ZL8P (Manganese)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191158


  2 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29291262
[Au] Autor:Aldai N; Delmonte P; Alves SP; Bessa RJB; Kramer JKG
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) , Paseo de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Evidence for the Initial Steps of DHA Biohydrogenation by Mixed Ruminal Microorganisms from Sheep Involves Formation of Conjugated Fatty Acids.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;66(4):842-855, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Incubation of DHA with sheep rumen fluid resulted in 80% disappearance in 6 h. The products were analyzed as their fatty acid (FA) methyl esters by GC-FID on SP-2560 and SLB-IL111 columns. The GC-online reduction × GC and GC-MS techniques demonstrated that all DHA metabolites retained the C22 structure (no evidence of chain-shortening). Two new transient DHA products were identified: mono-trans methylene interrupted-DHA and monoconjugated DHA (MC-DHA) isomers. Identification of MC-DHA was confirmed by their predicted elution using equivalent chain length differences from C18 FA, their molecular ions, and the 22:5 products formed which were the most abundant at 6 h. The 22:5 structures were established by fragmentation of their 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives, and all 22:5 products contained an isolated double bond, suggesting formation via MC-DHA. The most abundant c4,c7,c10,t14,c19-22:5 appeared to be formed by unknown isomerases. Results suggest that the initial biohydrogenation of DHA was analogous to that of C18 FA.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo
Rúmen/microbiologia
Ovinos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química
Esterificação
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
Hidrogenação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids); 25167-62-8 (Docosahexaenoic Acids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180102
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04563


  3 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29261700
[Au] Autor:Toledo MZ; Baez GM; Garcia-Guerra A; Lobos NE; Guenther JN; Trevisol E; Luchini D; Shaver RD; Wiltbank MC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Unites States of America.
[Ti] Título:Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189117, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 µM; P < 0.001) and returned to basal by 24 hours. Cows fed RPM had a small increase in milk protein percentage (3.08 vs 3.00%; P = 0.04) with no differences on milk yield and milk protein yield. Additionally, in multiparous cows, RPM feeding increased milk protein (3.03 vs 2.95%; P = 0.05) and fat (3.45 vs 3.14%; P = 0.01) percentages, although no effects were observed in primiparous cows. In multiparous cows fed RPM, pregnancy loss was lower between Days 28 to 61 (19.6 [10/51] vs. 6.1% [3/49]; P = 0.03) or between Days 32 to 61 (8.9 [4/45] vs. 0 [0/0] %; P = 0.03), although, there was no effect of treatment on pregnancy loss in primiparous cows. Consistent with data on pregnancy loss, RPM feeding increased embryonic abdominal diameter (P = 0.01) and volume (P = 0.009) and amniotic vesicle volume (P = 0.04) on Day 33 of pregnancy in multiparous cows but had no effect on embryonic size in primiparous cows. Thus, the increase in plasma Met concentrations after feeding RPM was sufficient to produce a small increase in milk protein percentage and to improve embryonic size and pregnancy maintenance in multiparous cows. Further studies are needed to confirm these responses and understand the biological mechanisms that underlie these responses as well as the timing and concentrations of circulating Met that are needed to produce this effect.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal
Indústria de Laticínios
Metionina/administração & dosagem
Rúmen/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aminoácidos/sangue
Animais
Bovinos
Feminino
Metionina/sangue
Metionina/metabolismo
Leite/metabolismo
Gravidez
Reprodução
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amino Acids); AE28F7PNPL (Methionine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189117


  4 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29179547
[Au] Autor:He Y; Qiu Q; Shao T; Niu W; Xia C; Wang H; Li Q; Gao Z; Yu Z; Su H; Cao B
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University , 100193 Beijing, China.
[Ti] Título:Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;65(50):10859-10867, 2017 Dec 20.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P < 0.05). CSFA increased the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the ruminal fluid (P < 0.05), but alfalfa increased the concentration of valerate and isovalerate (P < 0.05). CSFA increased the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and the relative population of Streptococcus bovis in the rumen (P < 0.05) and inhibited the relative population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, methanogens, and protozoa (P < 0.05). Alfalfa instead of Leymus chinensis increased the relative population of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminobacter amylophilus in the rumen (P < 0.05) and reduced the relative population of the Ruminococcus albus and Megasphaera elsdenii (P < 0.05). Supplemental CSFA increased the concentration of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the plasma (P < 0.05). And it also altered the composition of fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P < 0.05) and increasing the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P < 0.05). The results showed that alfalfa and CSFA had interaction effect on the apparent digestibility of ether extracts, plasma triglyceride concentration, isobutyrate concentration, and Ruminococcus albus relative abundance in the rumen. It was concluded that alfalfa substituting Leymus chinensis did not change the apparent digestibility of nutrients in the final stage of fattening Holstein freemartin heifers, while CSFA increased the cholesterol and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Cálcio/metabolismo
Bovinos/metabolismo
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Medicago sativa/metabolismo
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Amônia/metabolismo
Ração Animal/análise
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Animais
Bactérias/classificação
Bactérias/genética
Bactérias/metabolismo
Cálcio/análise
Bovinos/microbiologia
Ácidos Graxos/química
Feminino
Medicago sativa/química
Leite/química
Leite/metabolismo
Rúmen/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171129
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04173


