Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : B01.050.150.900.649.313.750.377.750.600.500 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 535 [refinar]
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[PMID]:29415031
[Au] Autor:Tensen L; Groom RJ; Khuzwayo J; Jansen van Vuuren B
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Ecological Genomics and Wildlife Conservation, Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:The genetic tale of a recovering lion population (Panthera leo) in the Savé Valley region (Zimbabwe): A better understanding of the history and managing the future.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0190369, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC), in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa. We also tested whether genetic diversity is spatially structured between lion populations residing on several reserves in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. A total of 42 lions were genotyped successfully for 11 microsatellite loci. We confirmed that the loss of allelic richness (probably resulting from genetic drift and small number of founders) has resulted in low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The SVC lion population was also found to be genetically differentiated from surrounding population, as a result of genetic drift and restricted natural dispersal due to anthropogenic barriers. From a conservation perspective, it is important to avoid further loss of genetic variability in the SVC lion population and maintain evolutionary potential required for future survival. Genetic restoration through the introduction of unrelated individuals is recommended, as this will increase genetic heterozygosity and improve survival and reproductive fitness in populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Leões/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Zimbábue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190369


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[PMID]:29385146
[Au] Autor:Lesilau F; Fonck M; Gatta M; Musyoki C; van 't Zelfde M; Persoon GA; Musters KCJM; de Snoo GR; de Iongh HH
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Effectiveness of a LED flashlight technique in reducing livestock depredation by lions (Panthera leo) around Nairobi National Park, Kenya.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190898, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The global lion (Panthera leo) population decline is partly a result of retaliatory killing in response to livestock depredation. Nairobi National Park (NNP) is a small protected area in Kenya surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. Communities around the park use flashlights to deter lions from their livestock bomas. We investigated the response by lions to the installation of a LED flashlight technique during 2007-2016.We interviewed 80 owners of livestock bomas with flashlights (n = 43) and without (n = 37) flashlights in the surroundings of NNP and verified reported attacks on bomas against predation data over10 years. The frequency of attacks on bomas equipped with flashlights was significantly lower compared to bomas without flashlights. We also found that after flashlight installation at livestock bomas, lion attacks took place further away from the park edge, towards areas where bomas without flashlights were still present. With increased numbers of flashlight installations at bomas in recent years, we further noticed a shift from nocturnal to more diurnal predation incidences. Our study shows that the LED flashlight technique is effective in reducing nocturnal livestock predation at bomas by lions. Long term studies on the effects as well as expansion of this technique into other communities around NNP are recommended.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Luz
Leões
Gado
Comportamento Predatório
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Quênia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190898


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[PMID]:29065143
[Au] Autor:Williams VL; Loveridge AJ; Newton DJ; Macdonald DW
[Ad] Endereço:School of Animal, Plant & Environmental Sciences; University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185996, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute 'tiger bone' market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008-2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012-2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008-2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008-2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013-2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa to Asia from 2008-2015 were issued (99.1% from South Africa; 0.7% from Namibia) (51% for Laos), actual exports were less than stated on the permits. However, information on actual exports from 2014-2016 indicated that >3400 skeletons were exported in that period. In total, >6000 skeletons weighing no less than 70 tonnes have been shipped to East-Southeast Asia since 2008. Since few wild lions are hunted and poached within South African protected areas, skeletons for the legal trade appear to be derived from captive bred lions. However, confirmation of a 116kg shipment from Uganda to Laos, and reports of lion poaching in neighbouring countries, indicate that urgent proactive monitoring and evaluation of the legal and illegal trade is necessary in African lion range states where vulnerable wild lion populations are likely to be adversely affected.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Osso e Ossos
Comércio
Leões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Animais
Ásia Sudeste
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185996


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[PMID]:28323837
[Au] Autor:Bauer H; Henschel P; Packer C; Sillero-Zubiri C; Chardonnet B; Sogbohossou EA; De Iongh HH; Macdonald DW
[Ad] Endereço:Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Zoology, University of Oxford, Recanati-Kaplan Centre, Tubney, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Lion trophy hunting in West Africa: A response to Bouché et al.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(3):e0173691, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Leões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Ocidental
Animais
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170322
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0173691


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[PMID]:28186700
[Au] Autor:Metz O; Williams J; Nielsen RK; Masters N
[Ad] Endereço:Zoological Society of London, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Retrospective study of mortality in Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) in the European breeding population between 2000 and 2014.
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;36(1):66-73, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously. Survival to reproductive age was 44%. Post-mortem reports were requested and the cause of death was obtained for 133 animals. Trauma inflicted by a conspecific and lack of care were common causes of death (26% and 22%, respectively) and were also responsible for most of the neonatal mortalities. Congenital defects were responsible for 9% of deaths, although the true prevalence is likely underestimated. A common necropsy protocol for all Asiatic lion collections is needed to facilitate future studies. Zoo Biol. 36:66-73, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais de Zoológico
Leões/classificação
Mortalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Envelhecimento
Animais
Causas de Morte
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Europa (Continente)
Feminino
Masculino
Gravidez
Reprodução
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170211
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21344


