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[PMID]:29298311
[Au] Autor:Espinosa S; Celis G; Branch LC
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México.
[Ti] Título:When roads appear jaguars decline: Increased access to an Amazonian wilderness area reduces potential for jaguar conservation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0189740, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, the protected area with highest potential for jaguar conservation in Ecuador, and an area both threatened by road development and inhabited by indigenous groups dependent upon bushmeat. We surveyed prey and jaguar abundance with camera traps in four sites that differed in accessibility to hunters and used site occupancy and spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses to evaluate prey occurrence and estimate jaguar density, respectively. Higher landscape accessibility to hunters was linked with lower occurrence and biomass of game, particularly white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), the primary game for hunters and prey for jaguars. Jaguar density was up to 18 times higher in the most remote site compared to the most accessible site. Our results provide a strong case for the need to: 1) consider conservation of large carnivores and other wildlife in policies about road construction in protected areas, 2) coordinate conservation initiatives with local governments so that development activities do not conflict with conservation objectives, and 3) promote development of community-based strategies for wildlife management that account for the needs of large carnivores.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Panthera
Transportes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Equador
Dinâmica Populacional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189740


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[PMID]:28658274
[Au] Autor:Harmsen BJ; Foster RJ; Sanchez E; Gutierrez-González CE; Silver SC; Ostro LET; Kelly MJ; Kay E; Quigley H
[Ad] Endereço:Environmental Research Institute, University of Belize, Belmopan, Belize.
[Ti] Título:Long term monitoring of jaguars in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize; Implications for camera trap studies of carnivores.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0179505, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, we estimate life history parameters and abundance for a protected jaguar population using camera-trap data from a 14-year monitoring program (2002-2015) in Belize, Central America. We investigated the dynamics of this jaguar population using 3,075 detection events of 105 individual adult jaguars. Using robust design open population models, we estimated apparent survival and temporary emigration and investigated individual heterogeneity in detection rates across years. Survival probability was high and constant among the years for both sexes (φ = 0.78), and the maximum (conservative) age recorded was 14 years. Temporary emigration rate for the population was random, but constant through time at 0.20 per year. Detection probability varied between sexes, and among years and individuals. Heterogeneity in detection took the form of a dichotomy for males: those with consistently high detection rates, and those with low, sporadic detection rates, suggesting a relatively stable population of 'residents' consistently present and a fluctuating layer of 'transients'. Female detection was always low and sporadic. On average, twice as many males than females were detected per survey, and individual detection rates were significantly higher for males. We attribute sex-based differences in detection to biases resulting from social variation in trail-walking behaviour. The number of individual females detected increased when the survey period was extended from 3 months to a full year. Due to the low detection rates of females and the variable 'transient' male subpopulation, annual abundance estimates based on 3-month surveys had low precision. To estimate survival and monitor population changes in elusive, wide-ranging, low-density species, we recommend repeated surveys over multiple years; and suggest that continuous monitoring over multiple years yields even further insight into population dynamics of elusive predator populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição Animal
Animais Selvagens
Panthera
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal
Belize
Feminino
Masculino
Dinâmica Populacional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170629
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0179505


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[PMID]:28498961
[Au] Autor:Janecka JE; Zhang Y; Li D; Munkhtsog B; Bayaraa M; Galsandorj N; Wangchuk TR; Karmacharya D; Li J; Lu Z; Uulu KZ; Gaur A; Kumar S; Kumar K; Hussain S; Muhammad G; Jevit M; Hacker C; Burger P; Wultsch C; Janecka MJ; Helgen K; Murphy WJ; Jackson R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282; Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China; The Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China; Institute of Gene
[Ti] Título:Range-Wide Snow Leopard Phylogeography Supports Three Subspecies.
[So] Source:J Hered;108(6):597-607, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1465-7333
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the Holocene (∼8000 years ago) coinciding with increased temperatures, precipitation, and upward treeline shift in the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple analyses supported 3 primary genetic clusters: (1) Northern (the Altai region), (2) Central (core Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau), and (3) Western (Tian Shan, Pamir, trans-Himalaya regions). Accordingly, we recognize 3 subspecies, Panthera uncia irbis (Northern group), Panthera uncia uncia (Western group), and Panthera uncia uncioides (Central group) based upon genetic distinctness, low levels of admixture, unambiguous population assignment, and geographic separation. The patterns of variation were consistent with desert-basin "barrier effects" of the Gobi isolating the northern subspecies (Mongolia), and the trans-Himalaya dividing the central (Qinghai, Tibet, Bhutan, and Nepal) and western subspecies (India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Hierarchical Bayesian clustering analysis revealed additional subdivision into a minimum of 6 proposed management units: western Mongolia, southern Mongolia, Tian Shan, Pamir-Himalaya, Tibet-Himalaya, and Qinghai, with spatial autocorrelation suggesting potential connectivity by dispersing individuals up to ∼400 km. We provide a foundation for global conservation of snow leopard subspecies, and set the stage for in-depth landscape genetics and genomic studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Especiação Genética
Variação Genética
Genética Populacional
Panthera/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ásia
Teorema de Bayes
Análise por Conglomerados
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Repetições de Microssatélites
Panthera/classificação
Filogeografia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170513
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jhered/esx044


