Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : A18.024.249.500.624 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 561 [refinar]
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  1 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29253890
[Au] Autor:Patharkar OR; Gassmann W; Walker JC
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Biological Sciences and Interdisciplinary Plant Group, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Leaf shedding as an anti-bacterial defense in Arabidopsis cauline leaves.
[So] Source:PLoS Genet;13(12):e1007132, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7404
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Plants utilize an innate immune system to protect themselves from disease. While many molecular components of plant innate immunity resemble the innate immunity of animals, plants also have evolved a number of truly unique defense mechanisms, particularly at the physiological level. Plant's flexible developmental program allows them the unique ability to simply produce new organs as needed, affording them the ability to replace damaged organs. Here we develop a system to study pathogen-triggered leaf abscission in Arabidopsis. Cauline leaves infected with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae abscise as part of the defense mechanism. Pseudomonas syringae lacking a functional type III secretion system fail to elicit an abscission response, suggesting that the abscission response is a novel form of immunity triggered by effectors. HAESA/HAESA-like 2, INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION, and NEVERSHED are all required for pathogen-triggered abscission to occur. Additionally phytoalexin deficient 4, enhanced disease susceptibility 1, salicylic acid induction-deficient 2, and senescence-associated gene 101 plants with mutations in genes necessary for bacterial defense and salicylic acid signaling, and NahG transgenic plants with low levels of salicylic acid fail to abscise cauline leaves normally. Bacteria that physically contact abscission zones trigger a strong abscission response; however, long-distance signals are also sent from distal infected tissue to the abscission zone, alerting the abscission zone of looming danger. We propose a threshold model regulating cauline leaf defense where minor infections are handled by limiting bacterial growth, but when an infection is deemed out of control, cauline leaves are shed. Together with previous results, our findings suggest that salicylic acid may regulate both pathogen- and drought-triggered leaf abscission.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arabidopsis/fisiologia
Folhas de Planta/genética
Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Arabidopsis/genética
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética
Flores/genética
Genes de Plantas
Imunidade Inata
Inflorescência/genética
Mutação
Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
Pseudomonas syringae/genética
Pseudomonas syringae/isolamento & purificação
Ácido Salicílico
Transdução de Sinais/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Arabidopsis Proteins); EC 2.7.11.1 (Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases); O414PZ4LPZ (Salicylic Acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007132


  2 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29284056
[Au] Autor:Bento M; Pereira SG; Viegas W; Silva M
[Ad] Endereço:Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
[Ti] Título:Durum wheat diversity for heat stress tolerance during inflorescence emergence is correlated to TdHSP101C expression in early developmental stages.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0190085, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The predicted world population increase along with climate changes threatens sustainable agricultural supply in the coming decades. It is therefore vital to understand crops diversity associated to abiotic stress response. Heat stress is considered one of the major constrains on crops productivity thus it is essential to develop new approaches for a precocious and rigorous evaluation of varietal diversity regarding heat tolerance. Plant cell membrane thermostability (CMS) is a widely used method for wheat thermotolerance assessment although its limitations require complementary solutions. In this work we used CMS assay and explored TdHSP101C genes as an additional tool for durum wheat screening. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of TdHSP101C genes were performed in varieties with contrasting CMS results and further correlated with heat stress tolerance during fertilization and seed development. Although the durum wheat varieties studied presented a very high homology on TdHSP101C genes (>99%) the transcriptomic assessment allowed the discrimination between varieties with good CMS results and its correlation with differential impacts of heat treatment during inflorescence emergence and seed development on grain yield. The evidences here reported indicate that TdHSP101C transcription levels induced by heat stress in fully expanded leaves may be a promising complementary screening tool to discriminate between durum wheat varieties identified as thermotolerant through CMS.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Fisiológica
Temperatura Alta
Inflorescência
Triticum/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética
Triticum/classificação
Triticum/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Heat-Shock Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171229
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190085


