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[PMID]:29204739
[Au] Autor:Kim HK; Kim HJ; Noh JY; Van Phan L; Kim JH; Song D; Na W; Kang A; Nguyen TL; Shin JH; Jeong DG; Yoon SW
[Ad] Endereço:Infectious Disease Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Título:Serological evidence of H5-subtype influenza A virus infection in indigenous avian and mammalian species in Korea.
[So] Source:Arch Virol;163(3):649-657, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1432-8798
[Cp] País de publicação:Austria
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In Korea, H5-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused huge economic losses in poultry farms through outbreaks of H5N1 since 2003, H5N8 since 2013 and H5N6 since 2016. Although it was reported that long-distance migratory birds may play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), transmission from such birds to poultry has not been confirmed. Intermediate hosts in the wild also may be a potential factor in viral transmission. Therefore, a total of 367 serum samples from wild animals were collected near major migratory bird habitats from 2011 to 2016 and tested by AIV-specific blocking ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Two mammalian and eight avian species were seropositive according to the ELISA test. Among these, two mammalian (Hydropotes inermis and Prionailurus bengalensis) and three avian (Aegypius monachus, Cygnus cygnus, and Bubo bubo) species showed high HI titres (> 1,280) against one or two H5-subtype AIVs. As H. inermis (water deer), P. bengalensis (leopard cat), and B. bubo (Eurasian eagle owl) are indigenous animals in Korea, evidence of H5-subtype AIV in these animals implies that continuous monitoring of indigenous animals should be followed to understand interspecies transmission ecology of H5-subtype influenza viruses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/isolamento & purificação
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação
Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia
Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens/virologia
Aves/virologia
Cervos/virologia
Monitoramento Epidemiológico
Felidae/virologia
Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/classificação
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/imunologia
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/classificação
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/imunologia
Influenza Aviária/sangue
Influenza Aviária/imunologia
Influenza Aviária/virologia
Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/sangue
Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia
Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia
Filogenia
República da Coreia/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00705-017-3655-z


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[PMID]:28953899
[Au] Autor:Long K; Prothero D; Madan M; Syverson VJP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Did saber-tooth kittens grow up musclebound? A study of postnatal limb bone allometry in felids from the Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0183175, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pleistocene saber-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis had many forelimb adaptations for increased strength, presumably to grapple with and subdue prey. The Rancho La Brea tar pits yield large samples of juvenile limb bones forming a growth series that allow us to examine how Smilodon kittens grew up. Almost all available juvenile limb bones were measured, and reduced major axis fits were calculated to determine the allometric growth trends. Contrary to expectations based on their robust limbs, Smilodon kittens show the typical pattern of growth found in other large felids (such as the Ice Age lion, Panthera atrox, as well as living tigers, cougars, servals, and wildcats) where the limb grows longer and more slender faster than they grow thick. This adaptation is thought to give felids greater running speed. Smilodon kittens do not grow increasingly more robust with age. Instead, they start out robust and follow the ancestral felid growth pattern, while maintaining their robustness compared to other felids. Apparently, the growth of felid forelimbs is highly canalized and their ontogeny is tightly constrained.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Extremidades/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Felidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fósseis
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Gatos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170928
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183175


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[PMID]:28880947
[Au] Autor:Alberts CC; Saranholi BH; Frei F; Galetti PM
[Ad] Endereço:LEvEtho (Laboratory of Evolution and Ethology), Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Assis, State of São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Comparing hair-morphology and molecular methods to identify fecal samples from Neotropical felids.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184073, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To avoid certain problems encountered with more-traditional and invasive methods in behavioral-ecology studies of mammalian predators, such as felids, molecular approaches have been employed to identify feces found in the field. However, this method requires a complete molecular biology laboratory, and usually also requires very fresh fecal samples to avoid DNA degradation. Both conditions are normally absent in the field. To address these difficulties, identification based on morphological characters (length, color, banding, scales and medullar patterns) of hairs found in feces could be employed as an alternative. In this study we constructed a morphological identification key for guard hairs of eight Neotropical felids (jaguar, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, ocelot, Pampas cat, puma and jaguarundi) and compared its efficiency to that of a molecular identification method, using the ATP6 region as a marker. For this molecular approach, we simulated some field conditions by postponing sample-conservation procedures. A blind test of the identification key obtained a nearly 70% overall success rate, which we considered equivalent to or better than the results of some molecular methods (probably due to DNA degradation) found in other studies. The jaguar, puma and jaguarundi could be unequivocally discriminated from any other Neotropical felid. On a scale ranging from inadequate to excellent, the key proved poor only for the margay, with only 30% of its hairs successfully identified using this key; and have intermediate success rates for the remaining species, the oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, ocelot and Pampas cat, were intermediate. Complementary information about the known distributions of felid populations may be necessary to substantially improve the results obtained with the key. Our own molecular results were even better, since all blind-tested samples were correctly identified. Part of these identifications were made from samples kept in suboptimal conditions, with some samples remaining outdoors for up to seven days, simulating conditions in the field. It appears that both methods can be used, depending on the available laboratory facilities and on the expected results.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fezes/química
Felidae/anatomia & histologia
Felidae/genética
Cabelo/anatomia & histologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
Clima Tropical
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais de Zoológico
Feminino
Marcadores Genéticos
Masculino
Pigmentação
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Genetic Markers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184073