  6 / 535 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28135338
[Au] Autor:Hazzah L; Bath A; Dolrenry S; Dickman A; Frank L
[Ad] Endereço:Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:From Attitudes to Actions: Predictors of Lion Killing by Maasai Warriors.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(1):e0170796, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite legal protection, deliberate killing by local people is one of the major threats to the conservation of lions and other large carnivores in Africa. Addressing this problem poses particular challenges, mainly because it is difficult to uncover illicit behavior. This article examined two groups of Maasai warriors: individuals who have killed African lions (Panthera leo) and those who have not. We conducted interviews to explore the relationship between attitudes, intentions and known lion killing behavior. Factor analysis and logistic regression revealed that lion killing was mainly determined by: (a) general attitudes toward lions, (b) engagement in traditional customs, (c) lion killing intentions to defend property, and (d) socio-cultural killing intentions. Our results indicated that general attitudes toward lions were the strongest predictor of lion killing behavior. Influencing attitudes to encourage pro-conservation behavior may help reduce killing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Grupos Étnicos
Leões/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecossistema
Análise Fatorial
Geografia
Seres Humanos
Quênia
Modelos Logísticos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170814
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170814
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170796


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[PMID]:28043366
[Au] Autor:Luther I; Jakop U; Lueders I; Tordiffe A; Franz C; Schiller J; Kotze A; Müller K
[Ad] Endereço:Research & Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Semen cryopreservation and radical reduction capacity of seminal fluid in captive African lion (Panthera leo).
[So] Source:Theriogenology;89:295-304, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3231
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected. A lyophilized extender (a modified egg yolk-Tes-Tris-fructose-glycerol medium) was rehydrated and added in one step at ambient temperature (∼25 °C) to semen, which was prediluted in cell culture medium M199. After slow cooling of insulated samples to 15 °C in a refrigerator (4 °C), the samples were fast frozen over the surface of liquid nitrogen or in a dry shipper. Aliquots of 300 µL containing 20 × 10 sperm were frozen in cryovials and in 0.5-mL straws. Differences were observed in the total motility after thawing between vial (31.5 ± 14.1%) and straw freezing (20.1 ± 8.6%). However, the subpopulations of vital (22.7 ± 7.8% for vial and 19.8 ± 8.5% for straw) and progressively motile (10.0 ± 7.9% for vial and 10.0 ± 6.4% for straw) sperm after washing and 1 hour incubation at 38 °C were of similar magnitude, velocity, and linearity for both packaging options. After freezing of five ejaculates with 20, 60, and 100 × 10 sperm per dose, best results were achieved at the lowest concentration. In general, post-thaw results were highly variable (2.2% and 56.5% total motility) and not correlated to motility or morphology of the fresh semen. To further characterize semen quality, we assessed the protective potential of seminal fluid against oxidative stress, which might be challenged on freeze thawing. The capacity of seminal fluid to reduce radicals was measured in 10 semen samples by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and a spin-labeled fatty acid as a radical probe. Moreover, we determined the lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) as potential lipid oxidation products in the sperm and erythrocytes of the males. Individuals with a high radical reduction capacity in the seminal fluid and a low LPC content in their erythrocytes showed a better cryosurvival of sperm. This is a first indication that seminal fluid may affect the freezing potential of African lion ejaculates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Criopreservação/veterinária
Leões
Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Criopreservação/métodos
Lisofosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo
Masculino
Sêmen/citologia
Sêmen/metabolismo
Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
Preservação do Sêmen/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Lysophosphatidylcholines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170724
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170724
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170104
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27928865
[Au] Autor:Nikolin VM; Olarte-Castillo XA; Osterrieder N; Hofer H; Dubovi E; Mazzoni CJ; Brunner E; Goller KV; Fyumagwa RD; Moehlman PD; Thierer D; East ML
[Ad] Endereço:Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315, Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Canine distemper virus in the Serengeti ecosystem: molecular adaptation to different carnivore species.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol;26(7):2111-2130, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1365-294X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Was the 1993/1994 fatal canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in lions and spotted hyaenas in the Serengeti ecosystem caused by the recent spillover of a virulent domestic dog strain or one well adapted to these noncanids? We examine this question using sequence data from 13 'Serengeti' strains including five complete genomes obtained between 1993 and 2011. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses reveal that strains from noncanids during the epidemic were more closely related to each other than to those from domestic or wild canids. All noncanid 'Serengeti' strains during the epidemic encoded: (1) one novel substitution G134S in the CDV-V protein; and (2) the rare amino acid combination 519I/549H at two sites under positive selection in the region of the CDV-H protein that binds to SLAM (CD 150) host cell receptors. Worldwide, only a few noncanid strains in the America II lineage encode CDV-H 519I/549H. All canid 'Serengeti' strains during the epidemic coded CDV-V 134G, and CDV-H 519R/549Y, or 519R/549H. A functional assay of cell entry revealed the highest performance by CDV-H proteins encoding 519I/549H in cells expressing lion SLAM receptors, and the highest performance by proteins encoding 519R/549Y, typical of dog strains worldwide, in cells expressing dog SLAM receptors. Our findings are consistent with an epidemic in lions and hyaenas caused by CDV variants better adapted to noncanids than canids, but not with the recent spillover of a dog strain. Our study reveals a greater complexity of CDV molecular epidemiology in multihost environments than previously thought.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Canidae/virologia
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética
Evolução Molecular
Filogenia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Biológica/genética
Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Animais Selvagens/virologia
Cinomose/epidemiologia
Ecossistema
Haplótipos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro
Hyaenidae/virologia
Leões/virologia
Modelos Genéticos
Epidemiologia Molecular
RNA Viral/genética
Seleção Genética
Análise de Sequência de RNA
Tanzânia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170512
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170512
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mec.13902


