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  1 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28457066
[Au] Autor:Lavee I; Najjar R; Ben-Meir P; Sela E; Kassif Y; Emodi O; Kogan L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Plastic Surgery, Western Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel.
[Ti] Título:Hyena Attack of a Child's Head and Face: Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Challenge.
[So] Source:Isr Med Assoc J;19(2):123-124, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1565-1088
[Cp] País de publicação:Israel
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mordeduras e Picadas
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais
Traumatismos Faciais
Hyaenidae
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Mordeduras e Picadas/diagnóstico
Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia
Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia
Transplante Ósseo/métodos
Criança
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia
Traumatismos Faciais/diagnóstico
Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia
Traumatismos Faciais/cirurgia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Transplante de Pele/métodos
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171130
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171130
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170501
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28217865
[Au] Autor:Balme GA; Miller JR; Pitman RT; Hunter LT
[Ad] Endereço:Panthera, 8 West 40th Street, New York, NY, 10018, USA.
[Ti] Título:Caching reduces kleptoparasitism in a solitary, large felid.
[So] Source:J Anim Ecol;86(3):634-644, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2656
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Food caching is a common strategy used by a diversity of animals, including carnivores, to store and/or secure food. Despite its prevalence, the drivers of caching behaviour, and its impacts on individuals, remain poorly understood, particularly for short-term food cachers. Leopards Panthera pardus exhibit a unique form of short-term food caching, regularly hoisting, storing and consuming prey in trees. We explored the factors motivating such behaviour among leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa, associated with four not mutually exclusive hypotheses: food-perishability, consumption-time, resource-pulse and kleptoparasitism-avoidance. Using data from 2032 prey items killed by 104 leopards from 2013 to 2015, we built generalized linear mixed models to examine how hoisting behaviour, feeding time and the likelihood of a kill being kleptoparasitized varied with leopard sex and age, prey size and vulnerability, vegetation, elevation, climate, and the immediate and long-term risk posed by dominant competitors. Leopards hoisted 51% of kills. They were more likely to hoist kills of an intermediate size, outside of a resource pulse and in response to the presence of some competitors. Hoisted kills were also fed on for longer than non-hoisted kills. At least 21% of kills were kleptoparasitized, mainly by spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta. Kills were more likely to be kleptoparasitized at lower temperatures and if prey were larger, not hoisted, and in areas where the risk of encountering hyaenas was greatest. Female leopards that suffered higher rates of kleptoparasitism exhibited lower annual reproductive success than females that lost fewer kills. Our results strongly support the kleptoparasitism-avoidance hypothesis and suggest hoisting is a key adaptation that enables leopards to coexist sympatrically with high densities of competitors. We further argue that leopards may select smaller-sized prey than predicted by optimal foraging theory, to balance trade-offs between kleptoparasitic losses and the energetic gains derived from killing larger prey. Although caching may provide the added benefits of delaying food perishability and enabling consumption over an extended period, the behaviour primarily appears to be a strategy for leopards, and possibly other short-term cachers, to reduce the risks of kleptoparasitism.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cadeia Alimentar
Hyaenidae/fisiologia
Panthera/fisiologia
Comportamento Predatório
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1365-2656.12654


