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  1 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28450662
[Au] Autor:Thengchaisri N; Sinthusingha C; Arthitwong S; Sattasathuchana P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand.
[Ti] Título:Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.
[So] Source:J Vet Med Sci;79(6):1081-1085, 2017 Jun 29.
[Is] ISSN:1347-7439
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária
Gatos/imunologia
Tigres/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária
Animais
Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas/veterinária
Gatos/sangue
Feminino
Masculino
Tigres/sangue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180102
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180102
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1292/jvms.16-0630


  2 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28591175
[Au] Autor:Thapa K; Wikramanayake E; Malla S; Acharya KP; Lamichhane BR; Subedi N; Pokharel CP; Thapa GJ; Dhakal M; Bista A; Borah J; Gupta M; Maurya KK; Gurung GS; Jnawali SR; Pradhan NMB; Bhata SR; Koirala S; Ghose D; Vattakaven J
[Ad] Endereço:WWF Nepal, Baluwatar, Kathmandu, Nepal.
[Ti] Título:Tigers in the Terai: Strong evidence for meta-population dynamics contributing to tiger recovery and conservation in the Terai Arc Landscape.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0177548, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The source populations of tigers are mostly confined to protected areas, which are now becoming isolated. A landscape scale conservation strategy should strive to facilitate dispersal and survival of dispersing tigers by managing habitat corridors that enable tigers to traverse the matrix with minimal conflict. We present evidence for tiger dispersal along transboundary protected areas complexes in the Terai Arc Landscape, a priority tiger landscape in Nepal and India, by comparing camera trap data, and through population models applied to the long term camera trap data sets. The former showed that 11 individual tigers used the corridors that connected the transboundary protected areas. The estimated population growth rates using the minimum observed population size in two protected areas in Nepal, Bardia National Park and Suklaphanta National Park showed that the increases were higher than expected from growth rates due to in situ reproduction alone. These lines of evidence suggests that tigers are recolonizing Nepal's protected areas from India, after a period of population decline, and that the tiger populations in the transboundary protected areas complexes may be maintained as meta-population. Our results demonstrate the importance of adopting a landscape-scale approach to tiger conservation, especially to improve population recovery and long term population persistence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Dinâmica Populacional
Tigres/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecossistema
Índia
Modelos Teóricos
Nepal
Densidade Demográfica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170608
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0177548


  3 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28520796
[Au] Autor:Dorazio RM; Karanth KU
[Ad] Endereço:Wetland and Aquatic Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A hierarchical model for estimating the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected by continuous-time recorders.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0176966, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:MOTIVATION: Several spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been developed to estimate animal abundance by analyzing the detections of individuals in a spatial array of traps. Most of these models do not use the actual dates and times of detection, even though this information is readily available when using continuous-time recorders, such as microphones or motion-activated cameras. Instead most SCR models either partition the period of trap operation into a set of subjectively chosen discrete intervals and ignore multiple detections of the same individual within each interval, or they simply use the frequency of detections during the period of trap operation and ignore the observed times of detection. Both practices make inefficient use of potentially important information in the data. MODEL AND DATA ANALYSIS: We developed a hierarchical SCR model to estimate the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected with continuous-time recorders. Our model includes two kinds of point processes: a spatial process to specify the distribution of latent activity centers of individuals within the region of sampling and a temporal process to specify temporal patterns in the detections of individuals. We illustrated this SCR model by analyzing spatial and temporal patterns evident in the camera-trap detections of tigers living in and around the Nagarahole Tiger Reserve in India. We also conducted a simulation study to examine the performance of our model when analyzing data sets of greater complexity than the tiger data. BENEFITS: Our approach provides three important benefits: First, it exploits all of the information in SCR data obtained using continuous-time recorders. Second, it is sufficiently versatile to allow the effects of both space use and behavior of animals to be specified as functions of covariates that vary over space and time. Third, it allows both the spatial distribution and abundance of individuals to be estimated, effectively providing a species distribution model, even in cases where spatial covariates of abundance are unknown or unavailable. We illustrated these benefits in the analysis of our data, which allowed us to quantify differences between nocturnal and diurnal activities of tigers and to estimate their spatial distribution and abundance across the study area. Our continuous-time SCR model allows an analyst to specify many of the ecological processes thought to be involved in the distribution, movement, and behavior of animals detected in a spatial trapping array of continuous-time recorders. We plan to extend this model to estimate the population dynamics of animals detected during multiple years of SCR surveys.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Teóricos
Densidade Demográfica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Animais
Simulação por Computador
Modelos Estatísticos
Tigres
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170519
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0176966


