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[PMID]:29211106
[Au] Autor:Vandermark C; Zieman E; Boyles E; Nielsen CK; Davis C; Jiménez FA
[Ad] Endereço:Southern Illinois University, Department of Zoology, Carbondale, IL, USA.
[Ti] Título:Trypanosoma cruzi strain TcIV infects raccoons from Illinois.
[So] Source:Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz;113(1):30-37, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1678-8060
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The northern limits of Trypanosoma cruzi across the territory of the United States remain unknown. The known vectors Triatoma sanguisuga and T. lecticularia find their northernmost limits in Illinois; yet, earlier screenings of those insects did not reveal the presence of the pathogen, which has not been reported in vectors or reservoir hosts in this state. OBJECTIVES: Five species of medium-sized mammals were screened for the presence of T. cruzi. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from heart, spleen and skeletal muscle of bobcats (Lynx rufus, n = 60), raccoons (Procyon lotor, n = 37), nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, n = 5), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, n = 3), and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Infections were detected targeting DNA from the kinetoplast DNA minicircle (kDNA) and satellite DNA (satDNA). The discrete typing unit (DTU) was determined by amplifying two gene regions: the Spliced Leader Intergenic Region (SL), via a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and the 24Sα ribosomal DNA via a heminested reaction. Resulting sequences were used to calculate their genetic distance against reference DTUs. FINDINGS: 18.9% of raccoons were positive for strain TcIV; the rest of mammals tested negative. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm for the first time the presence of T. cruzi in wildlife from Illinois, suggesting that a sylvatic life cycle is likely to occur in the region. The analyses of sequences of SL suggest that amplicons resulting from a commonly used multiplex reaction may yield non-homologous fragments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tatus/parasitologia
Doença de Chagas/veterinária
Raposas/parasitologia
Lynx/parasitologia
Gambás/parasitologia
Guaxinins/parasitologia
Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico
Illinois
Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180131
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180131
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28676046
[Au] Autor:Marmesat E; Schmidt K; Saveljev AP; Seryodkin IV; Godoy JA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Integrative Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC), C/Américo Vespucio, 26, 41092, Sevilla, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Retention of functional variation despite extreme genomic erosion: MHC allelic repertoires in the Lynx genus.
[So] Source:BMC Evol Biol;17(1):158, 2017 Jul 04.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Demographic bottlenecks erode genetic diversity and may increase endangered species' extinction risk via decreased fitness and adaptive potential. The genetic status of species is generally assessed using neutral markers, whose dynamic can differ from that of functional variation due to selection. The MHC is a multigene family described as the most important genetic component of the mammalian immune system, with broad implications in ecology and evolution. The genus Lynx includes four species differing immensely in demographic history and population size, which provides a suitable model to study the genetic consequences of demographic declines: the Iberian lynx being an extremely bottlenecked species and the three remaining ones representing common and widely distributed species. We compared variation in the most variable exon of the MHCI and MHCII-DRB loci among the four species of the Lynx genus. RESULTS: The Iberian lynx was characterised by lower number of MHC alleles than its sister species (the Eurasian lynx). However, it maintained most of the functional genetic variation at MHC loci present in the remaining and genetically healthier lynx species at all nucleotide, amino acid, and supertype levels. CONCLUSIONS: Species-wide functional genetic diversity can be maintained even in the face of severe population bottlenecks, which caused devastating whole genome genetic erosion. This could be the consequence of divergent alleles being retained across paralogous loci, an outcome that, in the face of frequent gene conversion, may have been favoured by balancing selection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Genes MHC Classe II
Genes MHC Classe I
Variação Genética
Lynx/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alelos
Animais
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Éxons
Lynx/classificação
Seleção Genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171025
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171025
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170706
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12862-017-1006-z


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[PMID]:28601059
[Au] Autor:Filip KJ; Demiaszkiewicz AW
[Ad] Endereço:W. Stefanski Institute of Parasitology, PAS, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
[Ti] Título:Endoparasites of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) (Linnaeus, 1758) from an enclosure of Western Pomeranian Nature Society in Jablonowo
[So] Source:Ann Parasitol;63(1):33-36, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2299-0631
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to describe parasites of three lynx living in an enclosure of Western Pomeranian Nature Society in Jablonowo. During analysis of 3 gram faecal samples eggs of Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma sp. and oocysts of Cystoisospora felis were found. To our knowledge this is the first report of C. felis infection in lynx from Poland. Presented research show that wild cats in captivity are particularly exposed on parasitic infections and demand regular examination.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lynx
Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Fezes/parasitologia
Oocistos/classificação
Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
Polônia/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170706
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170706
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170612
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17420/ap6301.82


