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[PMID]:27018816
[Au] Autor:Ederli NB; Oliveira FC
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA),Campus do Marajó-Breves,Conjunto Bandeirantes,s/n, Breves,PA,Brazil,68800-000.
[Ti] Título:Morphology of the nematode Deletrocephalus dimidiatus Diesing, 1851 from the rhea, Rhea americana Linnaeus, 1758, together with a key to species of Deletrocephalinae.
[So] Source:J Helminthol;91(2):244-254, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2697
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The family Deletrocephalidae consists of three species, from two genera: Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, D. cesarpintoi and Paradeletrocephalus minor, which differ from one another in terms of the buccal capsule structure, the dorsal ray from the male copulatory bursa and the length of the vagina in the female. All these species are parasites of the gastrointestinal tract of the rhea, Rhea americana. Only D. dimidiatus was reported to be a parasite of the other rhea species, Darwin's rhea, R. pennata. Currently, there are no studies on the ultrastructure and biology of these parasites or their pathogenicity in these birds. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the ultrastructure and add more details of the morphology of D. dimidiatus from R. americana. Four adult rheas were necropsied, and the gastrointestinal tract was collected and examined for the presence of parasites. Nematodes were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All birds were parasitized by D. dimidiatus. Some morphological and morphometric characters were observed that differ from reports of other studies of this species by other authors. In addition, new details were added, well described by SEM, and a key to the species of the subfamily Deletrocephalinae is given.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Nematoides/isolamento & purificação
Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia
Masculino
Nematoides/genética
Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia
Reiformes/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170314
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170314
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160329
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0022149X1600016X


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[PMID]:28080910
[Au] Autor:Meyer AM; Phair K; West G
[Ti] Título:USE OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR INVESTIGATION OF RHINITIS AND SINUSITIS IN A GREATER RHEA (RHEA AMERICANA).
[So] Source:J Zoo Wildl Med;47(4):1069-1072, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1042-7260
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sinusitis is a common finding in avian species; however, it presents unique treatment challenges in ratites. A 6-yr-old male greater rhea ( Rhea americana ) presented acutely with right infraorbital sinus swelling and chemosis. Oral antibiotics were prescribed based on bacterial culture results with incomplete resolution of clinical signs. A computed tomography scan of the skull demonstrated a mixed-density soft tissue mass with extensive destruction of the right nasal bone, hard palate, maxilla, and frontal bone. The affected tissue was surgically resected and histopathology was consistent with inspissated necrotic tissue. Aerobic culture of the mass grew a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and was treated with amikacin. Ten months postsurgery, no further clinical signs were observed. Advanced diagnostic imaging with computed tomography and surgical therapy facilitated complete resolution of this resistant bacterial sinusitis in a species that is not typically amenable to frequent handling and restraint.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico por imagem
Reiformes
Rinite/veterinária
Sinusite/veterinária
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico por imagem
Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária
Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico
Doenças das Aves/cirurgia
Masculino
Rinite/diagnóstico por imagem
Rinite/tratamento farmacológico
Rinite/cirurgia
Sinusite/diagnóstico por imagem
Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico
Sinusite/cirurgia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1638/2015-0219.1


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[PMID]:26928950
[Au] Autor:Della Costa NS; Marin RH; Busso JM; Hansen C; Navarro JL; Martella MB
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA, CONICET-UNC) and Centro de Zoología Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Rondeau 798, (X5000AVP) Córdoba, Argentina.
[Ti] Título:Influence of the rearing system on yolk corticosterone concentration in captive Greater Rheas (Rhea americana).
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;35(3):246-50, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Many environmental conditions elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, leading to elevated hormone accumulation in the egg. We investigated whether maternal yolk corticosterone levels in Greater Rheas differ between fresh eggs collected from an intensive (IRS) and a semi-extensive (SRS) rearing system. After HPLC validation, yolk corticosterone was measured using a corticosterone (125) I radio-immunoassay kit. Results (mean ± SE) showed that eggs collected from the IRS exhibited a significantly higher corticosterone concentration than eggs from SRS (89.88 ± 8.93 vs. 45.41 ± 5.48 ng/g yolk, respectively). Our findings suggest that rearing conditions under an intensive scheme (e.g., small pens with bare ground, no direct foraging and handling) might be perceived as more stressful for Greater Rhea females than semi-extensive rearing conditions (e.g., low animal density distributed in extensive areas and direct foraging), which would result in the transfer of higher yolk corticosterone levels. A better understanding of environmental conditions and female traits that affect yolk corticosterone deposition provides a background for future studies concerning the roles of maternal corticosterone on offspring development. Zoo Biol. 35:246-250, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia
Corticosterona/metabolismo
Gema de Ovo/química
Meio Ambiente
Reiformes/fisiologia
Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas
Animais
Corticosterona/análise
Feminino
Reiformes/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
W980KJ009P (Corticosterone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160302
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21276