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[PMID]:28493999
[Au] Autor:Kshettry A; Vaidyanathan S; Athreya V
[Ad] Endereço:Post Graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, Wildlife Conservation Society-India, National Centre for Biological Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, India.
[Ti] Título:Leopard in a tea-cup: A study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0177013, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples' lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i) the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii) the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii) the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards. The study site, located in northern West Bengal, India, is a densely populated mixed-use landscape of 630 km2, comprising of forests, tea plantations, agriculture fields, and human settlements. A total of 171 leopard attacks on humans were reported between January 2009 and March 2016, most of which occurred within the tea-gardens. None of the attacks was fatal. We found significant spatial clustering of locations of leopard attacks on humans. However, most of the attacks were restricted to certain tea estates and occurred mostly between January and May. Analysis of habitat use by leopards showed that the probability of use of areas with more ground vegetation cover was high while that of areas with high density of buildings was low. However, locations of leopard attacks on people did not coincide with areas that showed a higher probability of use by leopards. This indicates that an increased use of an area by leopards, by itself, does not necessarily imply an increase in attacks on people. The spatial and temporal clustering of attack locations allowed us to use this information to prioritize areas to focus mitigation activities in order reduce negative encounters between people and leopards in this landscape which has had a long history of conflict.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição Animal
Animais Selvagens
Ecossistema
Panthera
Comportamento Predatório
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Índia
Masculino
Panthera/fisiologia
Densidade Demográfica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170512
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0177013


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[PMID]:28414723
[Au] Autor:Vaz J; Narayan EJ; Dileep Kumar R; Thenmozhi K; Thiyagesan K; Baskaran N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology & Wildlife Biology, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
[Ti] Título:Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0174711, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly absent when associated with increased tree cover and presence of pool, and den in the enclosure, age and among zoo-born than wild-born ones. These factors explain 81% of variations in stereotypic prevalence in them. A comparison of FCM levels with context-dependent factors revealed that stress levels among tigers decreased significantly with enclosure size and with individuals from nil to low, and severity of health issues. These factors explain 64% of variations in FCM levels. In leopards, the presence of stones in the enclosure and keepers with positive attitude resulted in significant decrease in FCM levels, these factors together accounting for 94% of variations. Multiple regressions on selected variables based on Factor Analysis of Mixed Data showed that in tigers the intensity of stereotype decreased significantly with enclosure size, sociality and positive keeper attitude and FCM level with health problems. Similarly, analyses in leopards revealed that intensity of stereotype decreased significantly with tree cover, age and FCM level with positive keeper attitude. Overall, our study suggests that to reduce stereotypes and stress level, tigers in captivity should be managed in larger enclosures enriched with pool, and stones, and in appropriate social conditions with adequate veterinary care. Leopards should be managed in enclosures with dense tree cover, pool, stones and den. Positive keeper attitude plays a crucial role in the welfare of both the species in captivity. Our study is promising and is comparable with their natural behaviour in the wild; for example, tigers require larger natural habitats, while leopards can manage even with smaller isolated patches but with dense vegetation cover.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia
Animais de Zoológico/psicologia
Panthera/fisiologia
Panthera/psicologia
Tigres/fisiologia
Tigres/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Corticosterona/metabolismo
Ecossistema
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Feminino
Índia
Masculino
Prevalência
Comportamento Estereotipado
Estresse Fisiológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
W980KJ009P (Corticosterone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170509
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170509
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170418
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174711


