Base de dados : MEDLINE
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  1 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29351291
[Au] Autor:He H; Zhang C; Zhao X; Fousseni F; Wang J; Dai H; Yang S; Zuo Q
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory for Forest Resources & Ecosystem Processes, Beijing Forestry University, Haidian District, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Título:Allometric biomass equations for 12 tree species in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests, Northeastern China.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0186226, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country. Biomass allocation was examined and biomass models were developed using diameter as independent variable for individual tree species and all species combined. The results showed that the largest biomass allocation of all species combined was on stems (57.1%), followed by coarse root (21.3%), branch (18.7%), and foliage (2.9%). The log-transformed model was statistically significant for all biomass components, although predicting power was higher for species-specific models than for all species combined, general biomass models, and higher for stems, roots, above-ground biomass, and total tree biomass than for branch and foliage biomass. These findings supplement the previous studies on this forest type by additional sample trees, species and locations, and support biomass research on forest carbon budget and dynamics by management activities such as thinning and harvesting in the northeastern part of China.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomassa
Florestas
Árvores/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: China
Modelos Teóricos
Estruturas Vegetais
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186226


  2 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28873583
[Au] Autor:Stefanello FS; Dos Santos CO; Bochi VC; Fruet APB; Soquetta MB; Dörr AC; Nörnberg JL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Food Science and Technology, Center of Rural Sciences, (CCR), Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Prédio 42, Sala 3211, Av. Roraima, n° 1000, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: flaviass.vet@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Analysis of polyphenols in brewer's spent grain and its comparison with corn silage and cereal brans commonly used for animal nutrition.
[So] Source:Food Chem;239:385-401, 2018 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:0308-8146
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Brewer's spent grain (BSG) could be tested as an alternative source of polyphenols in animal nutrition. Proper extraction and analytical methods are critical for quantification. Thus, extraction for BSG, corn silage, and brans of rice, corn, and wheat were studied for the highest yield of polyphenols. A method for 18 phenolic monomers by HPLC-DAD was developed, validated, and applied to samples. An aqueous solution of NaOH (0.75% w/v) using integral samples for extraction resulted in the highest values for colorimetric measurements in all analyzed sources. Method by maceration showed the highest phenolic yield when applied in corn silage and BSG. However, for brans the best method was microwave assisted. Results from HPLC-DAD analysis clearly showed that native structures of phenolic compounds were simplified to its monomers allowing quantification and sample discrimination. BSG had the highest concentration of polyphenols and could be a promising and innovative source for animal feed studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grãos Comestíveis
Zea mays
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Estruturas Vegetais
Polifenóis
Silagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Polyphenols)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170907
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28734161
[Au] Autor:Shawky E; Selim DA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Egypt. Electronic address: eman.m.shawky@alexu.edu.eg.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of the effect of extraction solvent and organ selection on the chemical profile of Astragalus spinosus using HPTLC- multivariate image analysis.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1061-1062:134-138, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted and targeted metabolomics was implemented for root and aerial organs of Astragalus spinosus in this work. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely petroleum ether, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were considered for method evaluation using chemometric techniques in conjunction with new, simple, and fast high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for fingerprint analysis by extracting information from a digitalized HPTLC plate using ImageJ software. A targeted approach was furtherly implemented by developing and validating an HPTLC method allowing the quantification of three saponin glycosides. The results of untargeted and targeted principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that the apparent saponins profile seems to depend on a combined effect of matrix composition and the properties of the selected solvent for extraction, where both the biological matrix of the investigated plant organs, as well as the extraction solvent can influence the precision of metabolite abundances. Although, the aerial part is frequently discarded as waste, it is shown hereby that it has similar chemical profile compared to the medicinal part, roots, yet a different extraction solvents pattern is recognized between the two organs which can be attributed to the differences in the composition, permeability or accessibility of the sample matrix/organ tissues, rather than the chemical structures of the detected metabolites.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Astrágalo (Planta)
