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Pesquisa : B01.050.050 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27715415
[Au] Autor:Sugawara H; Kusano T; Hayashi F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minamiosawa 1-1,Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Fine-Scale Genetic Differentiation in a Salamander Hynobius tokyoensis Living in Fragmented Urban Habitats in and Around Tokyo, Japan.
[So] Source:Zoolog Sci;33(5):476-484, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0289-0003
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Salamanders are expected to differentiate genetically among local populations due to their low dispersal ability, and are potentially susceptible to loss of genetic diversity if the population is isolated by habitat fragmentation. The salamander Hynobius tokyoensis is a lowland lentic breeder and endemic to a narrow area of central Japan. In this urban area, H. tokyoensis habitats are extensively fragmented and several populations are threatened with extinction, but information on genetic divergence and loss of genetic diversity is scarce. We performed mitochondrial (cyt b) and microsatellite (five loci) DNA analyses of 815 individuals from 46 populations in 12 regions across their entire distribution range. As a result, populations were clearly separated into northern and southern groups, and genetic differentiation among the 12 regions was also evident. Regional differentiation appears to be affected by a complex geographical history, but the genetic diversity of each population may have also been affected by recent habitat fragmentation. There were positive correlations between the mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA diversities. Some populations have lost genetic diversity in both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNAs; all such populations were at the peripheral edges of the species distribution range. Thus, even in attempts to restore genetic diversity in a small population by the transfer of outside individuals, efforts must be made to avoid genetic pollution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Variação Genética
Urodelos/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Distribuição Animal
Grupos de População Animal
Animais
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Ecossistema
Feminino
Repetições de Microssatélites
Filogenia
Tóquio
Urodelos/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161008
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26475963
[Au] Autor:Wilber MQ; Weinstein SB; Briggs CJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, United States. Electronic address: mark.wilber@lifesci.ucsb.edu.
[Ti] Título:Detecting and quantifying parasite-induced host mortality from intensity data: method comparisons and limitations.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;46(1):59-66, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Parasites can significantly impact animal populations by changing host behaviour, reproduction and survival. Detecting and quantifying these impacts is critical for understanding disease dynamics and managing wild animal populations. However, for wild hosts infected with macroparasites, it is notoriously difficult to quantify the fatal parasite load and number of animals that have died due to disease. When ethical or logistical constraints prohibit experimental determination of these values, examination of parasite intensity and distribution data may offer an alternative solution. In this study we introduce a novel method for using intensity data to detect and quantify parasite-induced mortality in wildlife populations. We use simulations to show that this method is more reliable than previously proposed methods while providing quantitative estimates of parasite-induced mortality from empirical data that are consistent with previously published qualitative estimates. However this method, and all techniques that estimate parasite-induced mortality from intensity data alone, have several important assumptions that must be scrutinised before applying those to real-world data. Given that these assumptions are met, our method is a new exploratory tool that can help inform more rigorous studies of parasite-induced host mortality.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
Modelos Estatísticos
Parasitos/patogenicidade
Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/mortalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Grupos de População Animal
Animais
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
Comportamento Animal
Distribuição Binomial
Simulação por Computador
Dose Letal Mediana
Funções Verossimilhança
Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
Reprodução
Estatística como Assunto/métodos
Taxa de Sobrevida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1611
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151018
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26040958
[Au] Autor:Perrin A; Varré JS; Blanquart S; Ouangraoua A
[Ti] Título:ProCARs: Progressive Reconstruction of Ancestral Gene Orders.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;16 Suppl 5:S6, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: In the context of ancestral gene order reconstruction from extant genomes, there exist two main computational approaches: rearrangement-based, and homology-based methods. The rearrangement-based methods consist in minimizing a total rearrangement distance on the branches of a species tree. The homology-based methods consist in the detection of a set of potential ancestral contiguity features, followed by the assembling of these features into Contiguous Ancestral Regions (CARs). RESULTS: In this paper, we present a new homology-based method that uses a progressive approach for both the detection and the assembling of ancestral contiguity features into CARs. The method is based on detecting a set of potential ancestral adjacencies iteratively using the current set of CARs at each step, and constructing CARs progressively using a 2-phase assembling method. CONCLUSION: We show the usefulness of the method through a reconstruction of the boreoeutherian ancestral gene order, and a comparison with three other homology-based methods: AnGeS, InferCARs and GapAdj. The program, written in Python, and the dataset used in this paper are available at http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/procars/.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de População Animal/genética
Biologia Computacional/métodos
Genoma/genética
Genômica/métodos
Grupos Populacionais/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Animais
Evolução Molecular
Seres Humanos
Modelos Genéticos
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1603
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150605
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-16-S5-S6


