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[PMID]:27770624
[Au] Autor:Rocchi F; Dylla ME; Bohlen PA; Ramachandran R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37212, USA.
[Ti] Título:Spatial and temporal disparity in signals and maskers affects signal detection in non-human primates.
[So] Source:Hear Res;344:1-12, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5891
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli (signals) increase in the presence of maskers. Natural environments contain maskers/distractors that can have a wide range of spatiotemporal properties relative to the signal. While these parameters have been well explored psychophysically in humans, they have not been well explored in animal models, and their neuronal underpinnings are not well understood. As a precursor to the neuronal measurements, we report the effects of systematically varying the spatial and temporal relationship between signals and noise in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata). Macaques detected tones masked by noise in a Go/No-Go task in which the spatiotemporal relationships between the tone and noise were systematically varied. Masked thresholds were higher when the masker was continuous or gated on and off simultaneously with the signal, and lower when the continuous masker was turned off during the signal. A burst of noise caused higher masked thresholds if it completely temporally overlapped with the signal, whereas partial overlap resulted in lower thresholds. Noise durations needed to be at least 100 ms before significant masking could be observed. Thresholds for short duration tones were significantly higher when the onsets of signal and masker coincided compared to when the signal was presented during the steady state portion of the noise (overshoot). When signal and masker were separated in space, masked signal detection thresholds decreased relative to when the masker and signal were co-located (spatial release from masking). Masking release was larger for azimuthal separations than for elevation separations. These results in macaques are similar to those observed in humans, suggesting that the specific spatiotemporal relationship between signal and masker determine threshold in natural environments for macaques in a manner similar to humans. These results form the basis for future investigations of neuronal correlates and mechanisms of masking.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal
Sinais (Psicologia)
Ruído/efeitos adversos
Mascaramento Perceptivo
Nível de Percepção Sonora
Detecção de Sinal Psicológico
Localização de Som
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Animais
Audiometria
Vias Auditivas/fisiologia
Limiar Auditivo
Macaca mulatta
Macaca radiata
Masculino
Modelos Animais
Periodicidade
Psicoacústica
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28880949
[Au] Autor:Coplan JD; Gupta NK; Karim A; Rozenboym A; Smith ELP; Kral JG; Rosenblum LA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biological Science Unit, State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to foraging uncertainty: A model of individual vs. social allostasis and the "Superorganism Hypothesis".
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184340, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Food insecurity is a major global contributor to developmental origins of adult disease. The allostatic load of maternal food uncertainty from variable foraging demand (VFD) activates corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) without eliciting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation measured on a group level. Individual homeostatic adaptations of the HPA axis may subserve second-order homeostasis, a process we provisionally term "social allostasis." We postulate that maternal food insecurity induces a "superorganism" state through coordination of individual HPA axis response. METHODS: Twenty-four socially-housed bonnet macaque maternal-infant dyads were exposed to 16 weeks of alternating two-week epochs of low or high foraging demand shown to compromise normative maternal-infant rearing. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRF concentrations and plasma cortisol were measured pre- and post-VFD. Dyadic distance was measured, and blinded observers performed pre-VFD social ranking assessments. RESULTS: Despite marked individual cortisol responses (mean change = 20%) there was an absence of maternal HPA axis group mean response to VFD (0%). Whereas individual CSF CRF concentrations change = 56%, group mean did increase 25% (p = 0.002). Our "dyadic vulnerability" index (low infant weight, low maternal weight, subordinate maternal social status and reduced dyadic distance) predicted maternal cortisol decreases (p < 0.0001) whereas relatively "advantaged" dyads exhibited maternal cortisol increases in response to VFD exposure. COMMENT: In response to a chronic stressor, relative dyadic vulnerability plays a significant role in determining the directionality and magnitude of individual maternal HPA axis responses in the service of maintaining a "superorganism" version of HPA axis homeostasis, provisionally termed "social allostasis."