  3 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29300760
[Au] Autor:Stutz S; Mráz P; Hinz HL; Müller-Schärer H; Schaffner U
[Ad] Endereço:CABI, Delémont, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Biological invasion of oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) in North America: Pre-adaptation, post-introduction evolution, or both?
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190705, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Species may become invasive after introduction to a new range because phenotypic traits pre-adapt them to spread and become dominant. In addition, adaptation to novel selection pressures in the introduced range may further increase their potential to become invasive. The diploid Leucanthemum vulgare and the tetraploid L. ircutianum are native to Eurasia and have been introduced to North America, but only L. vulgare has become invasive. To investigate whether phenotypic differences between the two species in Eurasia could explain the higher abundance of L. vulgare in North America and whether rapid evolution in the introduced range may have contributed to its invasion success, we grew 20 L. vulgare and 21 L. ircutianum populations from Eurasia and 21 L. vulgare populations from North America under standardized conditions and recorded performance and functional traits. In addition, we recorded morphological traits to investigate whether the two closely related species can be clearly distinguished by morphological means and to what extent morphological traits have changed in L. vulgare post-introduction. We found pronounced phenotypic differences between L. vulgare and L. ircutianum from the native range as well as between L. vulgare from the native and introduced ranges. The two species differed significantly in morphology but only moderately in functional or performance traits that could have explained the higher invasion success of L. vulgare in North America. In contrast, leaf morphology was similar between L. vulgare from the native and introduced range, but plants from North America flowered later, were larger and had more and larger flower heads than those from Eurasia. In summary, we found litte evidence that specific traits of L. vulgare may have pre-adapted this species to become more invasive than L. ircutianum, but our results indicate that rapid evolution in the introduced range likely contributed to the invasion success of L. vulgare.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia
Asteraceae/genética
Espécies Introduzidas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aclimatação
Asteraceae/fisiologia
Evolução Biológica
Biomassa
Europa (Continente)
Inflorescência/genética
Inflorescência/fisiologia
Modelos Lineares
Oriente Médio
América do Norte
Fenótipo
Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
Folhas de Planta/genética
Análise de Componente Principal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180105
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190705


  4 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28449656
[Au] Autor:Grant JN; Burris JN; Stewart CN; Lenaghan SC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Plant Science, University of Tennessee, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.
[Ti] Título:Improved tissue culture conditions for the emerging C model Panicum hallii.
[So] Source:BMC Biotechnol;17(1):39, 2017 04 27.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6750
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Panicum hallii Vasey (Hall's panicgrass) is a compact, perennial C grass in the family Poaceae, which has potential to enable bioenergy research for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Unlike P. hallii, switchgrass has a large genome, allopolyploidy, self-incompatibility, a long life cycle, and large stature-all suboptimal traits for rapid genetics research. Herein we improved tissue culture methodologies for two inbred P. hallii populations: FIL2 and HAL2, to enable further development of P. hallii as a model C plant. RESULTS: The optimal seed-derived callus induction medium was determined to be Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 40 mg L L-cysteine, 300 mg L L-proline, 3% sucrose, 1 g L casein hydrolysate, 3 mg L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 45 µg L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which resulted in callus induction of 51 ± 29% for FIL2 and 81 ± 19% for HAL2. The optimal inflorescence-derived callus induction was observed on MP medium (MS medium supplemented with 2 g L L-proline, 3% maltose, 5 mg L 2,4-D, and 500 µg L BAP), resulting in callus induction of 100 ± 0.0% for FIL2 and 84 ± 2.4% for HAL2. Shoot regeneration rates of 11.5 ± 0.8 shoots/gram for FIL2 and 11.3 ± 0.6 shoots/gram for HAL2 were achieved using seed-induced callus, whereas shoot regeneration rates of 26.2 ± 2.6 shoots/gram for FIL2 and 29.3 ± 3.6 shoots/gram for HAL2 were achieved from inflorescence-induced callus. Further, cell suspension cultures of P. hallii were established from seed-derived callus, providing faster generation of callus tissue compared with culture using solidified media (1.41-fold increase for FIL2 and 3.00-fold increase for HAL2). CONCLUSIONS: Aside from abbreviated tissue culture times from callus induction to plant regeneration for HAL2, we noted no apparent differences between FIL2 and HAL2 populations in tissue culture performance. For both populations, the cell suspension cultures outperformed tissue cultures on solidified media. Using the methods developed in this work, P. hallii callus was induced from seeds immediately after harvest in a shorter time and with higher frequencies than switchgrass. For clonal propagation, P. hallii callus was established from R1 inflorescences, similar to switchgrass, which further strengthens the potential of this plant as a C model for genetic studies. The rapid cycling (seed-to-seed time) and ease of culture, further demonstrate the potential utility of P. hallii as a C model plant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Meios de Cultura/química
Panicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Meios de Cultura/farmacologia
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos
Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Modelos Biológicos
Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos
Células Vegetais/fisiologia
Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Culture Media)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12896-017-0359-0


