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Pesquisa : B01.050.150.900.649.313.750.377.875 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 329 [refinar]
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[PMID]:29315317
[Au] Autor:Marshall HH; Griffiths DJ; Mwanguhya F; Businge R; Griffiths AGF; Kyabulima S; Mwesige K; Sanderson JL; Thompson FJ; Vitikainen EIK; Cant MA
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Data collection and storage in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies: The Mongoose 2000 system.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190740, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Studying ecological and evolutionary processes in the natural world often requires research projects to follow multiple individuals in the wild over many years. These projects have provided significant advances but may also be hampered by needing to accurately and efficiently collect and store multiple streams of the data from multiple individuals concurrently. The increase in the availability and sophistication of portable computers (smartphones and tablets) and the applications that run on them has the potential to address many of these data collection and storage issues. In this paper we describe the challenges faced by one such long-term, individual-based research project: the Banded Mongoose Research Project in Uganda. We describe a system we have developed called Mongoose 2000 that utilises the potential of apps and portable computers to meet these challenges. We discuss the benefits and limitations of employing such a system in a long-term research project. The app and source code for the Mongoose 2000 system are freely available and we detail how it might be used to aid data collection and storage in other long-term individual-based projects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Ecossistema
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Computadores
Coleta de Dados
Bases de Dados Factuais
Feminino
Herpestidae
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Gravidez
Smartphone
Uganda
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190740


  2 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28469015
[Au] Autor:Vitikainen EIK; Marshall HH; Thompson FJ; Sanderson JL; Bell MBV; Gilchrist JS; Hodge SJ; Nichols HJ; Cant MA
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK emma.vitikainen@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Biased escorts: offspring sex, not relatedness explains alloparental care patterns in a cooperative breeder.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1854), 2017 May 17.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Kin selection theory predicts that animals should direct costly care where inclusive fitness gains are highest. Individuals may achieve this by directing care at closer relatives, yet evidence for such discrimination in vertebrates is equivocal. We investigated patterns of cooperative care in banded mongooses, where communal litters are raised by adult 'escorts' who form exclusive caring relationships with individual pups. We found no evidence that escorts and pups assort by parentage or relatedness. However, the time males spent escorting increased with increasing relatedness to the other group members, and to the pup they had paired with. Thus, we found no effect of relatedness in partner choice, but (in males) increasing helping effort with relatedness once partner choices had been made. Unexpectedly, the results showed clear assortment by sex, with female carers being more likely to tend to female pups, and male carers to male pups. This sex-specific assortment in helping behaviour has potential lifelong impacts on individual development and may impact the future size and composition of natal groups and dispersing cohorts. Where relatedness between helpers and recipients is already high, individuals may be better off choosing partners using other predictors of the costs and benefits of cooperation, without the need for possibly costly within-group kin discrimination.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Cooperativo
Comportamento de Ajuda
Herpestidae/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180131
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180131
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28404820
[Au] Autor:Dubuc C; English S; Thavarajah N; Dantzer B; Sharp SP; Spence-Jones HC; Gaynor D; Clutton-Brock TH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK cd556@cam.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Increased food availability raises eviction rate in a cooperative breeding mammal.
[So] Source:Biol Lett;13(4), 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1744-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In group-living mammals, the eviction of subordinate females from breeding groups by dominants may serve to reduce feeding competition or to reduce breeding competition. Here, we combined both correlational and experimental approaches to investigate whether increases in food intake by dominant females reduces their tendency to evict subordinate females in wild meerkats ( ). We used 20 years of long-term data to examine the association between foraging success and eviction rate, and provisioned dominant females during the second half of their pregnancy, when they most commonly evict subordinates. We show that rather than reducing the tendency for dominants to evict subordinates, foraging success of dominant females is positively associated with the probability that pregnant dominant females will evict subordinate females and that experimental feeding increased their rates of eviction. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that the eviction of subordinate females serves to reduce feeding competition and that its principal function may be to reduce reproductive competition. The increase in eviction rates following experimental feeding also suggests that rather than feeding competition, energetic constraints may normally constrain eviction rates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia
Herpestidae/fisiologia
Predomínio Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Dinâmica Populacional
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28397514
[Au] Autor:Burger M; Du Plessis EC; Suleman E; Gardner BR
[Ad] Endereço:Panorama Veterinary Clinic and Specialist Centre, Panorama. monica29241473@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta).