  3 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27928865
[Au] Autor:Nikolin VM; Olarte-Castillo XA; Osterrieder N; Hofer H; Dubovi E; Mazzoni CJ; Brunner E; Goller KV; Fyumagwa RD; Moehlman PD; Thierer D; East ML
[Ad] Endereço:Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315, Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Canine distemper virus in the Serengeti ecosystem: molecular adaptation to different carnivore species.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol;26(7):2111-2130, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1365-294X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Was the 1993/1994 fatal canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in lions and spotted hyaenas in the Serengeti ecosystem caused by the recent spillover of a virulent domestic dog strain or one well adapted to these noncanids? We examine this question using sequence data from 13 'Serengeti' strains including five complete genomes obtained between 1993 and 2011. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses reveal that strains from noncanids during the epidemic were more closely related to each other than to those from domestic or wild canids. All noncanid 'Serengeti' strains during the epidemic encoded: (1) one novel substitution G134S in the CDV-V protein; and (2) the rare amino acid combination 519I/549H at two sites under positive selection in the region of the CDV-H protein that binds to SLAM (CD 150) host cell receptors. Worldwide, only a few noncanid strains in the America II lineage encode CDV-H 519I/549H. All canid 'Serengeti' strains during the epidemic coded CDV-V 134G, and CDV-H 519R/549Y, or 519R/549H. A functional assay of cell entry revealed the highest performance by CDV-H proteins encoding 519I/549H in cells expressing lion SLAM receptors, and the highest performance by proteins encoding 519R/549Y, typical of dog strains worldwide, in cells expressing dog SLAM receptors. Our findings are consistent with an epidemic in lions and hyaenas caused by CDV variants better adapted to noncanids than canids, but not with the recent spillover of a dog strain. Our study reveals a greater complexity of CDV molecular epidemiology in multihost environments than previously thought.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Canidae/virologia
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética
Evolução Molecular
Filogenia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Biológica/genética
Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Animais Selvagens/virologia
Cinomose/epidemiologia
Ecossistema
Haplótipos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro
Hyaenidae/virologia
Leões/virologia
Modelos Genéticos
Epidemiologia Molecular
RNA Viral/genética
Seleção Genética
Análise de Sequência de RNA
Tanzânia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170512
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170512
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mec.13902


  4 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27913878
[Au] Autor:Burroughs REJ; Penzhorn BL; Wiesel I; Barker N; Vorster I; Oosthuizen MC
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Piroplasms in brown hyaenas (Parahyaena brunnea) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Namibia and South Africa are closely related to Babesia lengau.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;116(2):685-692, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective of our study was identification and molecular characterization of piroplasms and rickettsias occurring in brown (Parahyaena brunnea) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) from various localities in Namibia and South Africa. Whole blood (n = 59) and skin (n = 3) specimens from brown (n = 15) and spotted hyaenas (n = 47) were screened for the presence of Babesia, Theileria, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization technique. PCR products of 52/62 (83.9%) of the specimens hybridized only with the Theileria/Babesia genus-specific probes and not with any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of a novel species or variant of a species. No Ehrlichia and/or Anaplasma species DNA could be detected. A parasite 18S ribosomal RNA gene of brown (n = 3) and spotted hyaena (n = 6) specimens was subsequently amplified and cloned, and the recombinants were sequenced. Homologous sequence searches of databases indicated that the obtained sequences were most closely related to Babesia lengau, originally described from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Observed sequence similarities were subsequently confirmed by phylogenetic analyses which showed that the obtained hyaena sequences formed a monophyletic group with B. lengau, B abesia conradae and sequences previously isolated from humans and wildlife in the western USA. Within the B. lengau clade, the obtained sequences and the published B. lengau sequences were grouped into six distinct groups, of which groups I to V represented novel B. lengau genotypes and/or gene variants. We suggest that these genotypes cannot be classified as new Babesia species, but rather as variants of B. lengau. This is the first report of occurrence of piroplasms in brown hyaenas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anaplasma/classificação
Babesia/classificação
Ehrlichia/classificação
Hyaenidae/parasitologia
Theileria/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anaplasma/genética
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação
Animais
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
Babesia/genética
Babesia/isolamento & purificação
Babesiose/epidemiologia
DNA Bacteriano/genética
DNA de Protozoário/genética
Ehrlichia/genética
Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação
Genótipo
Namíbia
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico
Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
Filogenia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
Homologia de Sequência
África do Sul
Theileria/genética
Theileria/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171007
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171007
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-016-5334-5