  5 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29176771
[Au] Autor:Zhang W; Gao J
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan, China.
[Ti] Título:Multiple factors contribute to reproductive isolation between two co-existing Habenaria species (Orchidaceae).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188594, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reproductive isolation is a key feature that forms barriers to gene flow between distinct plants. In orchids, prezygotic reproductive isolation has been considered to be strong, because their associations with highly specific pollinators. In this study, the reproductive ecology and reproductive isolation of two sympatric Habenaria species, H. davidii and H. fordii, was investigated by floral phenology and morphology, hand-pollination experiments and visitor observation in southwest China. The two species were dependent on insects for pollination and completely self-compatible. A number of factors have been identified to limit gene flow between the two species and achieved full reproductive isolation. Ecogeographic isolation was a weak barrier. H. fordii and H. davidii had completely overlapped flowering periods, and floral morphology plays an important role in floral isolation. The two species shared the same hawkmoth pollinator, Cechenena lineosa, but the pollinaria of the two orchids were attached on different body parts of pollinators. Prezygotic isolation was not complete, but the interspecific pollination treatments of each species resulted in no seed sets, indicating that unlike many other orchid species, in which the postzygotic reproductive isolation is very weak or complete absence, the post-zygotic isolation strongly acted in the stage of seed production between two species. The results illustrate the reproductive isolation between two species involves multiple plant life-history stages and a variety of reproductive barriers can contribute to overall isolation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Orchidaceae/fisiologia
Isolamento Reprodutivo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecossistema
Flores/anatomia & histologia
Frutas/fisiologia
Geografia
Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia
Insetos
Microscopia de Fluorescência
Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Polinização
Simpatria
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188594


  6 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28455374
[Au] Autor:Greenwood JR; Finnegan EJ; Watanabe N; Trevaskis B; Swain SM
[Ad] Endereço:CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Black Mountain Science and Innovation Park, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.
[Ti] Título:New alleles of the wheat domestication gene reveal multiple roles in growth and reproductive development.
[So] Source:Development;144(11):1959-1965, 2017 06 01.
[Is] ISSN:1477-9129
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The advantages of free threshing in wheat led to the selection of the domesticated allele, which is now present in almost all modern wheat varieties. and the pre-domestication allele, , encode an AP2 transcription factor, with the domesticated allele conferring a free-threshing character and a subcompact (i.e. partially compact) inflorescence (spike). We demonstrate that mutations in the miR172 binding site of the gene are sufficient to increase transcript levels via a reduction in miRNA-dependent degradation, consistent with the conclusion that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the miRNA binding site of relative to was essential in defining the modern allele. We describe novel gain- and loss-of-function alleles of and use these to define new roles for this gene in spike development. is required for the suppression of 'sham ramification', and increased Q expression can lead to the formation of ectopic florets and spikelets (specialized inflorescence branches that bear florets and grains), resulting in a deviation from the canonical spike and spikelet structures of domesticated wheat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alelos
Genes de Plantas
Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética
Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Triticum/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Bases
Sítios de Ligação/genética
Segregação de Cromossomos/genética
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
Inflorescência/genética
Mutação/genética
Fenótipo
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
RNA Mensageiro/genética
RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
Reprodução/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Messenger)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171126
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171126
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1242/dev.146407