[So] Source:J S Afr Vet Assoc;88(0):e1-e5, 2017 Mar 31.
[Is] ISSN:2224-9435
[Cp] País de publicação:South Africa
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Two confirmed cases of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis occurred in an urban zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Both cases are suspected to be the result of feral cats gaining access to the enclosure. Toxoplasmosis has rarely been documented in meerkats. Subsequent to prophylactic treatment of all the animals and structural changes being implemented within the enclosure, no new cases have been recorded to date. Very little information is available on the disease in viverrids.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças do Gato/parasitologia
Doenças do Gato/transmissão
Herpestidae/parasitologia
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia
Autopsia/veterinária
Gatos
Evolução Fatal
Feminino
Masculino
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4102/jsava.v88i0.1428


  5 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28186336
[Au] Autor:Patterson S; Drewe JA; Pfeiffer DU; Clutton-Brock TH
[Ad] Endereço:Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK.
[Ti] Título:Social and environmental factors affect tuberculosis related mortality in wild meerkats.
[So] Source:J Anim Ecol;86(3):442-450, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2656
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Tuberculosis (TB) is an important and widespread disease of wildlife, livestock and humans world-wide, but long-term empirical datasets describing this condition are rare. A population of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa's Kalahari Desert have been diagnosed with Mycobacterium suricattae, a novel strain of TB, causing fatal disease in this group-living species. This study aimed to find characteristics associated with clinical TB in meerkats. These characteristics could subsequently be used to identify 'at-risk' animals within a population, and target these individuals for control measures. We conducted a retrospective study based on a unique, long-term life-history dataset of over 2000 individually identified animals covering a 14-year period after the first confirmatory diagnosis of TB in this population in 2001. Individual- and group-level risk factors were analysed using time-dependent Cox regression to examine their potential influence on the time to development of end-stage TB. Cases of disease involved 144 individuals in 27 of 73 social groups, across 12 of 14 years (an incidence rate of 3·78 cases/100 study years). At the individual level, increasing age had the greatest effect on risk of disease with a hazard ratio of 4·70 (95% CI: 1·92-11·53, P < 0·01) for meerkats aged 24-48 months, and a hazard ratio of 9·36 (3·34-26·25, P < 0·001) for animals aged over 48 months (both age categories compared with animals aged below 24 months). Previous group history of TB increased the hazard by a factor of 4·29 (2·00-9·17, P < 0·01), and an interaction was found between this variable and age. At a group level, immigrations of new group members in the previous year increased hazard by a factor of 3·00 (1·23-7·34, P = 0·016). There was weaker evidence of an environmental effect with a hazard ratio for a low rainfall (<200 mm) year of 2·28 (0·91-5·72, P = 0·079). Our findings identify potential individual characteristics on which to base targeted control measures such as vaccination. Additional data on the dynamics of the infection status of individuals and how this changes over time would complement these findings by enhancing understanding of disease progression and transmission, and thus the implications of potential management measures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Herpestidae
Mycobacterium/fisiologia
Predomínio Social
Tuberculose/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores Etários
Animais
Incidência
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Risco
Fatores Sexuais
África do Sul/epidemiologia
Tuberculose/epidemiologia
Tuberculose/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170211
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1365-2656.12649


  6 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28153414
[Au] Autor:Morris-Drake A; Bracken AM; Kern JM; Radford AN
[Ad] Endereço:School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: am9162@my.bristol.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Anthropogenic noise alters dwarf mongoose responses to heterospecific alarm calls.