  5 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28833149
[Au] Autor:He Y; Mouthier TM; Kabel MA; Dijkstra J; Hendriks WH; Struik PC; Cone JW
[Ad] Endereço:Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Lignin composition is more important than content for maize stem cell wall degradation.
[So] Source:J Sci Food Agric;98(1):384-390, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0010
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The relationship between the chemical and molecular properties - in particular the (acid detergent) lignin (ADL) content and composition expressed as the ratio between syringyl and guaiacyl compounds (S:G ratio) - of maize stems and in vitro gas production was studied in order to determine which is more important in the degradability of maize stem cell walls in the rumen of ruminants. Different internodes from two contrasting maize cultivars (Ambrosini and Aastar) were harvested during the growing season. RESULTS: The ADL content decreased with greater internode number within the stem, whereas the ADL content fluctuated during the season for both cultivars. The S:G ratio was lower in younger tissue (greater internode number or earlier harvest date) in both cultivars. For the gas produced between 3 and 20 h, representing the fermentation of cell walls in rumen fluid, a stronger correlation (R = 0.80) was found with the S:G ratio than with the ADL content (R = 0.68). The relationship between ADL content or S:G ratio and 72-h gas production, representing total organic matter degradation, was weaker than that with gas produced between 3 and 20 h. CONCLUSION: The S:G ratio plays a more dominant role than ADL content in maize stem cell wall degradation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Parede Celular/metabolismo
Lignina/química
Caules de Planta/metabolismo
Ruminantes/metabolismo
Zea mays/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Parede Celular/química
Lignina/metabolismo
Caules de Planta/química
Rúmen/metabolismo
Zea mays/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
9005-53-2 (Lignin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170824
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jsfa.8630


  6 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29185932
[Au] Autor:Granja-Salcedo YT; Duarte Messana J; Carneiro de Souza V; Lino Dias AV; Takeshi Kishi L; Rocha Rebelo L; Teresinha Berchielli T
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Animal Science,School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences,Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP),via de Acesso Professor Paulo Donato Castellane s/n,Jaboticabal,São Paulo,14884-900,Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Effects of partial replacement of maize in the diet with crude glycerin and/or soyabean oil on ruminal fermentation and microbial population in Nellore steers.
[So] Source:Br J Nutr;118(9):651-660, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2662
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of crude glycerin (CG) and soyabean oil (SO) could be used to partially replace maize in the diet of Nellore steers while maintaining optimum feed utilisation. Eight castrated Nellore steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design balanced for residual effects, in a factorial arrangement (A×B), when factor A corresponded to the provision of SO, and factor B to the provision of CG. Steers feed SO and CG showed similar DM intake, DM, organic matter and neutral-detergent fibre digestibility to that of steers fed diets without oil and without glycerine (P>0·05). Both diets with CG additions reduced the acetate:propionate ratio and increased the proportion of iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate and valerate (P<0·05). Steers fed diets containing SO had less total N excretion (P<0·001) and showed greater retained N expressed as % N intake (P=0·022). SO and CG diet generated a greater ruminal abundance of Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Ruminococcus, Syntrophococcus and Succiniclasticum. Archaea abundance (P=0·002) and total ciliate protozoa were less in steers fed diets containing SO (P=0·011). CG associated with lipids could be an energy source, which is a useful strategy for the partial replacement of maize in cattle diets, could result in reduced total N excretion and ruminal methanogens without affecting intake and digestibility.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Bovinos/fisiologia
Glicerol/administração & dosagem
Rúmen/microbiologia
Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem
Zea mays
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal/análise
Animais
Bovinos/microbiologia
Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação
Clostridiales/metabolismo
Dieta/veterinária
Digestão
Fermentação
Masculino
Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
Prevotella/metabolismo
Rúmen/metabolismo
Ruminococcus/isolamento & purificação
Ruminococcus/metabolismo
Succinivibrionaceae/isolamento & purificação
Succinivibrionaceae/metabolismo
Veillonellaceae/isolamento & purificação
Veillonellaceae/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
8001-22-7 (Soybean Oil); PDC6A3C0OX (Glycerol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171211
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171211
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0007114517002689