  7 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29045488
[Au] Autor:Mo YQ; Li L; Li JW; Rohwer JG; Li HW; Li J
[Ad] Endereço:Plant Phylogenetics & Conservation Group, Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, P. R. China.
[Ti] Título:Alseodaphnopsis: A new genus of Lauraceae based on molecular and morphological evidence.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186545, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An investigation of a questionable species of the genus Alseodaphne led to the discovery of a new genus Alseodaphnopsis H. W. Li & J. Li, gen. nov., separated from Alseodaphne Nees, and a new species Alseodaphnopsis ximengensis H. W. Li & J. Li, sp. nov., endemic to Yunnan province, China. This new species is characterized by having big, axillary, paniculate inflorescences, as well as large, subglobose fruits. Based on DNA sequence data from two gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS and LEAFY intron II), we investigate its phylogenetic position within the Persea group. Phylogenies using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) support the recognition of Alseodaphnopsis as a distinct genus but do not resolve well its relationship within the Persea group. The new genus is circumscribed, eight new combinations for its species are made, and a description and illustration of the new species are provided.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lauraceae/anatomia & histologia
Lauraceae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Bases
Teorema de Bayes
Bases de Dados Genéticas
Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia
Íntrons/genética
Tamanho do Órgão
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171019
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186545


  8 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29045473
[Au] Autor:Cheah BH; Jadhao S; Vasudevan M; Wickneswari R; Nadarajah K
[Ad] Endereço:School of Biotechnology and Bioscience, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
[Ti] Título:Identification of functionally important microRNAs from rice inflorescence at heading stage of a qDTY4.1-QTL bearing Near Isogenic Line under drought conditions.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186382, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A cross between IR64 (high-yielding but drought-susceptible) and Aday Sel (drought-tolerant) rice cultivars yielded a stable line with enhanced grain yield under drought screening field trials at International Rice Research Institute. The major effect qDTY4.1 drought tolerance and yield QTL was detected in the IR77298-14-1-2-10 Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) and its IR87705-7-15-B Near Isogenic Line (NIL) with 93.9% genetic similarity to IR64. Although rice yield is extremely susceptible to water stress at reproductive stage, currently, there is only one report on the detection of drought-responsive microRNAs in inflorescence tissue of a Japonica rice line. In this study, more drought-responsive microRNAs were identified in the inflorescence tissues of IR64, IR77298-14-1-2-10 and IR87705-7-15-B via next-generation sequencing. Among the 32 families of inflorescence-specific non-conserved microRNAs that were identified, 22 families were up-regulated in IR87705-7-15-B. Overall 9 conserved and 34 non-conserved microRNA families were found as drought-responsive in rice inflorescence with 5 conserved and 30 non-conserved families induced in the IR87705-7-15-B. The observation of more drought-responsive non-conserved microRNAs may imply their prominence over conserved microRNAs in drought response mechanisms of rice inflorescence. Gene Ontology annotation analysis on the target genes of drought-responsive microRNAs identified in IR87705-7-15-B revealed over-representation of biological processes including development, signalling and response to stimulus. Particularly, four inflorescence-specific microRNAs viz. osa-miR5485, osa-miR5487, osa-miR5492 and osa-miR5517, and two non-inflorescence specific microRNAs viz. osa-miR169d and osa-miR169f.2 target genes that are involved in flower or embryonic development. Among them, osa-miR169d, osa-miR5492 and osa-miR5517 are related to flowering time control. It is also worth mentioning that osa-miR2118 and osa-miR2275, which are implicated in the biosynthesis of rice inflorescence-specific small interfering RNAs, were induced in IR87705-7-15-B but repressed in IR77298-14-1-2-10. Further, gene search within qDTY4.1 QTL region had identified multiple copies of NBS-LRR resistance genes (potential target of osa-miR2118), subtilisins and genes implicated in stomatal movement, ABA metabolism and cuticular wax biosynthesis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inflorescência/genética
MicroRNAs/genética
Oryza/genética
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Secas
Flores/genética
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
Genótipo
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação
Anotação de Sequência Molecular
Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Folhas de Planta/genética
Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Raízes de Plantas/genética
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Transcriptoma/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (MicroRNAs)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171019
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186382