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[PMID]:28599641
[Au] Autor:Randau M; Goswami A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. m.randau@ucl.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Morphological modularity in the vertebral column of Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora).
[So] Source:BMC Evol Biol;17(1):133, 2017 Jun 09.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that the clear morphological differences among vertebrae across the presacral column are accompanied by heterogeneous functional signals in vertebral shape. Further, several lines of evidence suggest that the mammalian axial skeleton is a highly modular structure. These include its composition of serial units, a trade-off between high shape variance and strong conservation of vertebral count, and direct association of regions with anterior expression sites of Hox genes. Here we investigate the modular organisation of the presacral vertebral column of modern cats (Felidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) with pairwise comparisons of vertebral shape covariation (i.e. integration) and evaluate our results against hypotheses of developmental and functional modularity. We used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to quantify vertebral shape and then assessed integration between pairs of vertebrae with phylogenetic two-block partial least square analysis (PLS). RESULTS: Six modules were identified in the pairwise analyses (vertebrae included are designated as 'C' for cervical, 'T' for thoracic, and 'L' for lumbar): an anterior module (C1 to T1); a transitional module situated between the last cervicals and first thoracics (C6 to T2); an anterior to middle thoracic set (T4 to T8); an anticlinal module (T10 and T11); a posterior set composed of the last two thoracics and lumbars (T12 to L7); and a module showing covariation between the cervicals and the posterior set (T12 to L7). These modules reflect shared developmental pathways, ossification timing, and observed ecological shape diversification in living species of felids. CONCLUSIONS: We show here that patterns of shape integration reflect modular organisation of the vertebral column of felids. Whereas this pattern corresponds with hypotheses of developmental and functional regionalisation in the axial skeleton, it does not simply reflect major vertebral regions. This modularity may also have permitted vertebral partitions, specifically in the posterior vertebral column, to be more responsive to selection and achieve higher morphological disparity than other vertebral regions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Felidae/anatomia & histologia
Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados
Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170611
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12862-017-0975-2


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[PMID]:28498987
[Au] Autor:Patel RP; Wutke S; Lenz D; Mukherjee S; Ramakrishnan U; Veron G; Fickel J; Wilting A; Förster DW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW), Alfred-Kowalke Str.17, 10315 Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Genetic Structure and Phylogeography of the Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) Inferred from Mitochondrial Genomes.
[So] Source:J Hered;108(4):349-360, 2017 06 01.
[Is] ISSN:1465-7333
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis is a habitat generalist that is widely distributed across Southeast Asia. Based on morphological traits, this species has been subdivided into 12 subspecies. Thus far, there have been few molecular studies investigating intraspecific variation, and those had been limited in geographic scope. For this reason, we aimed to study the genetic structure and evolutionary history of this species across its very large distribution range in Asia. We employed both PCR-based (short mtDNA fragments, 94 samples) and high throughput sequencing based methods (whole mitochondrial genomes, 52 samples) on archival, noninvasively collected and fresh samples to investigate the distribution of intraspecific genetic variation. Our comprehensive sampling coupled with the improved resolution of a mitochondrial genome analyses provided strong support for a deep split between Mainland and Sundaic Leopard cats. Although we identified multiple haplogroups within the species' distribution, we found no matrilineal evidence for the distinction of 12 subspecies. In the context of Leopard cat biogeography, we cautiously recommend a revision of the Prionailurus bengalensis subspecific taxonomy: namely, a reduction to 4 subspecies (2 mainland and 2 Sundaic forms).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Felidae/genética
Variação Genética
Genética Populacional
Genoma Mitocondrial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ásia Sudeste
Evolução Biológica
Citocromos b/genética
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Felidae/classificação
Haplótipos
Filogeografia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial); 9035-37-4 (Cytochromes b)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170513
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jhered/esx017


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[PMID]:28341928
[Au] Autor:Apanaskevich DA; Bermúdez SE
[Ad] Endereço:United States National Tick Collection, The James H. Oliver, Jr. Institute for Coastal Plain Science, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia, 30460-8056, USA. dapanaskevich@georgiasouthern.edu.
[Ti] Título:Description of a new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, parasites of agoutis and pacas (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, Cuniculidae) in Central and South America.
[So] Source:Syst Parasitol;94(4):463-475, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1573-5192
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ixodes bocatorensis n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), is described based on adults ex agoutis (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), pacas (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) and "tapir and sloth" (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae and Pilosa) from Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. Adults of I. bocatorensis n. sp. are similar to those of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958 but can be distinguished by the scutum dimensions, punctation pattern, gnathosoma and palpi measurements and their ratios, basis capituli anterior angle and shape of the spur of palpal segment I ventrally. For comparative purposes the female of I. lasallei is redescribed and the true male of this species is described for the first time. Studied adults of I. lasallei were found on agoutis, pacas and ocelot (Carnivora: Felidae) in Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cuniculidae/parasitologia
Ixodes/anatomia & histologia
Ixodes/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
América Central
Felidae/parasitologia
Feminino
Especificidade de Hospedeiro
Masculino
Perissodáctilos/parasitologia
América do Sul
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170326
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11230-017-9718-4