  4 / 84 MEDLINE  
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
[PMID]:26675913
[Au] Autor:Gallo SS; Ederli NB; Bôa-Morte MO; Oliveira FC
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratório de Sanidade Animal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Hematological, morphological and morphometric characteristics of blood cells from rhea, Rhea Americana (Struthioniformes: Rheidae): a standard for Brazilian birds.
[So] Source:Braz J Biol;75(4):953-62, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1678-4375
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Blood exams are an indispensable tool in bird medicine. This study aimed at describing values and aspects of rheas' hematology, Rhea americana, as well as analyzing the morphology and morphometry of all blood cells. Fifty eight adult rheas of both sexes from two farms, one in Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo State and the other in São Carlos, São Paulo State, were selected. Blood samples were taken and RBC count, PCV and Hb levels measured and used in hematimetric indexes calculations. The total and differentiated leukocyte counts, as well as the TPP and fibrinogen were determined. Erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes were identified and characterized morphologically. The values for the red series and hematimetric indexes were: RBC (2.81 ± 0.15 × 106/µL), PCV (44.20 ± 2.86%), Hb (12.12 ± 0.74 g/dL), MCV (15.75 ± 0.89 fL), MCH (43.18 ± 1.82 pg), MCHC (27.44 ± 0.80 g/dL); the values of white series were: WBC (12.072 ± 4116/µL), heterophils (64.10 ± 9.90%), eosinophils (2.05 ± 2.06%), monocytes (6.40 ± 2.99%), lymphocytes (26.93 ± 9.62%), basophils (0.52 ± 1.27%). One may conclude that on average, rheas' blood cells are larger than those of other birds, but these cells in smears cannot be differentiated only by their size. Besides rheas' leukocytes have different components and coloring as in other bird species, however, there are no components or staining aspects unique to the species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Plaquetas/citologia
Eritrócitos/citologia
Leucócitos/citologia
Reiformes/sangue
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Feminino
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151217
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151217
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151218
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26432389
[Au] Autor:de Almeida HM; Sousa RP; Bezerra DO; Olivindo RF; das Neves Diniz A; de Oliveira SC; Feitosa ML; de Moura Fortes EA; Ferraz MS; de Carvalho YK; de Menezes DJ; de Carvalho MA
[Ad] Endereço:Animal Science Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, PI 64049-650, Brazil; Federal University of Piauí, Department of Morphology, Teresina, PI 64049-650, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Greater rhea (Rhea americana) external morphology at different stages of embryonic and fetal development.
[So] Source:Anim Reprod Sci;162:43-51, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2232
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Knowledge of wild species embryonic development is important for their maintenance in captivity or the wild. The objective of the present study was to characterize the external morphology and define the biometry of greater rhea embryos and fetuses at different stages of development. A total of 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed to describe their external morphology using a stereoscopic microscope. The crown-rump (CR), total length (TL), cephalocaudal length (CCL), biparietal diameter (BPD), beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal lengths were measured by digital pachymeter, millimetric scale ruler and cotton thread. The weight of the embryos and fetuses was measured on digital scales. The greater rhea embryos at 5, 6 and 7 days incubation presented a "C" shape. At 9, 10 and 11 days the eyes were big and pigmented. At 11, 12 and 13 days the eyelid covered more than half the eye, resulting in an oval slit. In 14 and 15 day-old embryos, the skin was still thin and the ribs evident, but at 18 days this structure was thicker. In embryos at 21 and 27 days of development closed eyelids were observed forming an eyelid slit, and the eye ball was less pronounced at 27 days. Weight gain presented an exponential growth curve, while measurements such as TL, DBP, beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal length had linear growth over time. Thus it was possible to characterize the greater rhea embryos and fetuses at several incubation ages using their external morphology and morphometric analyses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reiformes/embriologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biometria
Embrião não Mamífero/anatomia & histologia
Desenvolvimento Embrionário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151021
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151021
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151004
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26347555
[Au] Autor:Cavagna GA; Legramandi MA
[Ad] Endereço:Section of Human Physiology, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation (DePT), University of Milan, Milan 20133, Italy giovanni.cavagna@unimi.it.
[Ti] Título:Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger animals.
[So] Source:J Exp Biol;218(Pt 20):3276-83, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1477-9145
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A long-lasting challenge in comparative physiology is to understand why the efficiency of the mechanical work done to maintain locomotion increases with body mass. It has been suggested that this is due to a more elastic step in larger animals. Here, we show in running, hopping and trotting animals, and in human running during growth, that the resonant frequency of the bouncing system decreases with increasing body mass and is, surprisingly, independent of species or gait. Step frequency roughly equals the resonant frequency in trotting and running, whereas it is about half the resonant frequency in hopping. The energy loss by elastic hysteresis during loading and unloading the bouncing system from its equilibrium position decreases with increasing body mass. Similarity to a symmetrical bounce increases with increasing body mass and, for a given body mass, seems to be maximal in hopping, intermediate in trotting and minimal in running. We conclude that: (1) tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system coincides with a lower hysteresis loss in larger, more-compliant animals; (2) the mechanism of gait per se affects similarity with a symmetrical bounce, independent of hysteresis; and (3) the greater efficiency in larger animals may be due, at least in part, to a lower hysteresis loss.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Peso Corporal
Marcha/fisiologia
Locomoção/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Animais
Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Cães
Seres Humanos
Mamíferos
Modelos Teóricos
Reiformes
Corrida/fisiologia
Turquia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150909
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1242/jeb.127142