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Macaca radiata/fisiologia
Comportamento Materno/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alostase
Animais
Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/sangue
Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/líquido cefalorraquidiano
Feminino
Hidrocortisona/sangue
Hidrocortisona/líquido cefalorraquidiano
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia
Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo
Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia
Incerteza
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
9015-71-8 (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone); WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184340


  3 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28413827
[Au] Autor:Ratan Murty NA; Arun SP
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
[Ti] Título:A Balanced Comparison of Object Invariances in Monkey IT Neurons.
[So] Source:eNeuro;4(2), 2017 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2373-2822
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Our ability to recognize objects across variations in size, position, or rotation is based on invariant object representations in higher visual cortex. However, we know little about how these invariances are related. Are some invariances harder than others? Do some invariances arise faster than others? These comparisons can be made only upon equating image changes across transformations. Here, we targeted invariant neural representations in the monkey inferotemporal (IT) cortex using object images with balanced changes in size, position, and rotation. Across the recorded population, IT neurons generalized across size and position both stronger and faster than to rotations in the image plane as well as in depth. We obtained a similar ordering of invariances in deep neural networks but not in low-level visual representations. Thus, invariant neural representations dynamically evolve in a temporal order reflective of their underlying computational complexity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neurônios/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Rotação
Percepção de Tamanho/fisiologia
Córtex Visual/citologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia
Animais
Simulação por Computador
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia
Lateralidade Funcional
Macaca radiata
Masculino
Redes Neurais (Computação)
Dinâmica não Linear
Estimulação Luminosa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170424
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170424
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170418
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27733595
[Au] Autor:Ratan Murty NA; Arun SP
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
[Ti] Título:Seeing a straight line on a curved surface: decoupling of patterns from surfaces by single IT neurons.
[So] Source:J Neurophysiol;117(1):104-116, 2017 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We have no difficulty seeing a straight line drawn on a paper even when the paper is bent, but this inference is in fact nontrivial. Doing so requires either matching local features or representing the pattern after factoring out the surface shape. Here we show that single neurons in the monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex show invariant responses to patterns across rigid and nonrigid changes of surfaces. We recorded neuronal responses to stimuli in which the pattern and the surrounding surface were varied independently. In a subset of neurons, we found pattern-surface interactions that produced similar responses to stimuli across congruent pattern and surface transformations. These interactions produced systematic shifts in curvature tuning of patterns when overlaid on convex and flat surfaces. Our results show that surfaces are factored out of patterns by single neurons, thereby enabling complex perceptual inferences. NEW & NOTEWORTHY: We have no difficulty seeing a straight line on a curved piece of paper, but in fact, doing so requires decoupling the shape of the surface from the pattern itself. Here we report a novel form of invariance in the visual cortex: single neurons in monkey inferior temporal cortex respond similarly to congruent transformations of patterns and surfaces, in effect decoupling patterns from the surface on which they are overlaid.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia
Neurônios/fisiologia
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Lobo Temporal/citologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Análise de Variância
Animais
Atenção/fisiologia
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia
Macaca radiata
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Estimulação Luminosa
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170908
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170908
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161014
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/jn.00551.2016


  5 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26946119
[Au] Autor:Chaudhari UK; Imran M; Manjramkar DD; Metkari SM; Sable NP; Gavhane DS; Katkam RR; Sachdeva G; Thakur MH; Kholkute SD
[Ad] Endereço:1 Department of Primate Biology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (NIRRH), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Parel, Mumbai, India.
[Ti] Título:Use of ultrasound imaging for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in the bonnet macaque ( Macaca radiata).