  7 / 407 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28302120
[Au] Autor:Bol S; Caspers J; Buckingham L; Anderson-Shelton GD; Ridgway C; Buffington CA; Schulz S; Bunnik EM
[Ad] Endereço:Cowboy Cat Ranch, Mico, TX, 78056, USA. bol@cowboycatranch.org.
[Ti] Título:Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria).
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;13(1):70, 2017 Mar 16.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. METHODS: We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. RESULTS: Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried fruit galls and catnip were most popular among domestic cats. Silver vine and Tatarian honeysuckle appear to be good alternatives to catnip for domestic cats that do not respond to catnip.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Actinidia
Felidae/fisiologia
Lonicera
Nepeta
Valeriana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinidia/química
Fatores Etários
Animais
Comportamento Animal
Gatos
Ciclopentanos
Feminino
Lonicera/química
Lynx/fisiologia
Masculino
Nepeta/química
Feromônios
Pironas
Olfato
Tigres
Valeriana/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Pheromones); 0 (Pyrones); 21651-62-7 (nepetalactone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170831
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170831
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170318
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-017-0987-6


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[PMID]:28211157
[Au] Autor:Randau M; Goswami A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Darwin Building 218A, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
[Ti] Título:Unravelling intravertebral integration, modularity and disparity in Felidae (Mammalia).
[So] Source:Evol Dev;19(2):85-95, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1525-142X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Morphological integration and modularity, which describe the relationships among morphological attributes and reflect genetic, developmental, and functional interactions, have been hypothesized to be major influences on trait responses to selection and thus morphological evolution. The mammalian presacral vertebral column shows little variation in vertebral count and therefore specialization for function occurs primarily through modification of vertebral shape. However, vertebral shape has been suggested to be under strong control from developmental canalization, although this has never been explicitly tested. Here, we assess hypotheses of developmental modules in the vertebrae of felids to determine whether developmental interactions are a primary influence on vertebral modularity. Additionally, we analyze the magnitudes of both intravertebral integration and disparity to evaluate if level of integration varies along the vertebral column and, if so, whether integration and disparity are associated. Our results confirm the hypothesis of vertebral developmental modularity, with most presacral vertebrae displaying two modules. Exceptions are concentrated in the boundaries among traditional and functional regions, suggesting that intravertebral modularity may reflect larger-scale modularity of the felid vertebral column. We further demonstrate that overall integration and disparity are highest in posterior vertebrae, thus providing an empirical example of integration potentially promoting greater morphological responses to selection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Felidae/anatomia & histologia
Felidae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Felidae/classificação
Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia
Filogenia
Seleção Genética
Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170706
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170706
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170218
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/ede.12218


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[PMID]:28197762
[Au] Autor:Traversa D; Veronesi F; Diakou A; Iorio R; Simonato G; Marcer F; Di Cesare A
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Località Piano D'Accio, snc, Teramo, Italy. dtraversa@unite.it.
[Ti] Título:Mitochondrial haplotypes of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) from domestic and wild felids.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;116(4):1227-1235, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is the most important respiratory parasite of domestic cats. Pulmonary aelurostrongylosis has been reported in wild felids, though unequivocally evidence of wildlife infection by A. abstrusus is scant. Recently, Troglostrongylus brevior, a lungworm usually infecting wild felids, has been described in domestic cats from Mediterranean areas. The present work evaluates the sequence variation of an informative region within the gene encoding the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, in order to provide novel information on the genetic make-up of these lungworms. Parasitic stages of A. abstrusus and T. brevior were collected from domestic and wild hosts (i.e., domestic cat, European wildcat, caracal, serval, and lion) from Italy, Greece, and South Africa. Five (HI-HV) and four (HI-HIV) haplotypes were recorded for A. abstrusus and T. brevior, respectively, mostly shared between domestic and wild felids in different geographical areas. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all haplotypes of A. abstrusus and T. brevior clustered as monophyletic groups with a strong nodal support, indicating that all haplotypes identified were distinct from each other. All sequence types represent two distinct species, A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and these genetic convergences are also detected within and among populations of these nematodes, irrespective of their hosts and geographical origin. The occurrence of A. abstrusus and T. brevior haplotypes in different hosts from the same regions and between different countries indicates that the same lungworm populations circulate in domestic and wild hosts under the same routes of transmission.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Felidae/parasitologia
Haplótipos
Metastrongyloidea/genética
Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Domésticos
Animais Selvagens
Grécia/epidemiologia
Itália/epidemiologia
Filogenia
África do Sul/epidemiologia
Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171007
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171007
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-017-5399-9


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[PMID]:28178279
[Au] Autor:Chetri M; Odden M; Wegge P
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, Norway.
[Ti] Título:Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0170549, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous telemetry studies on snow leopards and other large carnivores, and may reflect a high-risk high-gain strategy among males.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Alimentar
Felidae
Comportamento Predatório
Lobos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal
Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Nepal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170825
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170825
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170549



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