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[PMID]:29247662
[Au] Autor:Ferrari ED; Nakamura AA; Nardi ARM; Santana BN; da Silva Camargo V; Nagata WB; Bresciani KDS; Meireles MV
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Araçatuba, Brazil - Clóvis Pestana St., 793 - Dona Amélia, 16050-680, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: elisd.ferrari@yahoo.com.br.
[Ti] Título:Cryptosporidium spp. in caged exotic psittacines from Brazil: Evaluation of diagnostic methods and molecular characterization.
[So] Source:Exp Parasitol;184:109-114, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2449
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and diagnostic methods for Cryptosporidium spp. in caged adult exotic parrots from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Oocysts were purified from fecal samples from 463 psittacines by centrifugal-flotation in Sheather's sugar solution. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected by malachite green negative staining and nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium species were identified by sequencing nested PCR amplicons. Samples were also tested by duplex real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III. The prevalence rates of Cryptosporidium spp. determined by microscopy and nested PCR were 3.0% (14/463) and 5.0% (23/463), respectively. The nested PCR/sequencing identified avian genotype III (1.7%; 8/463), Cryptosporidium parvum (0.9%; 4/463) and Cryptosporidium canis (0.2%; 1/463). Duplex real-time PCR was positive for gastric Cryptosporidium in 9.5% (44/463) of the samples. Among them, 1.9% (9/463) were positive for C. galli, 5.8% (27/463) were positive for avian genotype III and 1.7% (8/463) showed mixed infections with C. galli and avian genotype III. With regards to the positive detection of Cryptosporidium spp., there was no statistically significant difference between nested PCR and microscopic analysis (p = .1237), and a fair agreement existed between them (Kappa = 0.242). A statistically significant difference (p < .0001) and fair agreement (Kappa = 0.317) were obtained between nested PCR/sequencing and duplex real-time PCR for the detection of gastric Cryptosporidium. We determined that nested PCR and duplex real-time PCR are the best options for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and gastric Cryptosporidium, respectively, and that avian genotype III is the most common Cryptosporidium genotype/species in psittacines.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação
Papagaios/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Domésticos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
Brasil/epidemiologia
Clonagem Molecular
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia
Cryptosporidium/classificação
Cryptosporidium/genética
DNA de Protozoário/química
Fezes/parasitologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
Prevalência
RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171217
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28610269
[Au] Autor:Mironov SV; Ehrnsberger R; Dabert J
[Ad] Endereço:Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya embankment 1, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Russia.. sergei.mironov@zin.ru.
[Ti] Título:Feather mites of the genera Dubininia and Cacatualges (Acari: Xolalgidae) associated with parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) of the Old World.
[So] Source:Zootaxa;4272(4):451-490, 2017 May 31.
[Is] ISSN:1175-5334
[Cp] País de publicação:New Zealand
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper gives a systematic revision of feather mites of the genera Dubininia Vassilev, 1958 and Cacatualges Dabert, Badek and Skoracki, 2007 (Xolalgidae: Ingrassiinae) associated with parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) of the Old World. Five new species are described: Cacatualges probosciger sp. n. from Probosciger aterrimus (Gmelin) (Cacatuidae) from New Guinea, Dubininia charmosynae sp. n. from Charmosyna pulchella Gray GR (Psittaculidae) from New Guinea, D. micropsittae sp. n. from Micropsitta pusio pusio (Scaltter) (Psittaculidae) from New Guinea, D. nestori sp. n. from Nestor notabilis Gould (Strigopidae) from New Zealand, and D. pezopori sp. n. from Pezoporus wallicus (Kerr) (Psittaculidae) from Tasmania, Australia. Four previously described species of Dubininia are redescribed based on material from type hosts: D. curta (Trouessart, 1885) from Platycercus elegans (Gmelin) (Psittaculidae), D. lorina (Trouessart, 1885) from Lorius domicella (Linnaeus) (Psittaculidae), D. melopsittaci Atyeo and Gaud, 1987 from Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) (Psittaculidae), and D. psittacina (Trouessart, 1885) from Strigops harboptilus Gray GR (Strigopidae) from New Zealand. A new diagnosis for the genus Dubininia is provided. A key to all presently known Dubininia species is provided for the first time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ácaros
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Austrália
Doenças das Aves
Plumas
Nova Guiné
Nova Zelândia
Papagaios
Tasmânia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170809
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170809
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170615
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4272.4.1


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[PMID]:28554339
[Au] Autor:Ferreira VL; Silva MV; Bassetti BR; Pellini ACG; Raso TF
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Patologia,Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, FMVZ/USP,Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva,87. Cidade Universitária 'Armando de Salles Oliveira',São Paulo-SP 05508-270,Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Intersectoral action for health: preventing psittacosis spread after one reported case.
