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[PMID]:29311457
[Au] Autor:Kenzaka T; Kataoka K; Fujimitsu T; Tani K
[Ad] Endereço:Environmental Science and Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University.
[Ti] Título:[Intestinal Microbiota in Migrating Barn Swallows around Osaka].
[So] Source:Yakugaku Zasshi;138(1):117-122, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5231
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Ab] Resumo:Migratory birds are considered as vectors of infectious diseases, owing to their potential for transmitting pathogens over large distances. The populations of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) migrate from Southeast Asia to the Japanese mainland during spring and migrate back to Southeast Asia during autumn. This migratory population is estimated to comprise approximately hundreds to thousands of individuals per year. However, to date, not much is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of the barn swallow. In this study, we characterized the fecal bacterial community in barn swallow. Using 16S rRNA gene metagenomic sequencing analysis, we examined the presence and composition of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the fecal samples, which were collected during spring season from Osaka. The number (±S.D.) of total bacteria was approximately 2.1(±3.4)×10 per gram of feces. In most samples, the bacterial community composition was dominated by families, such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Mycoplasmataceae, Enterococcaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Alcaligenaceae. However, no relationship was found between the bacterial community composition and geographical area in the fecal samples. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected at the rate of >0.1%, which included Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia/Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Mycoplasma spp., Enterococcus spp., Achromobacter spp., and Serratia spp. Our results suggested that barn swallow is instrumental in the transmission of these genera over large distances.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Migração Animal/fisiologia
Vetores de Doenças
Intestinos/microbiologia
Microbiota
Andorinhas/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alcaligenaceae/isolamento & purificação
Alcaligenaceae/patogenicidade
Animais
Ásia Sudeste
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação
Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade
Enterococcaceae/isolamento & purificação
Enterococcaceae/patogenicidade
Fezes/microbiologia
Japão
Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação
Mycoplasmataceae/patogenicidade
Pseudomonadaceae/isolamento & purificação
Pseudomonadaceae/patogenicidade
Streptococcaceae/isolamento & purificação
Streptococcaceae/patogenicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1248/yakushi.17-00148


  2 / 264 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28399289
[Au] Autor:Runjaic J; Bellovich IJ; Page CE; Brown CR; Booth W
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Integrative Biology and School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620.
[Ti] Título:No Detectable Insecticide Resistance in Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Following Long-Term Exposure to Naled (Dibrom 8).
[So] Source:J Med Entomol;54(4):994-998, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2928
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath, is a hematophagous ectoparasite of the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot, and is closely related to bed bugs (Cimex spp.). Evolution of insecticide resistance has been documented for bed bugs but not studied in Oeciacus. For periods of 17 and 32 yr, two cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska were treated during the summer breeding season using the organophosphate insecticide Dibrom. Despite continual treatments, O. vicarius has been observed frequently within these colonies. We evaluated the efficacy of Dibrom 8 on O. vicarius during the 2016 season at two treated colonies and four that had never experienced treatment. Dibrom 8 was found to be effective in 100% of trials, with immobilization within minutes and death within 72 h, for individuals from all colonies. In control treatments (water), individuals collected from treated colonies exhibited greater survival than individuals from untreated colonies, and those from active colonies (bugs fed) had greater survival than those from inactive colonies (bugs unfed). A residual effect was observed in both lab and field trials: 100% mortality occurred in the lab after exposure to filter paper substrates treated both 5 and 10 d earlier, and in the field, nests treated once early in the season had O. vicarius counts 43 d later that were <1% of those from untreated nests within the same colony. We hypothesize that the lack of resistance results from the limited potential for resistance allele fixation due to outbreeding and frequent immigration of insecticide-naïve individuals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
Cimicidae/efeitos dos fármacos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária
Resistência a Inseticidas
Inseticidas/farmacologia
Naled/farmacologia
Andorinhas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cimicidae/genética
Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia
Nebraska
Estações do Ano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insecticides); PAM1AI9KU1 (Naled)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jme/tjw230