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[PMID]:28379961
[Au] Autor:da Silva LG; Kawanishi K; Henschel P; Kittle A; Sanei A; Reebin A; Miquelle D; Stein AB; Watson A; Kekule LB; Machado RB; Eizirik E
[Ad] Endereço:PUCRS, Faculdade de Biociências, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Mapping black panthers: Macroecological modeling of melanism in leopards (Panthera pardus).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0170378, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The geographic distribution and habitat association of most mammalian polymorphic phenotypes are still poorly known, hampering assessments of their adaptive significance. Even in the case of the black panther, an iconic melanistic variant of the leopard (Panthera pardus), no map exists describing its distribution. We constructed a large database of verified records sampled across the species' range, and used it to map the geographic occurrence of melanism. We then estimated the potential distribution of melanistic and non-melanistic leopards using niche-modeling algorithms. The overall frequency of melanism was ca. 11%, with a significantly non-random spatial distribution. Distinct habitat types presented significantly different frequencies of melanism, which increased in Asian moist forests and approached zero across most open/dry biomes. Niche modeling indicated that the potential distributions of the two phenotypes were distinct, with significant differences in habitat suitability and rejection of niche equivalency between them. We conclude that melanism in leopards is strongly affected by natural selection, likely driven by efficacy of camouflage and/or thermoregulation in different habitats, along with an effect of moisture that goes beyond its influence on vegetation type. Our results support classical hypotheses of adaptive coloration in animals (e.g. Gloger's rule), and open up new avenues for in-depth evolutionary analyses of melanism in mammals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Panthera/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Distribuição Animal/fisiologia
Animais
Evolução Biológica
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Ecologia
Ecossistema
Fenótipo
Seleção Genética/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170406
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170378


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[PMID]:28224883
[Au] Autor:Luo H; Li K; Zhang H; Gan P; Shahzad M; Wu X; Lan Y; Wang J
[Ad] Endereço:College of Animal Sciences, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology, Wenzhou 325006, PR China - College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China.
[Ti] Título:Séroprévalence de l'infection par Toxoplasma gondii chez des animaux de zoo et domestiques dans la province de Jiangxi en Chine..
[So] Source:Parasite;24:7, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1776-1042
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Domésticos/parasitologia
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue
Toxoplasma/imunologia
Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anseriformes/parasitologia
Artiodáctilos/parasitologia
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia
Búfalos/parasitologia
Bovinos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia
China/epidemiologia
Gansos/parasitologia
Girafas/parasitologia
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia
Cabras
Macropodidae/parasitologia
Panthera/parasitologia
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Lobos/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170223
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1051/parasite/2017007


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[PMID]:28217865
[Au] Autor:Balme GA; Miller JR; Pitman RT; Hunter LT
[Ad] Endereço:Panthera, 8 West 40th Street, New York, NY, 10018, USA.
[Ti] Título:Caching reduces kleptoparasitism in a solitary, large felid.
[So] Source:J Anim Ecol;86(3):634-644, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2656
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Food caching is a common strategy used by a diversity of animals, including carnivores, to store and/or secure food. Despite its prevalence, the drivers of caching behaviour, and its impacts on individuals, remain poorly understood, particularly for short-term food cachers. Leopards Panthera pardus exhibit a unique form of short-term food caching, regularly hoisting, storing and consuming prey in trees. We explored the factors motivating such behaviour among leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa, associated with four not mutually exclusive hypotheses: food-perishability, consumption-time, resource-pulse and kleptoparasitism-avoidance. Using data from 2032 prey items killed by 104 leopards from 2013 to 2015, we built generalized linear mixed models to examine how hoisting behaviour, feeding time and the likelihood of a kill being kleptoparasitized varied with leopard sex and age, prey size and vulnerability, vegetation, elevation, climate, and the immediate and long-term risk posed by dominant competitors. Leopards hoisted 51% of kills. They were more likely to hoist kills of an intermediate size, outside of a resource pulse and in response to the presence of some competitors. Hoisted kills were also fed on for longer than non-hoisted kills. At least 21% of kills were kleptoparasitized, mainly by spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta. Kills were more likely to be kleptoparasitized at lower temperatures and if prey were larger, not hoisted, and in areas where the risk of encountering hyaenas was greatest. Female leopards that suffered higher rates of kleptoparasitism exhibited lower annual reproductive success than females that lost fewer kills. Our results strongly support the kleptoparasitism-avoidance hypothesis and suggest hoisting is a key adaptation that enables leopards to coexist sympatrically with high densities of competitors. We further argue that leopards may select smaller-sized prey than predicted by optimal foraging theory, to balance trade-offs between kleptoparasitic losses and the energetic gains derived from killing larger prey. Although caching may provide the added benefits of delaying food perishability and enabling consumption over an extended period, the behaviour primarily appears to be a strategy for leopards, and possibly other short-term cachers, to reduce the risks of kleptoparasitism.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cadeia Alimentar
Hyaenidae/fisiologia
Panthera/fisiologia
Comportamento Predatório
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1365-2656.12654