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
Extratos Vegetais/química
Estruturas Vegetais/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Astrágalo (Planta)/química
Astrágalo (Planta)/metabolismo
Butanóis
Metabolômica/métodos
Cloreto de Metileno
Petróleo
Extratos Vegetais/análise
Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo
Análise de Componente Principal
Saponinas/análise
Saponinas/química
Solventes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Butanols); 0 (Petroleum); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Saponins); 0 (Solvents); 588X2YUY0A (Methylene Chloride)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170723
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28720131
[Au] Autor:Alamgeer; Uttra AM; Hasan UH
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research and Integrative Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. alam_yuchi@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Título:Anti-arthritic activity of aqueous-methanolic extract and various fractions of Berberis orthobotrys Bien ex Aitch.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):371, 2017 Jul 18.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The roots and stem bark of Berberis orthobotrys (Berberidaceae) have long been used traditionally to treat joint pain. Though, it has not been pharmacologically assessed for rheumatoid arthritis. The current study explores anti-arthritic activity and phytochemical analysis of aqueous-methanolic extract (30:70) and fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) of Berberis orthobotrys roots. METHODS: Anti-arthritic potential was evaluated in vitro using protein denaturation (bovine serum albumin and egg albumin) and membrane stabilization methods at 12.5-800 µg/ml concentration and in vivo via turpentine oil, formaldehyde and Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) models at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg doses. Also, in vitro antioxidant ability was appraised by reducing power assay. Moreover, total flavonoid content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and High performance liquid chromatography of n-butanol fraction were performed. RESULTS: The results revealed concentration dependent inhibition of albumin denaturation and notable RBC membrane stabilization, with maximum results obtained at 800 µg/ml. Similarly, plant exhibited dose dependent anti-arthritic effect in turpentine oil and formaldehyde models, with maximum activity observed at 150 mg/kg. The results of CFA model depicted better protection against arthritic lesions and body weight alterations. Also, B.orthobotrys remarkably ameliorated altered hematological parameters, rheumatoid factor and positively modified radiographic and histopathological changes. Additionally, plant exhibited remarkable anti-oxidant activity. Moreover, phytochemical analysis revealed polyphenols and flavonoids. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results support traditional use of B.orthobotrys as potent anti-arthritic agent that may be proposed for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico
Artrite Reumatoide
Berberis/química
Fitoterapia
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Albuminas/metabolismo
Animais
Antioxidantes/análise
Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia
Artrite Reumatoide/sangue
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico
Bovinos
Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Eritrócitos
Feminino
Flavonoides/análise
Flavonoides/farmacologia
Flavonoides/uso terapêutico
Formaldeído
Adjuvante de Freund
Masculino
Extratos Vegetais/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Estruturas Vegetais
Polifenóis/análise
Polifenóis/farmacologia
Desnaturação Proteica
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Fator Reumatoide/sangue
Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
Terebintina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Albumins); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Antirheumatic Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Polyphenols); 0 (Serum Albumin); 1HG84L3525 (Formaldehyde); 8006-64-2 (Turpentine); 9007-81-2 (Freund's Adjuvant); 9009-79-4 (Rheumatoid Factor)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170901
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170901
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170720
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1879-9


  5 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28714761
[Au] Autor:Vardhan PV; Shukla LI
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences , Pondicherry University , Pondicherry , India.
[Ti] Título:Gamma irradiation of medicinally important plants and the enhancement of secondary metabolite production.