[So] Source:Epidemiol Infect;145(11):2263-2268, 2017 08.
[Is] ISSN:1469-4409
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Zoonotic diseases are a significant health threat for humans and animals. To better understand the epidemiology, etiology, and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals combined approaches are needed. Here we describe an epidemiological investigation conducted by physicians and veterinarians after a reported case of psittacosis. Upon admission suffering from respiratory distress syndrome in a hospital and with a history of bird contact, a female patient was serologically diagnosed with psittacosis. After the case notification, veterinarians were able to investigate the source of infection by detecting Chlamydia psittaci in her pet cockatiel. The bird was hospitalized and successfully treated. In addition, the establishment where the pet bird was purchased was traced and through molecular techniques other birds intended to be sold as pets tested positive for C. psittaci. As a result, sanitary measures were applied and the establishment then was closed down. The birds intended for the pet commerce were treated and retested with negative molecular results for C. psittaci, thus avoiding disease propagation. Reliable data about zoonotic diseases can only be generated through the application of multidisciplinary approaches which take into account the epidemiological factors and interactions of humans, animals and their environments as an integrated system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação
Papagaios
Psitacose/prevenção & controle
Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia
Brasil
Comércio
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Psitacose/diagnóstico
Psitacose/microbiologia
Adulto Jovem
Zoonoses/diagnóstico
Zoonoses/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170531
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0950268817001042


  4 / 1040 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28358615
[Au] Autor:Dogliero A; Rota A; Lofiego R; von Degerfeld MM; Quaranta G
[Ti] Título:Semen Collection and Spermatozoa Characteristics in the Kea Parrot (Nestor notabilis).
[So] Source:J Avian Med Surg;31(1):24-28, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1082-6742
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We describe the seminal characteristics of the kea parrot (Nestor notabilis), an endangered species endemic to the South Island of New Zealand. Semen was collected in the full breeding season from 6 birds in the collection of an amateur aviculturist. The manual massage technique was used. A total of 25 ejaculates was collected and evaluated for volume, degree of contamination, and spermatozoa concentration; motility and kinetic parameters were assessed on diluted samples (modified Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate, pH 8.2, temperature 37.5°C) with a computer-aided sperm analyzer. Four ejaculates were not analyzed because of an excessively high degree of contamination. Semen color ranged from transparent or turbid yellow to whitish. The geometric mean of spermatozoa number/ejaculate was 765.9 ± 2084.7 × 10 . Total and progressive motility were 71.7% ± 20.0% and 59.8% ± 22.0%, respectively. Great variability was observed both among birds and among different ejaculates of the same subject. The seminal characteristics of kea are worth further investigation, with the aim of relating semen quality to fertility and defining a minimum inseminating dose for breeding purposes. A deeper knowledge of male reproductive biology also can increase the success of breeding programs and enable the use of the kea as a model species for other more threatened species, such as the kaka ( Nestor meridionalis ) and the kakapo (Strigops habroptila).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Papagaios/fisiologia
Sêmen/fisiologia
Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária
Espermatozoides/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170622
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170622
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170331
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1647/2015-132


  5 / 1040 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28301249
[Au] Autor:Heckmann J; Enderlein D; Piepenbring AK; Herzog S; Heffels-Redmann U; Malberg S; Herden C; Lierz M
[Ad] Endereço:A Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Str. 91, 35392 Giessen, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Investigation of Different Infection Routes of Parrot Bornavirus in Cockatiels.