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Labruna, Marcelo Bahia
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[PMID]:28207298
[Au] Autor:Furtado MM; Metzger B; de Almeida Jácomo AT; Labruna MB; Martins TF; O'Dwyer LH; Paduan KDS; Porfírio GEO; Silveira L; Sollmann R; Taniwaki SA; Tôrres NM; Neto JSF
[Ad] Endereço:* Jaguar Conservation Fund/Instituto Onça-Pintada, Caixa Postal 193, 75830-000, Mineiros-GO, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Hepatozoon SPP. Infect Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Brazil.
[So] Source:J Parasitol;103(3):243-250, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1937-2345
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study investigated the presence of Hepatozoon spp. in jaguars ( Panthera onca ) and domestic animals in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars, 129 domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris), and 22 domestic cats ( Felis catus ) for molecular tests. All of the jaguars from the Pantanal (n = 22) and Cerrado (n = 4) and 3 of 4 jaguars from the Amazon were positive for Hepatozoon spp. Domestic dogs (62.8%) and cats (31.8%) were also positive for the agent. Hepatozoon nucleotide sequences from jaguars and domestic cats grouped with other Hepatozoon felis, whereas Hepatozoon from domestic dogs showed high similarity to Hepatozoon canis. Different species of Amblyomma were identified as parasitizing the jaguars and may act as vectors for Hepatozoon spp. Jaguars from the 3 sites were healthy and did not seem to be threatened by the hemoparasite within its population or environments. Most likely, jaguars play an important role in the maintenance of Hepatozoon spp. in nature.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coccidiose/veterinária
Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação
Panthera/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
Vetores Aracnídeos/classificação
Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia
Brasil/epidemiologia
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia
Gatos
Coccidiose/epidemiologia
Coccidiose/parasitologia
DNA de Protozoário/química
DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
Cães
Ecossistema
Eucoccidiida/classificação
Eucoccidiida/genética
Feminino
Ixodidae/classificação
Ixodidae/parasitologia
Masculino
Filogenia
RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170628
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170628
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1645/16-99


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[PMID]:28043351
[Au] Autor:Jimenez Gonzalez S; Howard JG; Brown J; Grajales H; Pinzón J; Monsalve H; Moreno MA; Jimenez Escobar C
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Departamento de Posgrado, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia. Electronic address: santiaklen@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Reproductive analysis of male and female captive jaguars (Panthera onca) in a Colombian zoological park.
[So] Source:Theriogenology;89:192-200, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3231
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A reproductive analysis of a captive group of jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 6) at the Santacruz Zoological Foundation in Cundinamarca, Colombia, was conducted by performing a longitudinal, noninvasive, hormonal analysis of estradiol and progestogens in females and of androgens in males. During four seasons, female jaguars confined in solitary were evaluated for ovarian activity and spontaneous ovulation, male jaguars for testicular activity. A second hormonal follow-up was conducted in the females after administration of gonadotropins. Hormones were extracted from fecal samples of three females (n = 3) and two males (n = 2). Estradiol measurements were obtained by RIA and progestogens by enzyme immunoassay. The linear mixed-effect regression showed that there was a significant effect of seasons in the concentrations of estradiol (chi square = 15.97, degrees of freedom = 3, P < 0.01). Posthoc comparisons of all pairs of seasonal means were conducted according to Tukey's honest significant difference, revealing significant differences between seasons: Dry 1 versus Rains 2 (P < 0.01), Rains 1 versus Rains 2 (P < 0.05), and Dry 2 versus Rains 2 (P < 0.05). Elevations of progestogens compatible with spontaneous ovulation occurred in three jaguars, and the linear mixed-effect regression showed that there was also a significant effect of seasons (chi square = 28.56, degrees of freedom = 3, P < 0.01). Posthoc comparisons showed significant differences only between seasons: Dry 2 versus Rains 2 (P < 0.01). The season with the lowest average concentration was Rains 2 (October, November, and December). During this season, periods of anestrous were registered that lasted between 31 and 83 days. The three females presented estradiol peaks after the administration of eCG. A noninvasive longitudinal analysis for androgens was also made (males 1 and 2) over the course of 1 year, and no significant differences were found between the different seasons. A seminal analysis of three adult male jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 3) was also performed after electroejaculation under general anesthesia (male 1 and 2) and by a postmortem epididymal wash (male 3). The mean concentration of spermatozoids was 5.7 × 10 ± 1.1 × 10 spermatozoa/mL. The progressive motility + standard deviation averaged 80%. The percentage of normal spermatozoids obtained by electroejaculation was 80 ± 2.8%, and the abnormalities found more frequently were head defects (7 ± 1.4%). The seminal fluid obtained by epididymal flush contained 35 ± 1.4% normal spermatozoids, and the most frequent abnormalities found corresponded to distal cytoplasmic droplets (39 ± 11.3%).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fertilidade
Panthera/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Androgênios/metabolismo
Animais
Colômbia
Estradiol/metabolismo
Feminino
Gonadotropinas/farmacologia
Modelos Lineares
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Detecção da Ovulação/veterinária
Indução da Ovulação/veterinária
Progestinas/metabolismo
Estações do Ano
Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Androgens); 0 (Gonadotropins); 0 (Progestins); 4TI98Z838E (Estradiol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170724
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170724
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170104
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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