  7 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27771083
[Au] Autor:Pantaya D; Morgavi DP; Silberberg M; Chaucheyras-Durand F; Martin C; Suryahadi; Wiryawan KG; Boudra H
[Ad] Endereço:UMRH, INRA, Vetagro Sup, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France; Department of Animal Science, State Polytechnic Jember, Jember, Indonesia, 68121.
[Ti] Título:Bioavailability of aflatoxin B and ochratoxin A, but not fumonisin B or deoxynivalenol, is increased in starch-induced low ruminal pH in nonlactating dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;99(12):9759-9767, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:High-production dairy and beef systems require diets rich in starch. This practice may induce ruminal acidosis and also increase exposure to mycotoxins because starches in starch-rich diets are the main vehicles of mycotoxin contamination. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low ruminal pH on the bioavailability of 4 major mycotoxins [i.e., aflatoxin B (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B (FB1)]. Eight nonlactating dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a double crossover experiment. The trial was divided into 4 periods with 2 periods per crossover. Cows were divided into 2 groups receiving a low (15% dry matter basis) and high-starch diet (30.8%) with and without live yeast supplementation (1×10 cfu per cow) in the first and second crossover, respectively. At the end of each period, cows received a single dose of mycotoxin-contaminated feed containing 0.05, 0.2, 0.24, and 0.56mg of AFB1, OTA, DON, and FB1 per kg of feed, respectively. The fecal and urinary excretion of mycotoxins and their metabolites was monitored for up to 48h postdosing. As expected, ruminal pH decreased in cows fed the high-starch diet. The high-starch diet increased the bioavailability of OTA and AFB1. Urinary excretion of OTA 24h after mycotoxin administration increased 3-fold in the high-starch diet, correlated with lower fecal excretion. Similarly, a decrease in fecal excretion of AFB1 was accompanied by an increase in urinary excretion of its major metabolite, aflatoxin M , 48h after mycotoxin administration. In contrast to AFB1 and OTA, the bioavailability of DON and FB1 remained unchanged. Yeast supplementation had no effect on the excretion balance of these 2 mycotoxins. In conclusion, these results show that high-starch diets increased the bioavailability of OTA and AFB1, most probably through the lowering effect on ruminal pH. This greater bioavailability potentially increases the toxic effects of these mycotoxins.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo
Ocratoxinas/metabolismo
Amido/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aflatoxina M1/metabolismo
Animais
Disponibilidade Biológica
Bovinos
Dieta/veterinária
Feminino
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Rúmen/química
Rúmen/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ochratoxins); 1779SX6LUY (ochratoxin A); 6795-23-9 (Aflatoxin M1); 9005-25-8 (Starch); 9N2N2Y55MH (Aflatoxin B1)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171204
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171204
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27771079
[Au] Autor:de Veth MJ; Artegoitia VM; Campagna SR; Lapierre H; Harte F; Girard CL
[Ad] Endereço:BioNarus LLC, Cary, NC 27512; Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996. Electronic address: mdeveth@bionarus.com.
[Ti] Título:Choline absorption and evaluation of bioavailability markers when supplementing choline to lactating dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;99(12):9732-9744, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The metabolites of choline have a central role in many mammalian biological processes, and choline supplementation to the periparturient dairy cow improves hepatic lipid metabolism. However, variability in responses to choline supplementation has highlighted a lack of understanding of choline absorption in the lactating dairy cow. Our objective was to determine net choline absorption by measuring net portal fluxes of choline and choline metabolites in cows receiving either dietary supplements of rumen-protected choline (RPC) or abomasal delivery of choline (ADC). We also evaluated markers for choline bioavailability by examining relationships between net portal absorption of choline and choline metabolites in plasma and milk. Five late-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 5×5 Latin square design, with 5-d treatment periods and a 2-d interval between periods. Treatments were (1) control (0g/d of choline), (2) 12.5g/d of choline fed as RPC, (3) 25g/d of choline fed as RPC, (4) 12.5g/d of choline provided as ADC, and (5) 25g/d of choline provided as ADC. At the end of each 5-d period, milk was sampled and 9 blood samples were collected simultaneously from an artery and portal vein at 30-min intervals. Plasma, milk, and feed ingredient concentrations of acetylcholine, betaine, free choline, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine, and sphingomyelin were quantified by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. With an increasing dose of ADC, the net portal flux of free choline increased and regression analysis indicated 61% net absorption of the infused dose. Among the choline metabolites, only concentrations of betaine, free choline, and phosphocholine increased in both arterial plasma (3.9, 1.9, and 0.4 times, respectively) and milk (2.5, 1.4, and 1.0 times, respectively) with 25g/d of ADC relative to the control. For RPC, the net portal flux of free choline was low relative to ADC (13%), which was similar to the relative difference observed in the concentrations and yields of milk free choline and betaine (averaged 21%). When evaluating markers for choline bioavailability, betaine was the leading candidate. Betaine in plasma and milk (alone or in combination with phosphocholine) was strongly associated with net free choline portal flux (coefficient of determination ranging from 0.64 to 0.79). In summary, free choline supply to the lactating dairy cow increases only specific choline metabolites in plasma and milk, which can be potential markers for choline bioavailability.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Colina/administração & dosagem