  3 / 264 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28277952
[Au] Autor:Schmitt C; Garant D; Bélisle M; Pelletier F
[Ti] Título:Agricultural Intensification Is Linked to Constitutive Innate Immune Function in a Wild Bird Population.
[So] Source:Physiol Biochem Zool;90(2):201-209, 2017 Mar/Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1537-5293
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Immunity represents an important defense mechanism against pathogens and is intimately linked to fitness. Previous studies have found significant interindividual variation of immune responses in wild populations and have emphasized the importance of ecological factors in explaining this variability. A deterioration of environmental conditions, such as agricultural intensification, can modify resource availability and, as a result, alter immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of agricultural intensification on innate immune functions in breeding adult tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) over 6 yr. We investigated the relationship between agricultural intensification and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) against a strain of E. coli. We also assessed how the presence and the number of bacteria on the surface of eggshells changed with agricultural intensification. Contrary to our expectations, we found a positive relationship between agricultural intensification and BKA, where individuals had higher BKA in intensive compared to nonintensive farmlands. While this trend was observed through the 6-yr study, we also found a tendency for a reduction of BKA over time. We found no relationships between the presence or number of different types of eggshell bacteria and agricultural intensification or an association between BKA of females and eggshell bacteria of their clutch. Our results suggest that differences in immune function observed between intensive and nonintensive farmlands could reflect genetic differences among individuals and/or trade-offs with other traits expressed among habitats within our study system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/métodos
Imunidade Inata/fisiologia
Andorinhas/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Atividade Bactericida do Sangue
Casca de Ovo/microbiologia
Escherichia coli
Feminino
Masculino
Andorinhas/sangue
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170727
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170727
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170310
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1086/689679


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[PMID]:28137535
[Au] Autor:Vitousek MN; Jenkins BR; Hubbard JK; Kaiser SA; Safran RJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. Electronic address: mnv6@cornell.edu.
[Ti] Título:An experimental test of the effect of brood size on glucocorticoid responses, parental investment, and offspring phenotype.
[So] Source:Gen Comp Endocrinol;247:97-106, 2017 Jun 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6840
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Because elevated glucocorticoid levels can impair reproduction, populations or species that engage in particularly valuable reproductive attempts may down-regulate the glucocorticoid stress response during reproduction (the brood value hypothesis). It is not clear, however, whether individuals rapidly modulate glucocorticoid responses based on shifting cues about the likelihood of reproductive success. By manipulating brood size to create broods that differed in potential value, we tested whether female barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) rapidly modulated the glucocorticoid stress response to promote investment in high-value broods, and whether nestling phenotype was influenced by treatment. Within-individual changes in female corticosterone, body mass, and measures of oxidative stress were unrelated to brood size treatment. Standard offspring provisioning rate did not differ across treatments; however, in the presence of a model predator, females raising enlarged broods maintained higher offspring feeding rates relative to control broods. Brood size did influence nestling phenotype. Nestlings from enlarged broods had lower body mass and higher baseline corticosterone than those from reduced broods. Finally, in adult females both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone were individually repeatable. Thus, while under moderately challenging environmental conditions brood size manipulations had context-dependent effects on parental investment, and influenced nestling phenotype, maternal glucocorticoid levels were not modulated based on brood value but were individually consistent features of phenotype during breeding.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Glucocorticoides/farmacologia
Comportamento de Nidação
Andorinhas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos
Feminino
Modelos Biológicos
Fenótipo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucocorticoids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28000219
[Au] Autor:Saino N; Ambrosini R; Caprioli M; Romano A; Romano M; Rubolini D; Scandolara C; Liechti F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biosciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, I-20133, Milan, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Sex-dependent carry-over effects on timing of reproduction and fecundity of a migratory bird.
[So] Source:J Anim Ecol;86(2):239-249, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2656
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Life of many organisms flows as a sequence of annual cycles. Timing of cyclical events is shaped by natural selection also via the domino effects that any life history stage has on the stages that follow. Such 'carry-over effects' have major consequences for evolutionary, ecological and demographic processes, but the causes that generate their individual-level variation, including the effect of sex, are poorly understood. We used light-level geolocators to study carry-over effects on the year-round life cycle of the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and sex-dependent variation in their strength. Correlation analyses showed that timing of breeding influenced departure time for autumn migration in females but not in males. In addition, strong, time-mediated carry-over effects of timing of departure from the wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa for spring migration on timing of arrival to the breeding grounds in Italy and Switzerland operated in both sexes. However, carry-over effects of spring migration phenology on breeding date and seasonal fecundity were observed among females but not among males. We used partial least squares path modelling to unveil the complex carry-over effects of phenology during the non-breeding season in combination with the ecological conditions experienced by individual swallows in the wintering area, as gauged by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values (NDVI), on breeding performance. Phenology during the non-breeding season combined with NDVI during wintering accounted for as much as 65-70% of variation in subsequent seasonal fecundity in females, while such carry-over effects on breeding success of males were weaker. Intense, sex-specific carry-over effects can have impacted on evolutionary processes, including sexual selection, and affected phenological response to climate change, causing the large population decline observed in this species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Migração Animal
Fertilidade
Reprodução
Andorinhas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Itália
Masculino
Seleção Genética
Andorinhas/genética
Suíça
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1365-2656.12625