  4 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25896343
[Au] Autor:Hope A; Gubbins S; Sanders C; Denison E; Barber J; Stubbins F; Baylis M; Carpenter S
[Ad] Endereço:Vector-borne Viral Disease Programme, The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, United Kingdom. andrew.hope@lstmed.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:A comparison of commercial light-emitting diode baited suction traps for surveillance of Culicoides in northern Europe.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;8:239, 2015 Apr 22.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to artificial light sources has led to the use of light-suction traps in surveillance programmes. Recent integration of light emitting diodes (LED) in traps improves flexibility in trapping through reduced power requirements and also allows the wavelength of light used for trapping to be customized. This study investigates the responses of Culicoides to LED light-suction traps emitting different wavelengths of light to make recommendations for use in surveillance. METHODS: The abundance and diversity of Culicoides collected using commercially available traps fitted with Light Emitting Diode (LED) platforms emitting ultraviolet (UV) (390 nm wavelength), blue (430 nm), green (570 nm), yellow (590 nm), red (660 nm) or white light (425 nm - 750 nm with peaks at 450 nm and 580 nm) were compared. A Centre for Disease Control (CDC) UV light-suction trap was also included within the experimental design which was fitted with a 4 watt UV tube (320-420 nm). Generalised linear models with negative binomial error structure and log-link function were used to compare trap abundance according to LED colour, meteorological conditions and seasonality. RESULTS: The experiment was conducted over 49 nights with 42,766 Culicoides caught in 329 collections. Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle responded indiscriminately to all wavelengths of LED used with the exception of red which was significantly less attractive. In contrast, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus were found in significantly greater numbers in the green LED trap than in the UV LED trap. The LED traps collected significantly fewer Culicoides than the standard CDC UV light-suction trap. CONCLUSIONS: Catches of Culicoides were reduced in LED traps when compared to the standard CDC UV trap, however, their reduced power requirement and small size fulfils a requirement for trapping in logistically challenging areas or where many traps are deployed at a single site. Future work should combine light wavelengths to improve trapping sensitivity and potentially enable direct comparisons with collections from hosts, although this may ultimately require different forms of baits to be developed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de População Animal
Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação
Ceratopogonidae/efeitos da radiação
Entomologia/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ceratopogonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Monitoramento Epidemiológico
Europa (Continente)
Luz
Raios Ultravioleta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1601
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150422
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0846-x


  5 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25885461
[Au] Autor:Ngoagouni C; Kamgang B; Nakouné E; Paupy C; Kazanji M
[Ad] Endereço:Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Bangui, Central African Republic. ngoagounic@yahoo.fr.
[Ti] Título:Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;8:191, 2015 Mar 31.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia
Ecossistema
Insetos Vetores
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Central/epidemiologia
Grupos de População Animal
Animais
Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1601
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150418
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0808-3


  6 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25551827
[Au] Autor:Frerker K; Sabo A; Waller D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(12):e115843, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species), plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41). These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biota
Cervos/fisiologia
Ecossistema
Herbivoria/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Grupos de População Animal
Animais
Plantas
Dinâmica Populacional
Árvores/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1510
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170917
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170917
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150101
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115843


  7 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25393234
[Au] Autor:Yumnam B; Jhala YV; Qureshi Q; Maldonado JE; Gopal R; Saini S; Srinivas Y; Fleischer RC
[Ad] Endereço:Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun 248001, India.
[Ti] Título:Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e111207, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status to corridors, use smart green infrastructure to mitigate development impacts, and restore habitats where connectivity has been lost.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Migração Animal
Grupos de População Animal/genética
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Tigres/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecossistema
Fluxo Gênico
Variação Genética/genética
Genética Populacional
Índia
Modelos Teóricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1602
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:141114
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111207


  8 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24800474
[Au] Autor:Carrel F
[Ti] Título:Differences in animal and plant life. 1914.
[So] Source:Sci Prog;97(Pt 1):91-3, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:0036-8504
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de População Animal/fisiologia
Biologia/história
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
História do Século XX
Plantas
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; CLASSICAL ARTICLE; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Carrel F
[Em] Mês de entrada:1405
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170126
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170126
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140508
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24722396
[Au] Autor:Singh NJ; Leonardsson K
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(4):e94750, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS)'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana), moose (Alces alces) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents) may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS) populations as well.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Migração Animal
Grupos de População Animal
Bass
Cervos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1506
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094750


  10 / 1968 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:23894193
[Au] Autor:Hedrick PW; Allendorf FW; Baker CS
[Ad] Endereço:School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. philip.hedrick@asu.edu
[Ti] Título:Estimation of male gene flow from measures of nuclear and female genetic differentiation.
[So] Source:J Hered;104(5):713-7, 2013 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1465-7333
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An approach is provided to estimate male gene flow and the ratio of male to female gene flow, given that there are estimates of diploid, nuclear gene flow and haploid, female gene flow. This approach can be applied to estimates of differentiation (F ST ) from biparentally and maternally inherited markers, assuming the equilibrium island model and equal effective numbers of males and females. Corrections to formulas used previously for California sea lions (González-Suárez M, Flatz R, Aurioles-Gamboa D, Hedrick PW, Gerber LR. 2009. Isolation by distance among California sea lion populations in Mexico: redefining management stocks. Mol Ecol. 18:1088-1099.) and American bison (Halbert ND, Gogan PJP, Hedrick PW, Wahl L, Derr JN. 2012. Genetic population substructure in bison in Yellowstone National Park. J Hered. 103:360-370.) are given and revised values for those species are calculated. The effect of unequal male and female effective population sizes, nonequilibrium conditions, and approximations of differentiation formulas are briefly discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de População Animal/genética
Bison/genética
Fluxo Gênico/genética
Leões-Marinhos/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
California
Feminino
Deriva Genética
Marcadores Genéticos/genética
Variação Genética
Genética Populacional
Masculino
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
Modelos Genéticos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Genetic Markers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1404
[Cu] Atualização por classe:130813
[Lr] Data última revisão:
130813
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130730
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jhered/est047



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