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[PMID]:28422973
[Au] Autor:O'Connor KM; Nathan LR; Liberati MR; Tingley MW; Vokoun JC; Rittenhouse TAG
[Ad] Endereço:Wildlife and Fisheries Conservation Center, Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Connecticut, Connecticut, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Camera trap arrays improve detection probability of wildlife: Investigating study design considerations using an empirical dataset.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0175684, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1) by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras), and (2) by total season length (1-365 days). Four species from our dataset that represented a range of body sizes and differing degrees of presumed detectability based on life history traits were investigated: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). For all species, increasing from a single camera to a multi-camera array significantly improved detection probability across the range of season lengths and number of study sites evaluated. The use of a two camera array increased survey detection an average of 80% (range 40-128%) from the detection probability of a single camera across the four species. Species that were detected infrequently benefited most from a multiple-camera array, where the addition of up to eight cameras produced significant increases in detectability. However, for species detected at high frequencies, single cameras produced a season-long (i.e, the length of time over which cameras are deployed and actively monitored) detectability greater than 0.75. These results highlight the need for researchers to be critical about camera trap study designs based on their intended target species, as detectability for each focal species responded differently to array size and season length. We suggest that researchers a priori identify target species for which inference will be made, and then design camera trapping studies around the most difficult to detect of those species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cervos/fisiologia
Didelphis/fisiologia
Lynx/fisiologia
Fotografia/métodos
Guaxinins/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Distribuição Animal
Animais
Connecticut
Fotografia/instrumentação
Projetos de Pesquisa
Análise Espaço-Temporal
Gravação em Vídeo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170505
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170505
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170420
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0175684


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[PMID]:28355128
[Au] Autor:Zieman EA; Jiménez FA; Nielsen CK
[Ad] Endereço:* Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1125 Lincoln Dr., Carbondale, Illinois 62901-6501. Correspondence should be sent to Elliott A. Zieman at: ezieman@siu.edu.
[Ti] Título:Concurrent Examination of Bobcats and Ticks Reveals High Prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in Southern Illinois.
[So] Source:J Parasitol;103(4):343-348, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1937-2345
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cytauxzoon felis is an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan of felids enzootic in the southeastern United States. In domestic cats (Felis catus), this parasite can result in the highly fatal disease cytauxzoonosis or bobcat fever. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are the wild animal reservoir host. To date, the characterization of prevalence of C. felis in bobcats is mostly based on broad-scale surveys from hunter-harvested specimens collected across large geographic areas, usually consisting of multiple states. Detailed studies on the development, transmission, distribution, effects, and prevalence of C. felis in the tick vectors are scarce. To fill some of these gaps in the literature, such as prevalence in ticks and bobcats in a discrete region, we examined bobcats and ticks in an 8,000-km portion of southern Illinois. We screened for C. felis using a nested polymerase chain reaction that amplifies a fragment of the nuclear small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA. We screened 125 individual bobcats collected in southern Illinois from 2003 to 2015; of these, 70.6% were positive for C. felis. In addition, we screened 214 ticks of both vector species (Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis) and detected C. felis in 15.6% of them; this prevalence is higher than reported by previous surveys. Our study reports the prevalence of C. felis in ticks and bobcats from south Illinois. We found that 70.6% of bobcats and 15.6% of ticks were infected with C. felis, which suggests risk of transmission to domestic cats.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia
Lynx/parasitologia
Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
Carrapatos/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação
Reservatórios de Doenças
Feminino
Illinois/epidemiologia
Modelos Lineares
Masculino
Prevalência
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão
Estações do Ano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Protozoan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170330
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1645/16-133