  4 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28445499
[Au] Autor:Singh SK; Aspi J; Kvist L; Sharma R; Pandey P; Mishra S; Singh R; Agrawal M; Goyal SP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
[Ti] Título:Fine-scale population genetic structure of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) in a human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape, India.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0174371, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. These factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) at the foothills of the Himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. Therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and variation of tigers in TAL is needed to develop proper management strategies for achieving long-term conservation goals. We document, for the first time, the genetic characteristics of this tiger population by genotyping 71 tiger samples using 13 microsatellite markers from the western region of TAL (WTAL) of 1800 km2. Specifically, we aimed to estimate the genetic variability, population structure, and gene flow. The microsatellite markers indicated that the levels of allelic diversity (MNA = 6.6) and genetic variation (Ho = 0.50, HE = 0.64) were slightly lower than those reported previously in other Bengal tiger populations. We observed moderate gene flow and significant genetic differentiation (FST= 0.060) and identified the presence of cryptic genetic structure using Bayesian and non-Bayesian approaches. There was low and significantly asymmetric migration between the two main subpopulations of the Rajaji Tiger Reserve and the Corbett Tiger Reserve in WTAL. Sibship relationships indicated that the functionality of the corridor between these subpopulations may be retained if the quality of the habitat does not deteriorate. However, we found that gene flow is not adequate in view of changing land use matrices. We discuss the need to maintain connectivity by implementing the measures that have been suggested previously to minimize the level of human disturbance, including relocation of villages and industries, prevention of encroachment, and banning sand and boulder mining in the corridors.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Genética Populacional
Tigres/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alelos
Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Ecossistema
Fluxo Gênico
Variação Genética
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Índia
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170427
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174371


  5 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28414723
[Au] Autor:Vaz J; Narayan EJ; Dileep Kumar R; Thenmozhi K; Thiyagesan K; Baskaran N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology & Wildlife Biology, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
[Ti] Título:Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0174711, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly absent when associated with increased tree cover and presence of pool, and den in the enclosure, age and among zoo-born than wild-born ones. These factors explain 81% of variations in stereotypic prevalence in them. A comparison of FCM levels with context-dependent factors revealed that stress levels among tigers decreased significantly with enclosure size and with individuals from nil to low, and severity of health issues. These factors explain 64% of variations in FCM levels. In leopards, the presence of stones in the enclosure and keepers with positive attitude resulted in significant decrease in FCM levels, these factors together accounting for 94% of variations. Multiple regressions on selected variables based on Factor Analysis of Mixed Data showed that in tigers the intensity of stereotype decreased significantly with enclosure size, sociality and positive keeper attitude and FCM level with health problems. Similarly, analyses in leopards revealed that intensity of stereotype decreased significantly with tree cover, age and FCM level with positive keeper attitude. Overall, our study suggests that to reduce stereotypes and stress level, tigers in captivity should be managed in larger enclosures enriched with pool, and stones, and in appropriate social conditions with adequate veterinary care. Leopards should be managed in enclosures with dense tree cover, pool, stones and den. Positive keeper attitude plays a crucial role in the welfare of both the species in captivity. Our study is promising and is comparable with their natural behaviour in the wild; for example, tigers require larger natural habitats, while leopards can manage even with smaller isolated patches but with dense vegetation cover.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia
Animais de Zoológico/psicologia
Panthera/fisiologia
Panthera/psicologia
Tigres/fisiologia
Tigres/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Corticosterona/metabolismo
Ecossistema
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Feminino
Índia
Masculino
Prevalência
Comportamento Estereotipado
Estresse Fisiológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
W980KJ009P (Corticosterone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170509
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170509
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170418
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174711