[So] Source:Lab Anim;51(1):65-74, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1758-1117
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ultrasound is a powerful, low-cost, non-invasive medical tool used by laboratory animal veterinarians for diagnostic imaging. Sonohysterography and transvaginal ultrasound are frequently used to assess uterine anomalies in women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). In the present study, we have evaluated the abdominal ultrasound of bonnet monkeys ( n = 8) showing spontaneous ovulatory ( n = 5) and anovulatory ( n = 3) AUB. The ovulatory ( n = 5) macaques showed cyclic AUB for 7-8 days. The anovulatory ( n = 3) macaques had irregular AUB with menstrual cycles of 40-45 days. The B-mode abdominal, colour Doppler and 3D ultrasound scans were performed during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Ultrasound examination revealed endometrial polyps in five macaques and endometrial hyperplasia in three animals. The width and length of endometrial polyps was around 0.5-1 cm (average 0.51 ± 0.23 cm × 0.96 ± 0.16 cm) with significant increase in endometrial thickness ( P < 0.0002). 3D ultrasound also showed a homogeneous mass in the uterine cavity and colour Doppler ultrasound showed increased vascularity in the endometrial polyps. Endometrial hyperplasia characteristically appeared as a thickened echogenic endometrium ( P < 0.0002). This study demonstrates the use of non-invasive ultrasound techniques in the diagnosis of AUB in macaques.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Macaca radiata
Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico por imagem
Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Doenças dos Macacos/etiologia
Ultrassonografia
Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170523
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170523
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160307
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0023677216637304


  6 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28268958
[Au] Autor:McNiel DB; Choi JS; Hessburg JP; Francis JT
[Ti] Título:Reward value is encoded in primary somatosensory cortex and can be decoded from neural activity during performance of a psychophysical task.
[So] Source:Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc;2016:3064-3067, 2016 08.
[Is] ISSN:1557-170X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Encoding of reward valence has been shown in various brain regions, including deep structures such as the substantia nigra as well as cortical structures such as the orbitofrontal cortex. While the correlation between these signals and reward valence have been shown in aggregated data comprised of many trials, little work has been done investigating the feasibility of decoding reward valence on a single trial basis. Towards this goal, one non-human primate (macaca radiata) was trained to grip and hold a target level of force in order to earn zero, one, two, or three juice rewards. The animal was informed of the impending result before reward delivery by means of a visual cue. Neural data was recorded from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) during these experiments and firing rate histograms were created following the appearance of the visual cue and used as input to a variety of classifiers. Reward valence was decoded with high levels of accuracy from S1 both in the post-cue and post-reward periods. Additionally, the proportion of units showing significant changes in their firing rates was influenced in a predictable way based on reward valence. The existence of a signal within S1 cortex that encodes reward valence could have utility for implementing reinforcement learning algorithms for brain machine interfaces. The ability to decode this reward signal in real time with limited data is paramount to the usability of such a signal in practical applications.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Psicofísica
Recompensa
Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Macaca radiata
Neurônios/citologia
Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia
Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
Reforço (Psicologia)
Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia
Substância Negra/citologia
Substância Negra/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171121
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171121
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170309
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2016.7591376


  7 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27547956
[Au] Autor:Turner EC; Young NA; Reed JL; Collins CE; Flaherty DK; Gabi M; Kaas JH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., USA.
[Ti] Título:Distributions of Cells and Neurons across the Cortical Sheet in Old World Macaques.