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[PMID]:28302120
[Au] Autor:Bol S; Caspers J; Buckingham L; Anderson-Shelton GD; Ridgway C; Buffington CA; Schulz S; Bunnik EM
[Ad] Endereço:Cowboy Cat Ranch, Mico, TX, 78056, USA. bol@cowboycatranch.org.
[Ti] Título:Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria).
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;13(1):70, 2017 Mar 16.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. METHODS: We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. RESULTS: Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried fruit galls and catnip were most popular among domestic cats. Silver vine and Tatarian honeysuckle appear to be good alternatives to catnip for domestic cats that do not respond to catnip.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Actinidia
Felidae/fisiologia
Lonicera
Nepeta
Valeriana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinidia/química
Fatores Etários
Animais
Comportamento Animal
Gatos
Ciclopentanos
Feminino
Lonicera/química
Lynx/fisiologia
Masculino
Nepeta/química
Feromônios
Pironas
Olfato
Tigres
Valeriana/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Pheromones); 0 (Pyrones); 21651-62-7 (nepetalactone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170831
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170831
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170318
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-017-0987-6


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[PMID]:28238868
[Au] Autor:Verma SK; Sweeny AR; Lovallo MJ; Calero-Bernal R; Kwok OC; Jiang T; Su C; Grigg ME; Dubey JP
[Ad] Endereço:United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA.
[Ti] Título:Seroprevalence, isolation and co-infection of multiple Toxoplasma gondii strains in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Mississippi, USA.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;47(5):297-303, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats. Hearts from all bobcats were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from 21; these strains were further propagated in cell culture. Additionally, DNA was extracted from digests of tongues and hearts of all 35 bobcats; T. gondii DNA was detected in tissues of all 35 bobcats. Genetic characterisation of DNA from cell culture-derived isolates was performed by multiplex PCR using 10 PCR-RFLP markers. Results showed that ToxoDB genotype #5 predominated (in 18 isolates) with a few other types (#24 in two isolates, and #2 in one isolate). PCR-DNA sequencing at two polymorphic markers, GRA6 and GRA7, detected multiple recombinant strains co-infecting the tissues of bobcats; most possessing Type II alleles at GRA7 versus Type X (HG-12) alleles at GRA6. Our results suggest that individual bobcats have been exposed to more than one parasite strain during their life time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coinfecção/veterinária
Lynx/parasitologia
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética
Sequência de Bases
Gatos
Cercopithecus aethiops
Coinfecção/parasitologia
DNA de Protozoário/genética
Feminino
Genótipo
Masculino
Camundongos
Mississippi/epidemiologia
Polimorfismo Genético
Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Toxoplasma/classificação
Toxoplasma/genética
Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (Antigens, Protozoan); 0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (GRA6 protein, Toxoplasma gondii); 0 (GRA7 protein, Toxoplasma gondii); 0 (Protozoan Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170726
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170726
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170228
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28130658
[Au] Autor:Cox JJ; Slabach B; Hast JT; Murphy SM; Kwok OC; Dubey JP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Forestry, University of Kentucky, 102 T.P. Cooper Building, Lexington, KY, 40546-0073, USA. jjcox@uky.edu.
[Ti] Título:High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in elk (Cervus canadensis) of the central Appalachians, USA.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;116(3):1079-1083, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite of mammals that impacts animal health and behavior. Although this parasite has been documented in several cervid species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe, little is known about T. gondii impacts on the closely related North American counterpart, the elk (wapiti, Cervus canadensis), which has increased in number and expanded in range during the past century. We assessed seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT) (1:25 titer) and blood collected from 142 free-ranging elk in Kentucky, USA, where the species was reintroduced during 1997-2002 after over a century of absence. Eighty of 142 (56.3%) elks were seropositive for T. gondii, but we found no infection or titer differences between sexes (U = 2146, P = 0.128). However, odds of T. gondii infection significantly increased with elk age (ß = 0.429, P = 0.001) by a factor of 1.54 (95% CI 1.19-1.99), and titer increased commensurate with age (JT = 3071, P < 0.001). High prevalence of T. gondii infection in elk of this region may be explained by sympatry with two primary hosts, the bobcat and domestic cat, as well as shed oocysts in the soil of this relatively wet and humid region. We suggest that wildlife agency personnel incorporate warnings about proper elk meat preparation into their hunter education outreach programs and literature to reduce the chances for human infection from consuming contaminated venison.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue
Cervos/parasitologia
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens/sangue
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
Gatos/parasitologia
Cervos/sangue
Feminino
Kentucky/epidemiologia
Lynx/parasitologia
Masculino
Prevalência
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Toxoplasma/imunologia
Toxoplasma/fisiologia
Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171007
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171007
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170129
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-017-5391-4