Lactação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Disponibilidade Biológica
Bovinos
Dieta/veterinária
Suplementos Nutricionais
Feminino
Leite/química
Rúmen/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
N91BDP6H0X (Choline)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171204
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171204
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 11010 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28927478
[Au] Autor:Wang M; Wang R; Zhang X; Ungerfeld EM; Long D; Mao H; Jiao J; Beauchemin KA; Tan Z
[Ad] Endereço:1Key Laboratory for Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region,National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production,Institute of Subtropical Agriculture,The Chinese Academy of Sciences,Changsha,Hunan 410125,People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Título:Molecular hydrogen generated by elemental magnesium supplementation alters rumen fermentation and microbiota in goats.
[So] Source:Br J Nutr;118(6):401-410, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2662
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We tested the hypotheses that supplementation of a diet with elemental Mg increases ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) in rumen fluid, which in turn alters rumen fermentation and microbial community in goats. In a randomised block design, twenty growing goats were allocated to two treatments fed the same basal diet with 1·45 % Mg(OH)2 or 0·6 % elemental Mg. After 28 d of adaptation, we collected total faeces to measure total tract digestibility, rumen contents to analyse fermentation end products and microbial groups, and measured methane (CH4) emission using respiration chambers. Ruminal Mg2+ concentration was similar in both treatments. Elemental Mg supplementation increased dH2 at 2·5 h post morning feeding (+180 %, P<0·001). Elemental Mg supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration (-8·6 %, P<0·001), the acetate:propionate ratio (-11·8 %, P<0·03) and fungal copy numbers (-63·6 %, P=0·006), and increased propionate molar percentage (+11·6 %, P<0·001), methanogen copy numbers (+47·9 %, P<0·001), dissolved CH4 (+35·6 %, P<0·001) and CH4 emissions (+11·7 %, P=0·03), compared with Mg(OH)2 supplementation. The bacterial community composition in both treatments was overall similar. Ruminal dH2 was negatively correlated with acetate molar percentage and fungal copy numbers (P<0·05), and positively correlated with propionate molar percentage and methanogen copy numbers (P<0·05). In summary, elemental Mg supplementation increased ruminal dH2 concentration, which inhibited rumen fermentation, enhanced methanogenesis and seemed to shift fermentation pathways from acetate to propionate, and altered microbiota by decreasing fungi and increasing methanogens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta/veterinária
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Hidrogênio/metabolismo
Magnésio/administração & dosagem
Rúmen/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetatos/metabolismo
Ração Animal/análise
Animais
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
Suplementos Nutricionais
Digestão
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo
Fermentação
Cabras
Masculino
Metano/metabolismo
Propionatos/metabolismo
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Acetates); 0 (Fatty Acids, Volatile); 0 (Propionates); 142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide); 7YNJ3PO35Z (Hydrogen); I38ZP9992A (Magnesium); OP0UW79H66 (Methane)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170921
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0007114517002161


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[PMID]:28886130
[Au] Autor:Ramos-Morales E; de la Fuente G; Nash RJ; Braganca R; Duval S; Bouillon ME; Lahmann M; Newbold CJ
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184517, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (P<0.001). The combination of ivy and stevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (P<0.05). It was concluded that ivy saponins with stevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal effect in vivo.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antiprotozoários/farmacologia
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos
Rúmen/parasitologia
Saponinas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Estabilidade de Medicamentos
Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos
Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/química
Rúmen/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Saponins); EC 3.2.1.- (Glycoside Hydrolases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170909
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184517



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