  6 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28379997
[Au] Autor:Kolipaka SS; Tamis WL; van 't Zelfde M; Persoon GA; de Iongh HH
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0174844, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tigres/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criação de Animais Domésticos
Animais
Animais Selvagens
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Feminino
Índia
Gado
Masculino
Comportamento Predatório
Tigres/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170901
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170901
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170406
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174844


  7 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28328924
[Au] Autor:Can ÖE; D'Cruze N; Balaskas M; Macdonald DW
[Ad] Endereço:Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Scientific crowdsourcing in wildlife research and conservation: Tigers (Panthera tigris) as a case study.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(3):e2001001, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:With around 3,200 tigers (Panthera tigris) left in the wild, the governments of 13 tiger range countries recently declared that there is a need for innovation to aid tiger research and conservation. In response to this call, we created the "Think for Tigers" study to explore whether crowdsourcing has the potential to innovate the way researchers and practitioners monitor tigers in the wild. The study demonstrated that the benefits of crowdsourcing are not restricted only to harnessing the time, labor, and funds from the public but can also be used as a tool to harness creative thinking that can contribute to development of new research tools and approaches. Based on our experience, we make practical recommendations for designing a crowdsourcing initiative as a tool for generating ideas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Selvagens/fisiologia
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Crowdsourcing
Pesquisa
Ciência
Tigres/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Internacionalidade
Inovação Organizacional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170323
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001001


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[PMID]:28302120
[Au] Autor:Bol S; Caspers J; Buckingham L; Anderson-Shelton GD; Ridgway C; Buffington CA; Schulz S; Bunnik EM
[Ad] Endereço:Cowboy Cat Ranch, Mico, TX, 78056, USA. bol@cowboycatranch.org.
[Ti] Título:Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria).
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;13(1):70, 2017 Mar 16.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. METHODS: We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. RESULTS: Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried fruit galls and catnip were most popular among domestic cats. Silver vine and Tatarian honeysuckle appear to be good alternatives to catnip for domestic cats that do not respond to catnip.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Actinidia
Felidae/fisiologia
Lonicera
Nepeta
Valeriana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinidia/química
Fatores Etários
Animais
Comportamento Animal
Gatos
Ciclopentanos
Feminino
Lonicera/química
Lynx/fisiologia
Masculino
Nepeta/química
Feromônios
Pironas
Olfato
Tigres
Valeriana/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Pheromones); 0 (Pyrones); 21651-62-7 (nepetalactone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170831
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170831
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170318
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-017-0987-6


  9 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28104860
[Au] Autor:Gray TN; Lynam AJ; Seng T; Laurance WF; Long B; Scotson L; Ripple WJ
[Ad] Endereço:Wildlife Alliance, Chamcamon, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. gray@wildlifealliance.org.
[Ti] Título:Wildlife-snaring crisis in Asian forests.
[So] Source:Science;355(6322):255-256, 2017 01 20.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Extinção Biológica
Ruminantes
Tigres
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ásia Sudeste
Florestas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aal4463


  10 / 335 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27854069
[Au] Autor:Carter NH; López-Bao JV; Bruskotter JT; Gore M; Chapron G; Johnson A; Epstein Y; Shrestha M; Frank J; Ohrens O; Treves A
[Ad] Endereço:Human-Environment Systems Research Center, Boise State University, 1910 University Dr., Boise, ID, 83725, USA. neilcarter@boisestate.edu.
[Ti] Título:A conceptual framework for understanding illegal killing of large carnivores.
[So] Source:Ambio;46(3):251-264, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1654-7209
[Cp] País de publicação:Sweden
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social-ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks. We apply our framework to two case studies, tigers in Laos and wolverines in northern Sweden, to demonstrate its utility in disentangling some of the complex features of carnivore poaching that may have hindered effective responses to the current poaching crisis. Our framework offers a common platform to help guide future research on wildlife poaching feedbacks, which has hitherto been lacking, in order to effectively inform policy making and enforcement.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Comportamento Criminoso
Modelos Teóricos
Mustelidae
Tigres
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecossistema
Seres Humanos
Laos
Política Pública
Suécia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170324
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170324
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s13280-016-0852-z



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