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[PMID]:27782118
[Au] Autor:Bourret A; Garant D
[Ad] Endereço:Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.
[Ti] Título:An assessment of the reliability of quantitative genetics estimates in study systems with high rate of extra-pair reproduction and low recruitment.
[So] Source:Heredity (Edinb);118(3):229-238, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2540
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Quantitative genetics approaches, and particularly animal models, are widely used to assess the genetic (co)variance of key fitness related traits and infer adaptive potential of wild populations. Despite the importance of precision and accuracy of genetic variance estimates and their potential sensitivity to various ecological and population specific factors, their reliability is rarely tested explicitly. Here, we used simulations and empirical data collected from an 11-year study on tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), a species showing a high rate of extra-pair paternity and a low recruitment rate, to assess the importance of identity errors, structure and size of the pedigree on quantitative genetic estimates in our dataset. Our simulations revealed an important lack of precision in heritability and genetic-correlation estimates for most traits, a low power to detect significant effects and important identifiability problems. We also observed a large bias in heritability estimates when using the social pedigree instead of the genetic one (deflated heritabilities) or when not accounting for an important cause of resemblance among individuals (for example, permanent environment or brood effect) in model parameterizations for some traits (inflated heritabilities). We discuss the causes underlying the low reliability observed here and why they are also likely to occur in other study systems. Altogether, our results re-emphasize the difficulties of generalizing quantitative genetic estimates reliably from one study system to another and the importance of reporting simulation analyses to evaluate these important issues.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Genéticos
Reprodução/genética
Comportamento Sexual Animal
Andorinhas/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Simulação por Computador
Feminino
Padrões de Herança
Masculino
Linhagem
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170628
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170628
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161027
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/hdy.2016.92