  9 / 561 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28973036
[Au] Autor:Gnan S; Marsh T; Kover PX
[Ad] Endereço:Milner Centre for Evolution, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Inflorescence photosynthetic contribution to fitness releases Arabidopsis thaliana plants from trade-off constraints on early flowering.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185835, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Leaves are thought to be the primary carbon source for reproduction in plants, so a positive relationship between vegetative size and reproductive output is expected, establishing a trade-off between time to reproduction and reproductive output. A common response to higher temperatures due to climate changes is the induction of earlier transition into reproduction. Thus, in annual plants, earlier transition into flowering can potentially constrain plant size and reduce seed production. However, trade-offs between early reproduction and fitness are not always observed, suggesting mechanisms to escape the constraints of early flowering do exist. Here, we test whether inflorescence photosynthesis contribution to the reproductive output of Arabidopsis thaliana can offset the cost of early reproduction. We followed the development, growth rate and fitness of 15 accessions, and removed all rosette leaves at flowering (prior to the completion of inflorescence development or any fruit production) in half of the plants to determine the ability of inflorescences to maintain fitness in the absence of leaves. Although leaf removal significantly reduced fruit number, seed weight and plant height, even the most severely impacted accessions maintained 35% of their fitness with the inflorescence as the sole photosynthetic organ; and some accessions experienced no reduction in fitness. Differences between accessions in their ability to maintain fitness after leaf removal is best explained by earlier flowering time and the ability to maintain as many or more branches after leaf removal as in the control treatment. Although earlier flowering does constrain plant vegetative size, we found that inflorescence photosynthesis can significantly contribute to seed production, explaining why early flowering plants can maintain high fitness despite a reduction in vegetative size. Thus, plants can be released from the usually assumed trade-offs associated with earlier reproduction, and selection on inflorescence traits can mediate the impact of climate change on phenology.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fotossíntese/fisiologia
Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mudança Climática
Frutas
Reprodução/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171004
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185835


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[PMID]:28750276
[Au] Autor:Kite GC; Hetterscheid WLA
[Ad] Endereço:Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. Electronic address: g.kite@kew.org.
[Ti] Título:Phylogenetic trends in the evolution of inflorescence odours in Amorphophallus.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;142:126-142, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The chemical composition of inflorescence odours of 80 species of Amorphophallus (Araceae) were determined by headspace-thermal desorption GC-MS. When compared to published molecular phylogenies of the genus, the data reveal evidence both of phylogenetic constraint and plasticity of odours. Dimethyl oligosulphides were found as common constituents of Amorphophallus odours and were the most abundant components in almost half of the species studied. Odours composed mainly of dimethyl oligosulphides, and perceived as being 'gaseous', were only found among Asian species, and some of these species clustered in certain clades in molecular phylogenies; e.g. in two clades in Amorphophallus subgenus Metandrium. However, some species with gaseous odours were found to be closely related to species producing odours more reminiscent of rotting meat in which various minor components accompany the dominant dimethyl oligosulphides. These two broad types of odours have co-evolved with other inflorescence characteristics such as colour, with species with rotting meat odours having darker inflorescences. Species producing pleasant odours characterised by benzenoid compounds constitute two broad groups that are not related in published phylogenies. Species having fruity odours containing 1-phenylethanol derivatives mainly occur in a clade in subgenus Metandrium while those with anise odours composed almost solely of the 2-phenylethanol derivative 4-methoxyphenethyl alcohol are restricted to a clade in subgenus Scutandrium. Phylogenetic mapping of odours also indicates that the evolution of some odour types is likely to have been influenced by ecological factors. For example, species producing fishy odours dominated by trimethylamine and occurring in N and NE Borneo are not all closely related. Conversely, two sister species, A. mossambicensis and A. abyssinicus, which are morphologically very similar and have overlapping geographical distribution, produce odours which are very different chemically. The pressure of pollinator resource has therefore been a factor influencing the evolution of odours in Amorphophallus, driving both the divergence of odour types in some taxa and the convergence of odour types in others.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Amorphophallus/química
Amorphophallus/genética
Odorantes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Álcoois Benzílicos/análise
Álcoois Benzílicos/química
Ecologia
Evolução Molecular
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Inflorescência/química
Álcool Feniletílico/química
Filogenia
Polinização
Sulfetos/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Benzyl Alcohols); 0 (Sulfides); E6O895DQ52 (methylphenyl carbinol); ML9LGA7468 (Phenylethyl Alcohol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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