[So] Source:Avian Dis;61(1):90-95, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1938-4351
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to determine the natural infection route of parrot bornavirus (PaBV), the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacines. For this purpose, nine cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) were inoculated orally, and nine cockatiels were inoculated intranasally, with a PaBV-4 isolate. To compare the results of the trials, the same isolate and the same experimental design were used as in a previous study where infection was successful by intravenous as well as intracerebral inoculation. After inoculation, the birds were observed for a period of 6 mo and tested for PaBV RNA shedding, virus replication, presence of inflammatory lesions, and PaBV-4 antigen in tissues, as well as specific antibody production. In contrast to the previous study involving intravenous and intracerebral infections, clinical signs typical for PDD were not observed in this study. Additionally, anti-PaBV antibodies and infectious virus were not detected in any investigated bird during the study. Parrot bornavirus RNA was detected in only four birds early after infection (1-34 days postinfection). Furthermore, histopathologic examination did not reveal lesions typical for PDD, and PaBV antigen was not detected in any organ investigated by immunohistochemistry. In summary, oral or nasal inoculation did not lead to a valid infection with PaBV in these cockatiels. Therefore it seems to be questionable that the formerly proposed fecal-oral transmission is the natural route of infection in immunocompetent adult or subadult cockatiels.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/virologia
Bornaviridae/fisiologia
Infecções por Mononegavirales/veterinária
Papagaios/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Doenças das Aves/patologia
Bornaviridae/genética
Bornaviridae/isolamento & purificação
Infecções por Mononegavirales/patologia
Infecções por Mononegavirales/virologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170731
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170731
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170317
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1637/11490-091316-Reg


  6 / 1040 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28235000
[Au] Autor:Vall-Llosera M; Cassey P
[Ad] Endereço:School of Biological Sciences and Centre for Conservation Science and Technology (CCoST), The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Leaky doors: Private captivity as a prominent source of bird introductions in Australia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0172851, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The international pet trade is a major source of emerging invasive vertebrate species. We used online resources as a novel source of information for accidental bird escapes, and we investigated the factors that influence the frequency and distribution of bird escapes at a continental scale. We collected information on over 5,000 pet birds reported to be missing on animal websites during the last 15 years in Australia. We investigated whether variables linked to pet ownership successfully predicted bird escapes, and we assessed the potential distribution of these escapes. Most of the reported birds were parrots (> 90%), thus, we analysed factors associated with the frequency of parrot escapes. We found that bird escapes in Australia are much more frequent than previously acknowledged. Bird escapes were reported more frequently within, or around, large Australian capital cities. Socio-economic factors, such as the average personal income level of the community, and the level of human modification to the environment were the best predictors of bird escapes. Cheaper parrot species, Australian natives, and parrot species regarded as peaceful or playful were the most frequently reported escapees. Accidental introductions have been overlooked as an important source of animal incursions. Information on bird escapes is available online in many higher income countries and, in Australia, this is particularly apparent for parrot species. We believe that online resources may provide useful tools for passive surveillance for non-native pet species. Online surveillance will be particularly relevant for species that are highly reported, such as parrots, and species that are either valuable or highly commensal.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aves
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Animais de Estimação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Migração Animal
Animais
Animais Selvagens
Austrália
Cidades
Internet
Espécies Introduzidas
Papagaios
Dinâmica Populacional
Classe Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170225
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172851


  7 / 1040 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28215690
[Au] Autor:Bublat A; Fischer D; Bruslund S; Schneider H; Meinecke-Tillmann S; Wehrend A; Lierz M
[Ad] Endereço:Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Str. 91, D-35392 Giessen, Germany. Electronic address: andreas.bublat@vetmed.uni-giessen.de.
[Ti] Título:Seasonal and genera-specific variations in semen availability and semen characteristics in large parrots.