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[PMID]:28111808
[Au] Autor:Dehnhard M; Naidenko SV; Jewgenow K
[Ad] Endereço:Leibniz-Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Metabolism of prostaglandin F2alpha in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and Asian leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura).
[So] Source:Reprod Domest Anim;52 Suppl 2:45-51, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0531
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Methods for monitoring endocrine status are useful tools for reproduction management. In particular, successful captive breeding of endangered feline species requires reliable methods for pregnancy diagnosis. In many species, uterine and placental prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α) is involved in the regulation of reproductive processes. PGF2α is metabolized to 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2a (PGFM) during the first passage through the lungs. Immunoreactive PGFM is elevated in pregnant felids during the last trimester and is used for pregnancy diagnosis, although authentic PGFM is excreted in negligible amounts. To investigate the metabolism of PGF2α, a radiometabolism study was performed in two individuals of two feline species, Eurasian lynx and leopard cats, by injection of tritiated PGF2α and collection of faecal and urinary samples. All samples were extracted and subjected to HPLC separation. Radioactivity and immunoreactivity towards PGFM were determined in each HPLC fraction. The radio- and immunogramms differ slightly between the two species, and radiolabelled PGFM was present only in minor amounts. One major eicosanoid metabolite was found in all urine and faecal samples analysed, and also in previous studies in faecal samples of several pregnant feline species. Its polarity was similar, but not identical to PGF2α. We hypothesized that PGF2α is metabolized to more polar dinor and tetranor metabolites. First mass spectrometric analyses favoured a dinor metabolite as major compound of PGF2α metabolism in felids. Following identification and validation in the studied species, we aim to use these metabolites to improve pregnancy detection in other felids and probably other carnivores.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dinoprosta/metabolismo
Felidae/fisiologia
Lynx/fisiologia
Reprodução/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Fezes/química
Feminino
Espectrometria de Massas
Urina/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
B7IN85G1HY (Dinoprost)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170921
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170921
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170124
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/rda.12894


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[PMID]:28075011
[Au] Autor:Pasanen-Mortensen M; Elmhagen B; Lindén H; Bergström R; Wallgren M; van der Velde Y; Cousins SA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
[Ti] Título:The changing contribution of top-down and bottom-up limitation of mesopredators during 220 years of land use and climate change.
[So] Source:J Anim Ecol;86(3):566-576, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2656
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Apex predators may buffer bottom-up driven ecosystem change, as top-down suppression may dampen herbivore and mesopredator responses to increased resource availability. However, theory suggests that for this buffering capacity to be realized, the equilibrium abundance of apex predators must increase. This raises the question: will apex predators maintain herbivore/mesopredator limitation, if bottom-up change relaxes resource constraints? Here, we explore changes in mesopredator (red fox Vulpes vulpes) abundance over 220 years in response to eradication and recovery of an apex predator (Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx), and changes in land use and climate which are linked to resource availability. A three-step approach was used. First, recent data from Finland and Sweden were modelled to estimate linear effects of lynx density, land use and winter temperature on fox density. Second, lynx density, land use and winter temperature was estimated in a 22 650 km focal area in boreal and boreo-nemoral Sweden in the years 1830, 1920, 2010 and 2050. Third, the models and estimates were used to project historic and future fox densities in the focal area. Projected fox density was lowest in 1830 when lynx density was high, winters cold and the proportion of cropland low. Fox density peaked in 1920 due to lynx eradication, a mesopredator release boosted by favourable bottom-up changes - milder winters and cropland expansion. By 2010, lynx recolonization had reduced fox density, but it remained higher than in 1830, partly due to the bottom-up changes. Comparing 1830 to 2010, the contribution of top-down limitation decreased, while environment enrichment relaxed bottom-up limitation. Future scenarios indicated that by 2050, lynx density would have to increase by 79% to compensate for a projected climate-driven increase in fox density. We highlight that although top-down limitation in theory can buffer bottom-up change, this requires compensatory changes in apex predator abundance. Hence apex predator recolonization/recovery to historical levels would not be sufficient to compensate for widespread changes in climate and land use, which have relaxed the resource constraints for many herbivores and mesopredators. Variation in bottom-up conditions may also contribute to context dependence in apex predator effects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Cadeia Alimentar
Raposas/fisiologia
Lynx/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Finlândia
Dinâmica Populacional
Comportamento Predatório
Suécia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1365-2656.12633



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