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;223:476-483, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anthropogenic noise is an evolutionarily novel and widespread pollutant in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Despite increasing evidence that the additional noise generated by human activities can affect vocal communication, the majority of research has focused on the use of conspecific acoustic information, especially sexual signals. Many animals are known to eavesdrop on the alarm calls produced by other species, enhancing their likelihood of avoiding predation, but how this use of heterospecific information is affected by anthropogenic noise has received little empirical attention. Here, we use two field-based playback experiments on a habituated wild population of dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) to determine how anthropogenic noise influences the response of foragers to heterospecific alarm calls. We begin by demonstrating that dwarf mongooses respond appropriately to the alarm calls of sympatric chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) and tree squirrels (Paraxerus cepapi); fleeing only to the latter. We then show that mongoose foragers are less likely to exhibit this flee response to tree squirrel alarm calls during road-noise playback compared to ambient-sound playback. One explanation for the change in response is that noise-induced distraction or stress result in maladaptive behaviour. However, further analysis revealed that road-noise playback results in increased vigilance and that mongooses showing the greatest vigilance increase are those that do not subsequently exhibit a flee response to the alarm call. These individuals may therefore be acting appropriately: if the greater gathering of personal information indicates the absence of an actual predator despite an alarm call, the need to undertake costly fleeing behaviour can be avoided. Either way, our study indicates the potential for anthropogenic noise to interfere with the use of acoustic information from other species, and suggests the importance of considering how heterospecific networks are affected by this global pollutant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Herpestidae/fisiologia
Ruído/efeitos adversos
Comportamento Predatório
Sciuridae/fisiologia
Vocalização Animal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acústica
Animais
Feminino
Atividades Humanas
Comportamento Social
África do Sul
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28056006
[Au] Autor:Styczynski A; Tran C; Dirlikov E; Zapata MR; Ryff K; Petersen B; Sanchez AC; Mayshack M; Martinez LC; Condori R; Ellison J; Orciari L; Yager P; Peña RG; Sanabria D; Velázquez JC; Thomas D; García BR
[Ti] Título:Human Rabies - Puerto Rico, 2015.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;65(52):1474-1476, 2017 Jan 06.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:On December 1, 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) was notified by a local hospital of a suspected human rabies case. The previous evening, a Puerto Rican man aged 54 years arrived at the emergency department with fever, difficulty swallowing, hand paresthesia, cough, and chest tightness. The next morning the patient left against medical advice but returned to the emergency department in the afternoon with worsening symptoms. The patient's wife reported that he had been bitten by a mongoose during the first week of October, but had not sought care for the bite. While being transferred to the intensive care unit, the patient went into cardiac arrest and died. On December 3, rabies was confirmed from specimens collected during autopsy. PRDH conducted an initial rapid risk assessment, and five family members were started on rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mordeduras e Picadas
Herpestidae/virologia
Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação
Raiva/diagnóstico
Raiva/transmissão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Busca de Comunicante
Evolução Fatal
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição
Porto Rico
Raiva/prevenção & controle
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6552a4


  8 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28052763
[Au] Autor:Clarke C; Patterson SJ; Drewe JA; van Helden PD; Miller MA; Parsons SD
[Ad] Endereço:SAMRC Centre for TB Research; DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research; Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Development and evaluation of a diagnostic cytokine-release assay for Mycobacterium suricattae infection in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;13(1):2, 2017 Jan 04.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Sensitive diagnostic tools are necessary for the detection of Mycobacterium suricattae infection in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in order to more clearly understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and the ecological consequences of the disease in this species. We therefore aimed to develop a cytokine release assay to measure antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses of meerkats. RESULTS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were evaluated for the detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in meerkat plasma. An IP-10 ELISA was selected to measure the release of this cytokine in whole blood in response to Bovigam® PC-HP Stimulating Antigen, a commercial peptide pool of M. bovis antigens. Using this protocol, captive meerkats with no known M. suricattae exposure (n = 10) were tested and results were used to define a diagnostic cut off value (mean plus 2 standard deviations). This IP-10 release assay (IPRA) was then evaluated in free-living meerkats with known M. suricattae exposure, categorized as having either a low, moderate or high risk of infection with this pathogen. In each category, respectively, 24.7%, 27.3% and 82.4% of animals tested IPRA-positive. The odds of an animal testing positive was 14.0 times greater for animals with a high risk of M. suricattae infection compared to animals with a low risk. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of this assay as a measure of M. suricattae exposure in meerkat populations. Ongoing longitudinal studies aim to evaluate the value of the IPRA as a diagnostic test of M. suricattae infection in individual animals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo
Herpestidae
Interferon gama/metabolismo
Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária
Mycobacterium/classificação
Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens
Anticorpos
Bioensaio
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Interferon gama/sangue
Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico
Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies); 0 (Chemokine CXCL10); 82115-62-6 (Interferon-gamma)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-016-0927-x


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[PMID]:27903776
[Au] Autor:Kern JM; Radford AN
[Ad] Endereço:School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK julie.kern@bristol.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Social-bond strength influences vocally mediated recruitment to mobbing.