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[PMID]:27811292
[Au] Autor:Dewhirst OP; Roskilly K; Hubel TY; Jordan NR; Golabek KA; McNutt JW; Wilson AM
[Ad] Endereço:Structure and Motion Laboratory, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK odewhirst@rvc.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:An exploratory clustering approach for extracting stride parameters from tracking collars on free-ranging wild animals.
[So] Source:J Exp Biol;220(Pt 3):341-346, 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1477-9145
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Changes in stride frequency and length with speed are key parameters in animal locomotion research. They are commonly measured in a laboratory on a treadmill or by filming trained captive animals. Here, we show that a clustering approach can be used to extract these variables from data collected by a tracking collar containing a GPS module and tri-axis accelerometers and gyroscopes. The method enables stride parameters to be measured during free-ranging locomotion in natural habitats. As it does not require labelled data, it is particularly suitable for use with difficult to observe animals. The method was tested on large data sets collected from collars on free-ranging lions and African wild dogs and validated using a domestic dog.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Selvagens/fisiologia
Cães/fisiologia
Leões/fisiologia
Locomoção
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acelerometria
Animais
Análise por Conglomerados
Ecossistema
Feminino
Marcha
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
Aprendizado de Máquina
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170823
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170823
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161105
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1242/jeb.146035


  10 / 535 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26518735
[Au] Autor:Olivier TT; Viljoen IM; Hofmeyr J; Hausler GA; Goosen WJ; Tordiffe ASW; Buss P; Loxton AG; Warren RM; Miller MA; van Helden PD; Parsons SDC
[Ad] Endereço:DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research/SAMRC Centre for TB Research/Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Development of a Gene Expression Assay for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Lions (Panthera leo).
[So] Source:Transbound Emerg Dis;64(3):774-781, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1865-1682
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Mycobacterium bovis infection, the cause of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), is endemic in wildlife in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. In lions, a high infection prevalence and BTB mortalities have been documented in the KNP; however, the ecological consequences of this disease are currently unknown. Sensitive assays for the detection of this infection in this species are therefore required. Blood from M. bovis-exposed, M. bovis-unexposed, M. tuberculosis-exposed and M. bovis-infected lions was incubated in QuantiFERON -TB Gold (QFT) tubes containing either saline or ESAT-6/CFP-10 peptides. Using qPCR, selected reference genes were evaluated for expression stability in these samples and selected target genes were evaluated as markers of antigen-dependent immune activation. The abundance of monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG/CXCL9) mRNA, measured in relation to that of YWHAZ, was used as a marker of ESAT-6/CFP-10 sensitization. The gene expression assay results were compared between lion groups, and lenient and stringent diagnostic cut-off values were calculated. This CXCL9 gene expression assay combines a highly specific stimulation platform with a sensitive diagnostic marker that allows for discrimination between M. bovis-infected and M. bovis-uninfected lions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Leões/microbiologia
Mycobacterium bovis/genética
Tuberculose/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação
Prevalência
África do Sul/epidemiologia
Tuberculose/diagnóstico
Tuberculose/epidemiologia
Tuberculose/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151101
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tbed.12436



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