[So] Source:Brain Behav Evol;88(1):1-13, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9743
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:According to previous research, cell and neuron densities vary across neocortex in a similar manner across primate taxa. Here, we provide a more extensive examination of this effect in macaque monkeys. We separated neocortex from the underlying white matter in 4 macaque monkey hemispheres (1 Macaca nemestrina, 2 Macaca radiata, and 1 Macaca mulatta), manually flattened the neocortex, and divided it into smaller tissue pieces for analysis. The number of cells and neurons were determined for each piece across the cortical sheet using flow cytometry. Primary visual cortex had the most densely packed neurons and primary motor cortex had the least densely packed neurons. With respect to differences in brain size between cases, there was little variability in the total cell and neuron numbers within specific areas, and overall trends were similar to what has been previously described in Old World baboons and other primates. The average hemispheric total cell number per hemisphere ranged from 2.9 to 3.7 billion, while the average total neuron number ranged from 1.3 to 1.7 billion neurons. The visual cortex neuron densities were predictably higher, ranging from 18.2 to 34.7 million neurons/cm2 in macaques, in comparison to a range of 9.3-17.7 million neurons/cm2 across cortex as a whole. The results support other evidence that neuron surface densities vary across the cortical sheet in a predictable pattern within and across primate taxa.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Macaca/anatomia & histologia
Neocórtex/citologia
Neurônios/citologia
Córtex Visual/citologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Contagem de Células
Feminino
Macaca mulatta/anatomia & histologia
Macaca nemestrina/anatomia & histologia
Macaca radiata/anatomia & histologia
Masculino
Córtex Motor/citologia
Neuroglia/citologia
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170719
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170719
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160823
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000446762


  8 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27153397
[Au] Autor:Do C; Lang CF; Lin J; Darbary H; Krupska I; Gaba A; Petukhova L; Vonsattel JP; Gallagher MP; Goland RS; Clynes RA; Dwork A; Kral JG; Monk C; Christiano AM; Tycko B
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: cd2695@columbia.edu.
[Ti] Título:Mechanisms and Disease Associations of Haplotype-Dependent Allele-Specific DNA Methylation.
[So] Source:Am J Hum Genet;98(5):934-955, 2016 May 05.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6605
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Haplotype-dependent allele-specific methylation (hap-ASM) can impact disease susceptibility, but maps of this phenomenon using stringent criteria in disease-relevant tissues remain sparse. Here we apply array-based and Methyl-Seq approaches to multiple human tissues and cell types, including brain, purified neurons and glia, T lymphocytes, and placenta, and identify 795 hap-ASM differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 3,082 strong methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs), most not previously reported. More than half of these DMRs have cell type-restricted ASM, and among them are 188 hap-ASM DMRs and 933 mQTLs located near GWAS signals for immune and neurological disorders. Targeted bis-seq confirmed hap-ASM in 12/13 loci tested, including CCDC155, CD69, FRMD1, IRF1, KBTBD11, and S100A(∗)-ILF2, associated with immune phenotypes, MYT1L, PTPRN2, CMTM8 and CELF2, associated with neurological disorders, NGFR and HLA-DRB6, associated with both immunological and brain disorders, and ZFP57, a trans-acting regulator of genomic imprinting. Polymorphic CTCF and transcription factor (TF) binding sites were over-represented among hap-ASM DMRs and mQTLs, and analysis of the human data, supplemented by cross-species comparisons to macaques, indicated that CTCF and TF binding likelihood predicts the strength and direction of the allelic methylation asymmetry. These results show that hap-ASM is highly tissue specific; an important trans-acting regulator of genomic imprinting is regulated by this phenomenon; and variation in CTCF and TF binding sites is an underlying mechanism, and maps of hap-ASM and mQTLs reveal regulatory sequences underlying supra- and sub-threshold GWAS peaks in immunological and neurological disorders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Metilação de DNA
Impressão Genômica
Haplótipos/genética
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
Locos de Características Quantitativas
Transativadores/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alelos
Animais
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Encéfalo/patologia
Feminino
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
Seres Humanos
Doenças do Sistema Imune/genética
Macaca mulatta
Macaca radiata
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética
Placenta/metabolismo
Placenta/patologia
Gravidez
Especificidade da Espécie
Linfócitos T/metabolismo
Linfócitos T/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Trans-Activators)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170901
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170901
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160507
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26864769
[Au] Autor:Nelson MJ; Murthy A; Schall JD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Center for Integrative & Cognitive Neuroscience, Vanderbilt Vision Research Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; and.
[Ti] Título:Neural control of visual search by frontal eye field: chronometry of neural events and race model processes.