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[PMID]:26123777
[Au] Autor:Frei S; Hatt JM; Ortmann S; Kreuzer M; Clauss M
[Ad] Endereço:Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Comparative methane emission by ratites: Differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.
[So] Source:Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol;188:70-5, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1531-4332
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (Rhea americana) are intermediate. A recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (CH4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. We hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less CH4 than ostriches. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of O2 consumed as well as CO2 and CH4 emitted from six adult rheas (body mass 23.4±8.3 kg) and two adult emus (33.5 and 32.0 kg) during 23-hour periods on a pelleted lucerne diet. In contrast to previous studies, which classified emus as non-producers, we measured CH4 emissions at 7.39 and 6.25 L/day for emus and 2.87±0.82 L/day for rheas, which is close to values expected for similar-sized non-ruminant mammals for both species. O2 consumption was of a similar magnitude as reported previously. Across ratites, CH4 yield (L/kg dry matter intake) was positively correlated with mean retention time of food particles in the gut, similar to findings within ruminant species. In ratites, this relationship leads to similar body mass-specific CH4 production for a high intake/short retention and a low intake/long retention strategy. Therefore, when investigating CH4 production in herbivorous birds, it is advisable to consider various CH4 measures, not only yield or absolute daily amount alone.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Digestão/fisiologia
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia
Metano/metabolismo
Paleógnatas/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Animais
Peso Corporal/fisiologia
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
Dieta
Dromaiidae/metabolismo
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Feminino
Masculino
Paleógnatas/classificação
Reiformes/metabolismo
Especificidade da Espécie
Struthioniformes/metabolismo
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide); OP0UW79H66 (Methane)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1605
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150701
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:25348420
[Au] Autor:Picasso MB
[Ad] Endereço:División Paleontología Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo-Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata, B1900FWA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
[Ti] Título:Ontogenetic scaling of the hindlimb muscles of the greater rhea (Rhea americana).
[So] Source:Anat Histol Embryol;44(6):452-9, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0264
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The greater rhea (Rhea americana) is the largest South American bird. It is a cursorial, flightless species with long powerful legs and reduced forelimbs. The goal of this study was to explore how hindlimb muscles scale with body mass during postnatal growth and to analyze whether the specialized locomotion of this species affects the growth of muscle masses. The mass of 19 muscles and body mass were weighed in 21 specimens ranging from 1-month-old individuals to adults. Seventeen muscles scaled with positive allometry with respect to body mass, whereas two muscles scaled isometrically. The predominance of positive allometric growth in hindlimb muscles results in a limb with massive and powerful muscles specialized to support a large body mass and to attain relatively high running speeds. Analysis of muscle mass scaling is a simple and useful way to compare possible differences between locomotor styles, and it is valuable in studies that reconstruct the paleobiology of extinct taxa.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dissecação/veterinária
Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia
Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia
Reiformes/anatomia & histologia
Corrida/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Membro Posterior/fisiologia
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
América do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:141029
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/ahe.12158