[So] Source:Theriogenology;91:82-89, 2017 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3231
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In large parrots electro-stimulation is suitable for collecting semen, and therefore, to facilitate semen examination and artificial insemination. Previous studies have detected differences in the semen collection success rate and semen parameters between psittacine genera. It remained unclear whether these differences were genera-related, seasonal variations or depend on the males' relationship status. To answer these questions, semen collection and spermatological analysis were performed for four psittacine groups (macaws, amazons, eclectus parrots and cockatoos) over 13 months. In one breeding facility, semen collection was attempted in 82 males using electro-stimulation twice monthly. A complete spermatological evaluation was performed on 435 semen samples. Volume, color, consistency, contamination and pH of semen, as well as motility, progressive motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, viability, and morphology of spermatozoa were evaluated. Seasonality affected the collection success rate in macaws and amazons. Thereby, in amazons a distinct peak was observed several days before and around oviposition, whereas eclectus parrots and cockatoos produced semen all year round. The average sperm concentration was highest in eclectus parrots (2.7 × 10 sperm/µl) and lowest in macaws (35.6 × 10 sperm/µl). The differences in the semen collection success rate and semen parameters seem to coincide with the bird's breeding biology. The collected data allows a prognostic estimation when semen collection seems favorable, and may be taken as orientation values for semen analysis in these species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Papagaios/fisiologia
Estações do Ano
Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
Recuperação Espermática/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Masculino
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28199322
[Au] Autor:Heaney M; Gray RD; Taylor AH
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
[Ti] Título:Keas Perform Similarly to Chimpanzees and Elephants when Solving Collaborative Tasks.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0169799, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cooperation between individuals is one of the defining features of our species. While other animals, such as chimpanzees, elephants, coral trout and rooks also exhibit cooperative behaviours, it is not clear if they think about cooperation in the same way as humans do. In this study we presented the kea, a parrot endemic to New Zealand, with a series of tasks designed to assess cooperative cognition. We found that keas were capable of working together, even when they had to wait for their partner for up to 65 seconds. The keas also waited for a partner only when a partner was actually needed to gain food. This is the first demonstration that any non-human animal can wait for over a minute for a cooperative partner, and the first conclusive evidence that any bird species can successful track when a cooperative partner is required, and when not. The keas did not attend to whether their partner could actually access the apparatus themselves, which may have been due to issues with task demands, but one kea did show a clear preference for working together with other individuals, rather than alone. This preference has been shown to be present in humans but absent in chimpanzees. Together these results provide the first evidence that a bird species can perform at a similar level to chimpanzees and elephants across a range of collaborative tasks. This raises the possibility that aspects of the cooperative cognition seen in the primate lineage have evolved convergently in birds.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Comportamento Cooperativo
Papagaios/fisiologia
Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Elefantes
Pan troglodytes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170809
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170809
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0169799


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[PMID]:28169184
[Au] Autor:Scagnelli AM; Tully TN
[Ad] Endereço:Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70810, USA. Electronic address: ascagnelli@lsu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Reproductive Disorders in Parrots.
[So] Source:Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract;20(2):485-507, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1558-4232
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Disease affecting the reproductive tract of the companion parrot is often impacted by physiologic and environmental stimuli. In conjunction with appropriate medical management, some birds diagnosed with reproductive disorders may be successfully treated. Once the bird is diagnosed with a disease condition affecting the reproductive tract, therapeutic measures are focused on stabilizing and supporting the patient, and surgical intervention is required only in the most severe cases. Hormonal therapy with synthetic, long-acting GnRH agonists should be considered for chronic reproductive disease conditions in which decreasing ovarian activity can help alleviate certain disease processes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças das Aves/terapia
Papagaios/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Papagaios/anatomia & histologia
Reprodução
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170602
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170602
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1040 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28063343
[Au] Autor:Das S; Fearnside K; Sarker S; Forwood JK; Raidal SR
[Ad] Endereço:School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, New South Wales 2678, Australia. Electronic address: sdas@csu.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:A novel pathogenic aviadenovirus from red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) unveils deep recombination events among avian host lineages.
[So] Source:Virology;502:188-197, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0341
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Competing roles of coevolution, selective pressure and recombination are an emerging interest in virus evolution. We report a novel aviadenovirus from captive red-bellied parrots (Poicephalus rufiventris) that uncovers evidence of deep recombination among aviadenoviruses. The sequence identity of the virus was most closely related to Turkey adenovirus D (42% similarity) and other adenoviruses in chickens, turkeys and pigeons. Sequencing and comparative analysis showed that the genome comprised 40,930 nucleotides containing 42 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) 19 of which had strong similarity with genes from other adenovirus species. The new genome unveiled a lineage that likely participated in deep recombination events across the genus Aviadenovirus accounting for an ancient evolutionary relationship. We hypothesize frequent host switch events and recombination among adenovirus progenitors in Galloanserae hosts caused the radiation of extant aviadenoviruses and the newly assembled Poicephalus adenovirus genome points to a potentially broader host range of these viruses among birds.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária
Aviadenovirus/genética
Aviadenovirus/isolamento & purificação
Doenças das Aves/virologia
Papagaios/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia
Animais
Aviadenovirus/classificação
Aviadenovirus/fisiologia
Aves/classificação
Aves/virologia
Genoma Viral
Especificidade de Hospedeiro
Fases de Leitura Aberta
Filogenia
Recombinação Genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170622
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170622
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170108
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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