  5 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27854157
[Au] Autor:Pribbenow S; Shrivastav TG; Dehnhard M
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Reproduction Biology , Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research , Berlin , Germany.
[Ti] Título:Measuring fecal testosterone metabolites in spotted hyenas: Choosing the wrong assay may lead to erroneous results.
[So] Source:J Immunoassay Immunochem;38(3):308-321, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1532-4230
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) that detect fecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) are powerful tools to monitor gonadal activity non-invasively. However, a challenge with testosterone EIAs might be their potential for cross-reactivities with structurally similar glucocorticoid metabolites. Therefore, we aimed to verify the capability of four different testosterone EIAs to monitor fTM without reflecting changes in adrenocortical activity in spotted hyenas by analyzing fecal samples following testosterone and ACTH challenge tests. We demonstrated that none of the testosterone EIAs is appropriate to measure fTM as all of them showed substantial cross-reactivities to unknown metabolites. Our study underlines the importance of validating androgen EIAs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fezes/química
Hyaenidae/metabolismo
Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/normas
Testosterona/análise
Testosterona/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
Feminino
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
3XMK78S47O (Testosterone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171002
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171002
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15321819.2016.1260584


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[PMID]:27700620
[Au] Autor:Perri AR; Heinrich S; Gur-Arieh S; Saunders JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Human Evolution, Max Plank Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103 Germany.
[Ti] Título:Earliest Evidence of Toxocara sp. in a 1.2-Million-Yr-Old Extinct Hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris) Coprolite from Northwest Pakistan.
[So] Source:J Parasitol;103(1):138-141, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1937-2345
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The study of fossil parasites can provide insight into the antiquity of host-parasite relationships and the origins and evolution of these paleoparasites. Here, a coprolite (fossilized feces) from the 1.2-million-yr-old paleontological site of Haro River Quarry in northwestern Pakistan was analyzed for paleoparasites. Micromorphological thin sectioning and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis confirms the coprolite belonged to a bone-eating carnivore, likely the extinct giant short-faced hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris). Parasitological analysis shows the coprolite to be positive for Toxocara sp. To our knowledge, this is the earliest evidence for Toxocara sp. found.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fósseis/parasitologia
Hyaenidae/parasitologia
Toxocara/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Fezes/parasitologia
Análise de Fourier
História Antiga
Hyaenidae/classificação
Paquistão
Paleopatologia
Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
Toxocaríase/história
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170531
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170531
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161005
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1645/16-71