[So] Source:Int J Radiat Biol;93(9):967-979, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1362-3095
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites. A comparison of yield improvement with biotic and abiotic stresses was made. RESULTS: Phenolic compounds increase with γ-irradiation in whole plants/plant parts; psoralen content in the common herb babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) was increased as high as 32-fold with γ-irradiation of seeds at 20 kGy. The capsaicinoids, a phenolic compound increased about 10% with 10 kGy in paprika (Capsicum annum L.). The in vitro studies show all the three types of secondary metabolites are reported to increase with γ-irradiation. Stevioside, total phenolic and flavonoids content were slightly increased in 15 Gy-treated callus cultures of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.). In terpenoids, total saponin and ginsenosides content were increased 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, with 100 Gy for wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) hairy root cultures. In alkaloids, camptothecin yield increased as high as 20-fold with 20 Gy in callus cultures of ghanera (Nothapodytes foetida). Shikonins increased up to 4-fold with 16 Gy in suspension cultures of purple gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon S.). The enzymes associated with secondary metabolite production were increased with γ-irradiation of 20 Gy; namely, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) for phenolics, chalcone synthase (CHS) for flavonoids, squalene synthase (SS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) for ginsenosides and PHB (p-hydroxylbenzoic acid) geranyl transferase for shikonins. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in secondary metabolites in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses is compared with ionizing radiation. A ∼5- to 20-fold increase is noted with ∼20 Gy irradiation dose. It increases the yield of secondary metabolites by enhancing the activity of certain key biosynthetic enzymes. Identification of the optimum dose is the important step in the large-scale production of secondary metabolites at industrial level.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Raios gama
Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo
Estruturas Vegetais/efeitos da radiação
Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação
Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos da radiação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
Plantas Medicinais/classificação
Dose de Radiação
Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; S
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170718
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09553002.2017.1344788


  6 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28701654
[Au] Autor:Asakawa Y; Tomiyama K; Sakurai K; Kawakami Y; Yaguchi Y
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University.
[Ti] Título:Volatile Compounds from the Different Organs of Houttuynia cordata and Litsea cubeba (L. citriodora).
[So] Source:J Oleo Sci;66(8):889-895, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1347-3352
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The volatile compounds obtained from the different organs of Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), Headspace Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS), and GC/olfactometry (GC/O). The major component of all parts of H. cordata is assigned as 4-tridecanone. Each organ produces myrcene as the major monoterpenoid. The major monoterpene in the rhizomes and roots was ß-pinene instead of myrcene. 1-Decanal which was responsible for the unpleasant odor of this plant, was the predominant polyketide in both leaves and stems. The presence of 1-decanal was very poor in flowers, stem collected in summer, rhizomes, and roots. GC/MS analyses were very simple in case of the crude extracts of flowers. The content of sesquiterpenoids was extremely poor. (8Z)-Heptadecene, geranial, and neral were detected as the major components in Litsea cubeba. Odor-contributing components by GC/O analysis of the ether extract of the fresh flowers of L. cubeba were neral and geranial which played an important role in sweet-lemon fragrance of the flowers. The role of a high content of (8Z)-heptadecene was still unknown but it might play a significant role in the dispersion of the volatile monoterpene hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The flower volatiles of the Japanese L. cubeba were chemically quite different from those of the Chinese same species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Houttuynia/química
Litsea/química
Estruturas Vegetais
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alcanos/análise
Alcenos/análise
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise
Álcoois Graxos/análise
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
Litsea/anatomia & histologia
Monoterpenos/análise
Olfatometria
Policetídeos/análise
Sesquiterpenos/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alkanes); 0 (Alkenes); 0 (Bridged Bicyclo Compounds); 0 (Fatty Alcohols); 0 (Monoterpenes); 0 (Polyketides); 0 (Sesquiterpenes); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds); 3M39CZS25B (myrcene); 4MS8VHZ1HJ (beta-pinene); 89V4LX791F (n-decyl alcohol); A3LZF0L939 (tridecane); H7C0J39XUM (heptadecane); T7EU0O9VPP (citral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170714