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[PMID]:27712846
[Au] Autor:Romano A; De Giorgio B; Parolini M; Favero C; Possenti CD; Iodice S; Caprioli M; Rubolini D; Ambrosini R; Gianfranceschi L; Saino N; Bollati V
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biosciences, University of Milan, via Celoria 26, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Methylation of the circadian Clock gene in the offspring of a free-living passerine bird increases with maternal and individual exposure to PM .
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;220(Pt A):29-37, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The consequences of exposure to particulate matter (PM) have been thoroughly investigated in humans and other model species, but there is a dearth of studies of the effects of PM on physiology and life-history traits of non-human organisms living in natural or semi-natural environments. Besides toxicological relevance, PM has been recently suggested to exert epigenetic effects by altering DNA methylation patterns. Here, we investigated for the first time the association between the exposure to free-air PM and DNA methylation at two loci ('poly-Q exon' and '5'-UTR') of the Clock gene in blood cells of the nestlings of a synanthropic passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). The Clock gene is a phylogenetically highly conserved gene playing a major role in governing circadian rhythms and circannual life cycles of animals, implying that change in its level of methylation can impact on important fitness traits. We found that methylation at both loci significantly increased with PM levels recorded few days before blood sampling, and also with PM exposure experienced by the mother during or shortly before egg laying. This study is the first where methylation at a functionally important gene has been shown to vary according to the concentration of anthropogenic pollutants in any animal species in the wild. Since early-life environmental conditions produce epigenetic effects that can transgenerationally be transmitted, DNA methylation of genes controlling photoperiodic response can have far reaching consequences for the ecology and the evolution of wild animal populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade
Relógios Circadianos/genética
Metilação de DNA
Material Particulado/toxicidade
Andorinhas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Animais
Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Exposição Materna
Material Particulado/análise
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Particulate Matter)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161008
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27539913
[Au] Autor:Custer TW; Custer CM; Dummer PM; Goldberg D; Franson JC; Erickson RA
[Ad] Endereço:Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, US Geological Survey, La Crosse, Wisconsin.
[Ti] Título:Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern.
[So] Source:Environ Toxicol Chem;36(3):735-748, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1552-8618
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Contaminant exposure of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, nesting in 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Great Lakes basin was assessed from 2010 to 2014 to assist managers and regulators in their assessments of Great Lakes AOCs. Contaminant concentrations in nestlings from AOCs were compared with those in nestlings from nearby non-AOC sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in tree swallow nestling carcasses at 30% and 33% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in nestling stomach contents and perfluorinated compound concentrations in nestling plasma at 67% and 64% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Concentrations of PCBs in nestling carcasses were elevated at some AOCs but modest compared with highly PCB-contaminated sites where reproductive effects have been documented. Concentrations of PAHs in diet were sufficiently elevated at some AOCs to elicit a measurable physiological response. Among AOCs, concentrations of the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctane sulfonate in plasma were the highest on the River Raisin (MI, USA; geometric mean 330 ng/mL) but well below an estimated toxicity reference value (1700 ng/mL). Both PAH and PCB concentrations in nestling stomach contents and PCBs in carcasses were significantly correlated with concentrations in sediment previously reported, thereby reinforcing the utility of tree swallows to assess bioavailability of sediment contamination. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:735-748. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química
Lagos/química
Andorinhas/metabolismo
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Canadá
Great Lakes Region
Reprodução
Andorinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Estados Unidos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170717
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170717
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160820
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/etc.3598


  9 / 264 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27851741
[Au] Autor:Costanzo A; Panseri S; Giorgi A; Romano A; Caprioli M; Saino N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biosciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
[Ti] Título:The Odour of Sex: Sex-Related Differences in Volatile Compound Composition among Barn Swallow Eggs Carrying Embryos of Either Sex.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(11):e0165055, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Avian communication has been traditionally believed to be mainly mediated by visual and auditory channels. However, an increasing number of studies are disclosing the role of olfaction in the interaction of birds with their social environment and with other species, as well as in other behaviors such as nest recognition, food location and navigation. Olfaction has also been suggested to play a role in parent-offspring communication not only in the post- but also in the pre-hatching period. Volatile compounds produced during embryogenesis and passively released through the eggshell pores may indeed represent the only cue at parents' disposal to assess offspring quality, including the sex composition of their clutch before hatching. In turn, sex identification before hatching may mediate adaptive strategies of allocation to either sex. In the present study, we analyzed odour composition of barn swallow eggs incubated in their nest in order to identify any sex-related differences in volatile compounds emitted. For the first time in any bird species, we also investigated whether odour composition is associated with relatedness. The evidence of differences in odour composition among eggs containing embryos of either sex indicates that parents have a cue to identify their brood sex composition even before hatching which can be used to modulate their behavior accordingly. Moreover, odour similarity within nests may represent the prerequisite for kin recognition in this species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo
Odorantes/análise
Óvulo/metabolismo
Caracteres Sexuais
Andorinhas/embriologia
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Casca de Ovo/metabolismo
Feminino
Modelos Lineares
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0165055


  10 / 264 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27542091
[Au] Autor:Ruiz-Rodríguez M; Møller AP; Mousseau TA; Soler JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Ecología Funcional y Evolutiva, Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas, CSIC, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. magda@eeza.csic.es.
[Ti] Título:Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.
[So] Source:Naturwissenschaften;103(9-10):71, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1904
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense capacity against bacterial infections during the 30 years since the Chernobyl disaster.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Biológica/efeitos da radiação
Exposição Ambiental
Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo
Plumas/microbiologia
Andorinhas/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo
Secreções Corporais/metabolismo
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl
Dinamarca
Plumas/patologia
Feminino
Queratinas/metabolismo
Masculino
Seleção Genética/efeitos da radiação
Fatores Sexuais
Ucrânia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
68238-35-7 (Keratins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170916
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170916
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160820
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00114-016-1397-5



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