  7 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27634400
[Au] Autor:Therrien F; Quinney A; Tanaka K; Zelenitsky DK
[Ad] Endereço:Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, PO Box 7500, Drumheller, Alberta, Canada T0J 0Y0 francois.therrien@gov.ab.ca.
[Ti] Título:Accuracy of mandibular force profiles for bite force estimation and feeding behavior reconstruction in extant and extinct carnivorans.
[So] Source:J Exp Biol;219(Pt 23):3738-3749, 2016 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1477-9145
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Mandibular force profiles apply the principles of beam theory to identify mandibular biomechanical properties that reflect the bite force and feeding strategies of extant and extinct predators. While this method uses the external dimensions of the mandibular corpus to determine its biomechanical properties, more accurate results could potentially be obtained by quantifying its internal cortical bone distribution. To test this possibility, mandibular force profiles were calculated using both external mandibular dimensions ('solid mandible model') and quantification of internal bone distribution of the mandibular corpus obtained from computed tomography scans ('hollow mandible model') for five carnivorans (Canis lupus, Crocuta crocuta, Panthera leo, Neofelis nebulosa and the extinct Canis dirus). Comparison reveals that the solid model slightly overestimates mandibular biomechanical properties, but the pattern of change in biomechanical properties along the mandible remains the same. As such, feeding behavior reconstructions are consistent between the two models and are not improved by computed tomography. Bite force estimates produced by the two models are similar, except in C. crocuta, where the solid model underestimates bite force by 10-14%. This discrepancy is due to the more solid nature of the C. crocuta mandible relative to other carnivorans. Therefore, computed tomography improves bite force estimation accuracy for taxa with thicker mandibular corpora, but not significantly so otherwise. Bite force estimates derived from mandibular force profiles are far closer to empirically measured bite force than those inferred from jaw musculature dimension. Consequently, bite force estimates derived from this method can be used to calibrate finite-element analysis models.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia
Força de Mordida
Carnívoros/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Hyaenidae/fisiologia
Mandíbula/fisiologia
Panthera/fisiologia
Lobos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Análise de Elementos Finitos
Modelos Biológicos
Comportamento Predatório
Estresse Mecânico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170803
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170803
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160917
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27349090
[Au] Autor:Moll RJ; Killion AK; Montgomery RA; Tambling CJ; Hayward MW
[Ti] Título:Spatial patterns of African ungulate aggregation reveal complex but limited risk effects from reintroduced carnivores.
[So] Source:Ecology;97(5):1123-34, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:0012-9658
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The "landscape of fear" model, recently advanced in research on the non-lethal effects of carnivores on ungulates, predicts that prey will exhibit detectable antipredator behavior not only during risky times (i.e., predators in close proximity) but also in risky places (i.e., habitat where predators kill prey or tend to occur). Aggregation is an important antipredator response in numerous ungulate species, making it a useful metric to evaluate the strength and scope of the landscape of fear in a multi-carnivore, multi-ungulate system. We conducted ungulate surveys over a 2-year period in South Africa to test the influence of three broad-scale sources of variation in the landscape on spatial patterns in aggregation: (1) habitat structure, (2) where carnivores tended to occur (i.e., population-level utilization distributions), and (3) where carnivores tended to kill ungulate prey (i.e., probabilistic kill site maps). We analyzed spatial variation in aggregation for six ungulate species exposed to predation from recently reintroduced lion (Panthera leo) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Although we did detect larger aggregations of ungulates in "risky places," these effects existed primarily for smaller-bodied (<150 kg) ungulates and were relatively moderate (change of 4 individuals across all habitats). In comparison, ungulate aggregations tended to increase at a slightly lower rate in habitat that was more open. The lion, an ambush (stalking) carnivore, had stronger influence on ungulate aggregation than the hyena, an active (coursing) carnivore. In addition, places where lions tended to kill prey had a greater effect on ungulate aggregation than places where lions tended to occur, but an opposing pattern existed for hyena. Our study reveals heterogeneity in the landscape of fear and suggests broad-scale risk effects following carnivore reintroduction only moderately influence ungulate aggregation size and vary considerably by predator hunting mode, type of predation risk, and prey species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Artiodáctilos/fisiologia
Equidae/fisiologia
Hyaenidae/fisiologia
Leões/fisiologia
Comportamento Predatório
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Distribuição Animal/fisiologia
Animais
Modelos Biológicos
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160628
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160628
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160629
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 119 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27196603
[Au] Autor:Buddhachat K; Klinhom S; Siengdee P; Brown JL; Nomsiri R; Kaewmong P; Thitaram C; Mahakkanukrauh P; Nganvongpanit K
[Ad] Endereço:Animal Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand.
[Ti] Título:Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(5):e0155458, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Chifres de Veado/química
Osso e Ossos/química
Elementos
Cornos/química
Dente/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Búfalos
Gatos
Análise Discriminante
Cães
Golfinhos
Elefantes
Fluorescência
Haplorrinos
Hematopoese
Seres Humanos
Hyaenidae
Ferro/química
Leões
Metais Pesados/química
Ovinos
Especificidade da Espécie
Espectrometria por Raios X
Suínos
Tigres
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Elements); 0 (Metals, Heavy); E1UOL152H7 (Iron)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160520
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155458


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[PMID]:27144649
[Au] Autor:Arriaza MC; Domínguez-Rodrigo M; Yravedra J; Baquedano E
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Geología, Geografía y Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alcalá, Edificio de Ciencias. Campus Externo. Ctra. A-II-km 33,600 C. P. 28871 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain.
[Ti] Título:Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(5):e0153797, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Densidade Óssea/fisiologia
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia
Leões/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Arqueologia/métodos
Evolução Biológica
Ecologia
Meio Ambiente
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Fósseis
Hominidae/fisiologia
Hyaenidae/fisiologia
Paleontologia/métodos
Panthera/fisiologia
Tanzânia
Dente/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0153797



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