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[PMID]:25182661
[Au] Autor:Lèche A; Hansen C; Navarro JL; Marin RH; Martella MB
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA-CONICET-UNC) and Centro de Zoología Aplicada, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina.
[Ti] Título:Influence of breeding season on fecal glucocorticoid levels in captive Greater Rhea (Rhea americana).
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;34(1):71-5, 2015 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Sex hormones and stress-related changes can be seasonally influenced. We investigate whether fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels can differ between male and female captive Greater Rheas during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Over a 3-year-period, fresh fecal samples from 10 individuals (five of each sex) were collected during the breeding months (October, November, and December) and non-breeding months (April and June). A total of 960 samples were assayed using a commercial radioimmunoassay. Results showed that FGM levels (mean ± SE) were affected by the breeding season in a sex-dependent way. Male Greater Rheas showed significantly higher FGM levels in the breeding months than in the non-breeding months (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.92 ± 0.1 ng/g feces, respectively). By contrast, females did not show FGM seasonal changes throughout the same sampling periods (7.55 ± 0.14 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces). Moreover, during the breeding season months, males showed higher average FGM levels than females (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.55 ± 0.14 ng/g feces, respectively), and no differences were found between sexes during the non-breeding season (7.92 ± 0.1 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces, respectively). Our findings suggest that male Greater Rheas have a higher adrenocortical activity during the breeding season, which is probably indirectly related to the increased testosterone levels and agonist interactions that are also observed during that phase. Studies aimed to determine the appropriate sex ratio for captive rearing should be developed to minimize male agonist encounters and therefore improve welfare of the captive group.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais de Zoológico
Fezes/química
Glucocorticoides/análise
Reiformes/metabolismo
Estações do Ano
Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Radioimunoensaio/veterinária
Fatores Sexuais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucocorticoids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1509
[Cu] Atualização por classe:150203
[Lr] Data última revisão:
150203
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140904
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21162


  10 / 84 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25091030
[Au] Autor:Carvalho SF; Freneau BN; Frerneau GE
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratorio de Andrologia e Tecnologia do Sêmen Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiania, Brazil, cep 74000-970.
[Ti] Título:Aspects of the Macroscopic Testicular and Epididymal Morphology in the Greater Rhea, Rhea Americana (Linneaus - 1758) Birds.
[So] Source:Anat Histol Embryol;44(4):255-61, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0264
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The purpose of this research was to study the macroscopic testicular and epididymal morphology of the greater rhea. The testicles of 54 greater rhea bred in captivity were utilized. The samples were collected November 2005 (n = 14), December 2006 (n = 20) and May 2007 (n = 20). During commercial slaughter, the testicles and epididymides were collected and their following morphometric parameters were immediately measured: length, width, thickness, circumference, volume, weight of the parenchyma and the tunica albuginea, also aspects such as shape, cavity implantation, relationship with other organs and vascularization. The testicles presented cylindrical shape, with a thin, dense and transparent tunica albuginea, and the vascularization was accomplished by the testicular artery that ramifies from the cranial rectal artery. In the samples from December 2006 and May 2007, the media from the macroscopic measures of the right testicles were volume 58.7 and 14.7 ml, length 9.87 and 3.5 cm, width 2.4 and 0.6 cm, thickness 2.4 and 0.5 cm, circumference 8.0 and 2.3 cm, parenchyma weight 27.6 and 6.1 g and tunica albuginea weight 1.0 and 0.3 g, P < 0.05, respectively. The epididymides, the media from macroscopic measures December 2006 and May 2007 were volume 7.7 and 3.0 ml, length 5.8 and 1.3 cm, width 0.7 and 0.3 cm, thickness 0.6 and 0.3 cm, circumference 2.5 and 1.2 cm, tissue weight 6.4 and 2.8 g and capsule weight 0.4 and 0.1 g, P < 0.05, respectively. Some measures from the right testicle and epididymis were superior to measures taken from the left ones (P < 0.05), but these were not characterizing asymmetry. The morphometric parameters observed during November 2005 remained on an intermediate situation (P < 0.05); however, they were quantitatively closer to the means of December 2006, which may characterize it as a potential transition period between repose and sexual activity. Morphologically, the testicles and epididymides of greater rhea have common points with other researched birds; however, differences were observed. The testicles and epididymides of the Rhea americana are influenced by the environment, presenting reproductive activity season (November-December) during late spring, early summer and sexual repose season (May) during autumn-winter. The morphometric testicular and epididymal measurements were introduced. The morphometric parameters of testicles and epididymides exhibited differences between winter and spring-summer that could be established like sexual activity season.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Epididimo/anatomia & histologia
Reiformes/anatomia & histologia
Testículo/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Epididimo/fisiologia
Umidade
Masculino
Chuvas
Reiformes/fisiologia
Estações do Ano
Temperatura Ambiente
Testículo/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1611
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140806
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/ahe.12133



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