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5650/jos.ess17049


  7 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28558340
[Au] Autor:Pan X; Du L; Tao J; Jiang S; Qian D; Duan J
[Ad] Endereço:Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Dynamic changes of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot different organs at different growth periods by UPLC-MS/MS.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1059:21-26, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been clinically used to treat chronic kidney disease, oral ulcers, burns, and dysmenorrhea in China for many centuries. The major pharmacologically-active components of A. manihot are flavonoids. In this study, a rapid and highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS analysis method was established and successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of five major flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and myricetin) in different parts of A. manihot harvested at ten growth periods. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, good separation for five target components was obtained on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column within 18min. The total contents of the five investigated flavonoids in A. manihot roots, stems, leaves and flowers ranged from 2.86 to 123.7µg/g, 46.39 to 141.0µg/g, 929.4 to 3096µg/g, and 10,150 to 19,390µg/g, respectively, indicating that the total flavonoids in the four parts could be mainly arranged in a decreasing order as flower>leaf>stem>root. The peak of total flavonoids in flowers and leaves appeared at G8 and G9, respectively. These results will be helpful for the determination of the suitable harvest time of A. manihot and the improvement of the utility value of the disused parts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abelmoschus/química
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Flavonoides/análise
Extratos Vegetais/análise
Estruturas Vegetais/química
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abelmoschus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Flores/química
Cinética
Extratos Vegetais/química
Folhas de Planta/química
Raízes de Plantas/química
Caules de Planta/química
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170623
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170623
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170531
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28437453
[Au] Autor:Yoshioka M; Iehisa JCM; Ohno R; Kimura T; Enoki H; Nishimura S; Nasuda S; Takumi S
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Three dominant awnless genes in common wheat: Fine mapping, interaction and contribution to diversity in awn shape and length.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0176148, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci. Using recombinant inbred lines derived from two common wheat cultivars, Chinese Spring and Mironovskaya 808, both with short awns, and a high-density linkage map, we performed quantitative trait locus analysis to identify tightly linked markers. Because this linkage map was constructed with abundant array-based markers, we converted the linked markers to PCR-based markers and determined the genotypes of 189 hexaploids. A significant genotype-phenotype correlation was observed at the Hd and B1 regions. We also found that interaction among these three awning inhibitors is involved in development of a membranous outgrowth at the base of awn resembling the Hooded mutants of barley. For the hooded awn phenotype, presence of the Hd dominant allele was essential but not sufficient, so B2 and other factors appear to act epistatically to produce the ectopic tissue. On the other hand, the dominant B1 allele acted as a suppressor of the hooded phenotype. These three awning inhibitors largely contribute to the genetic variation in awn length and shape of common wheat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Genes Dominantes
Variação Genética
Genoma de Planta
Proteínas de Plantas/genética
Estruturas Vegetais/genética
Triticum/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alelos
Estudos de Associação Genética
Ligação Genética
Genótipo
Locos de Características Quantitativas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170425
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0176148


  9 / 2253 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28419900
[Au] Autor:Duncan EG; Maher WA; Foster SD; Krikowa F; O'Sullivan CA; Roper MM
[Ad] Endereço:CSIRO Agriculture, Centre for Environment and Life Sciences, Underwood Avenue, Floreat, WA 6014, Australia; Ecochemistry Laboratory, Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, University Drive, Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia. Electronic address: Elliott.Duncan@unisa.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Dimethylarsenate (DMA) exposure influences germination rates, arsenic uptake and arsenic species formation in wheat.