[So] Source:Biol Lett;12(11), 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1744-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Strong social bonds form between individuals in many group-living species, and these relationships can have important fitness benefits. When responding to vocalizations produced by groupmates, receivers are expected to adjust their behaviour depending on the nature of the bond they share with the signaller. Here we investigate whether the strength of the signaller-receiver social bond affects response to calls that attract others to help mob a predator. Using field-based playback experiments on a habituated population of wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula), we first demonstrate that a particular vocalization given on detecting predatory snakes does act as a recruitment call; receivers were more likely to look, approach and engage in mobbing behaviour than in response to control close calls. We then show that individuals respond more strongly to these recruitment calls if they are from groupmates with whom they are more strongly bonded (those with whom they preferentially groom and forage). Our study, therefore, provides novel evidence about the anti-predator benefits of close bonds within social groups.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Herpestidae/fisiologia
Comportamento Social
Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Herpestidae/psicologia
Serpentes
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161202
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 329 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27595178
[Au] Autor:Kern JM; Radford AN
[Ad] Endereço:School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, 24 Tyndall Avenue, University of Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: Julie.Kern@bristol.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Anthropogenic noise disrupts use of vocal information about predation risk.
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;218:988-995, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Anthropogenic noise is rapidly becoming a universal environmental feature. While the impacts of such additional noise on avian sexual signals are well documented, our understanding of its effect in other terrestrial taxa, on other vocalisations, and on receivers is more limited. Little is known, for example, about the influence of anthropogenic noise on responses to vocalisations relating to predation risk, despite the potential fitness consequences. We use playback experiments to investigate the impact of traffic noise on the responses of foraging dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) to surveillance calls produced by sentinels, individuals scanning for danger from a raised position whose presence usually results in reduced vigilance by foragers. Foragers exhibited a lessened response to surveillance calls in traffic-noise compared to ambient-sound playback, increasing personal vigilance. A second playback experiment, using noise playbacks without surveillance calls, suggests that the increased vigilance could arise in part from the direct influence of additional noise as there was an increase in response to traffic-noise playback alone. Acoustic masking could also play a role. Foragers maintained the ability to distinguish between sentinels of different dominance class, increasing personal vigilance when presented with subordinate surveillance calls compared to calls of a dominant groupmate in both noise treatments, suggesting complete masking was not occurring. However, an acoustic-transmission experiment showed that while surveillance calls were potentially audible during approaching traffic noise, they were probably inaudible during peak traffic intensity noise. While recent work has demonstrated detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise on defensive responses to actual predatory attacks, which are relatively rare, our results provide evidence of a potentially more widespread influence since animals should constantly assess background risk to optimise the foraging-vigilance trade-off.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Herpestidae/fisiologia
Ruído/efeitos adversos
Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Comportamento Predatório
Comportamento Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170923
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170923
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160906
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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