[So] Source:J Neurophysiol;115(4):1954-69, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We investigated the chronometry of neural processes in frontal eye fields of macaques performing double-step saccade visual search in which a conspicuous target changes location in the array on a random fraction of trials. Durations of computational processes producing a saccade to original and final target locations (GO1 and GO2, respectively) are derived from response times (RT) on different types of trials. In these data, GO2 tended to be faster than GO1, demonstrating that inhibition of the initial saccade did not delay production of the compensated saccade. Here, we measured the dynamics of visual, visuomovement, and movement neuron activity in relation to these processes by examining trials when neurons instantiated either process. First, we verified that saccades were initiated when the discharge rate of movement neurons reached a threshold that was invariant across RT and trial type. Second, the time when visual and visuomovement neurons selected the target and when movement neuron activity began to accumulate were not significantly different across trial type. Third, the interval from the beginning of accumulation to threshold of movement-related activity was significantly shorter when instantiating the GO2 relative to the GO1 process. Differences observed between monkeys are discussed. Fourth, random variation of RT was accounted for to some extent by random variation in both the onset and duration of selective activity of each neuron type but mostly by variation of movement neuron accumulation duration. These findings offer new insights into the sources of control of target selection and saccade production in dynamic environments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Potenciais Evocados Visuais
Tempo de Reação
Movimentos Sacádicos
Campos Visuais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Lobo Frontal/citologia
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia
Macaca mulatta
Macaca radiata
Neurônios/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170403
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170403
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160212
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/jn.01023.2014


  10 / 728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26735328
[Au] Autor:Coplan JD; Kolavennu V; Abdallah CG; Mathew SJ; Perera TD; Pantol G; Carpenter D; Tang C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA. Electronic address: Jeremy.Coplan@Downstate.edu.
[Ti] Título:Patterns of anterior versus posterior white matter fractional anistotropy concordance in adult nonhuman primates: Effects of early life stress.
[So] Source:J Affect Disord;192:167-75, 2016 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2517
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Functional neuroimaging studies report global prefrontal dysconnectivity in mood disorders, supporting the notion of widespread disruptions in brain networks. Microscopic alterations in white matter (WM) tracts - which possess neuroplastic properties and play a central role in brain connectivity - are interrogated herein in the context of brain dysconnectivity. Early life stress (ELS), an antecedent to human mood disorders, induces WM alterations in volumetrics and integrity. We hypothesized that nonhuman primate infants exposed to ELS would exhibit persistent impairments in both frontal and posterior concordance of WM integrity, therefore contributing to global brain dysconnectivity. METHODS: Using a 3T MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 21 adult male Bonnet macaques, 12 of whom had been raised under variable foraging demand (VFD) conditions and nine of whom had been raised under normative conditions (Non-VFD). As representative of anterior regions, fractional anisotropy (FA) concordance between anterior corpus callosum (ACorpusC) and anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) was examined. For posterior regions, FA concordance between posterior corpus callosum (PCorpusC) and posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLICA) and between PCorpusC and occipital WM was examined. Examination of posterior FA was explored in the context of frontal markers of neuroplasticity. RESULTS: A concordant relationship for FA between left ALIC and ACorpusC was evident in Non-VFD-reared subjects, but significantly absent in VFD-reared subjects. For left posterior regions, FA concordance between PLICA and PCorpusC and occipital WM and PCorpusC was evident in VFD-reared and not Non-VFD-reared subjects. The posterior concordance in VFD was significantly distinguishable from the deficit in anterior concordance FA in VFD. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the view that disrupted emotional integrity of the maternal-infant attachment process affects normative synchronous development of frontal white matter tracts but creates errant posterior concordance and also disrupts an inverse relationship between posterior white matter tracts and markers of neuroplasticity. We provide preliminary evidence that a concordant relationship between capsular-callosal FA may become discordant, providing a putative mechanism for prefrontal functional brain dysconnectivity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anisotropia
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
Corpo Caloso/fisiopatologia
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão
Neuroimagem Funcional
Cápsula Interna
Macaca radiata
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
Masculino
Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia
Plasticidade Neuronal
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160107
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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