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;181:44-54, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The contamination of cereals with arsenic (As) is a global health and agronomic concern. This study compared the physiological response, As uptake and As speciation in the grains and above ground tissues of 20 wheat cultivars exposed to 5 mg As kg soil as either arsenate (As ) or dimethylarsenate (DMA) under glasshouse conditions. Germination rates for the majority of cultivars exceeded 80% for the majority of cultivars when exposed to As , but fell significantly to 20-40% when exposed to DMA. For a number of cultivars, grain yields were 20-50% lower when plants were exposed to DMA compared to As . Grain As concentrations were between 0.6 and 1.6 µg As g grain across the twenty cultivars when exposed to As , whereas grain As concentrations were much higher (2.2-4.6 µg As g grain) when exposed to DMA. When plants were exposed to As , 100% of the As present in the grain was found as inorganic As while in plants exposed to DMA, 70-90% of As was present as DMA with the remainder found as inorganic As. DMA is believed to be incorporated by plants via silica (Si) acid channels and assessment of grain Si concentrations demonstrated that up to 40% less Si was accumulated in grains when plants were exposed to DMA. The decreased germination rates and grain yields in the presence of DMA is similar to the symptoms described for straight head disease in rice, which has been linked to DMA exposure. The results presented here indicate some analogous processes occur in wheat to those described in rice. We hypothesise that exposure to DMA may have inhibited Si-metabolism and translocation which resulted in both developmental impairment and possibly an increased susceptibility to soil pathogens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arsênico/farmacocinética
Ácido Cacodílico/farmacologia
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos
Triticum/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Arsênico/análise
Arsênico/química
Ácido Cacodílico/metabolismo
Ácido Cacodílico/farmacocinética
Grãos Comestíveis/toxicidade
Saúde Global
Herbicidas
Oryza
Estruturas Vegetais/química
Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo
Dióxido de Silício/análise
Poluentes do Solo/análise
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Herbicides); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 7631-86-9 (Silicon Dioxide); AJ2HL7EU8K (Cacodylic Acid); N712M78A8G (Arsenic)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170727
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170727
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170419
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28365757
[Au] Autor:Tomescu AM; Escapa IH; Rothwell GW; Elgorriaga A; Cúneo NR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521, USA.
[Ti] Título:Developmental programmes in the evolution of Equisetum reproductive morphology: a hierarchical modularity hypothesis.
[So] Source:Ann Bot;119(4):489-505, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8290
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Background: The origin of the Equisetum strobilus has long been debated and the fossil record has played an important role in these discussions. The paradigm underlying these debates has been the perspective of the shoot as node-internode alternation, with sporangiophores attached at nodes. However, fossils historically excluded from these discussions (e.g. Cruciaetheca and Peltotheca ) exhibit reproductive morphologies that suggest attachment of sporangiophores along internodes, challenging traditional views. This has rekindled discussions around the evolution of the Equisetum strobilus, but lack of mechanistic explanations has led discussions to a stalemate. Scope: A shift of focus from the node-internode view to a perspective emphasizing the phytomer as a modular unit of the shoot, frees the debate of homology constraints on the nature of the sporangiophore and inspires a mechanism-based hypothesis for the evolution of the strobilus. The hypothesis, drawing on data from developmental anatomy, regulatory mechanisms and the fossil record, rests on two tenets: (1) the equisetalean shoot grows by combined activity of the apical meristem, laying down the phytomer pattern, and intercalary meristems responsible for internode elongation; and (2) activation of reproductive growth programmes in the intercalary meristem produces sporangiophore whorls along internodes. Conclusions: Hierarchical expression of regulatory modules responsible for (1) transition to reproductive growth; (2) determinacy of apical growth; and (3) node-internode differentiation within phytomers, can explain reproductive morphologies illustrated by Cruciaetheca (module 1 only), Peltotheca (modules 1 and 2) and Equisetum (all three modules). This model has implications - testable by studies of the fossil record, phylogeny and development - for directionality in the evolution of reproductive morphology ( Cruciaetheca - Peltotheca - Equisetum ) and for the homology of the Equisetum stobilus. Furthermore, this model implies that sporangiophore development is independent of node-internode identity, suggesting that the sporangiophore represents the expression of an ancestral euphyllophyte developmental module that pre-dates the evolution of leaves.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Equisetum/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Evolução Biológica
Equisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia
Modelos Biológicos
Estruturas Vegetais/anatomia & histologia
Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Reprodução/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170403
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/aob/mcw273



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