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[PMID]:28859166
[Au] Autor:Hotter D; Krabbe T; Reith E; Gawanbacht A; Rahm N; Ayouba A; Van Driessche B; Van Lint C; Peeters M; Kirchhoff F; Sauter D
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Primate lentiviruses use at least three alternative strategies to suppress NF-κB-mediated immune activation.
[So] Source:PLoS Pathog;13(8):e1006598, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7374
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Primate lentiviruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to suppress the immune response of their host species. For example, HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) use their accessory protein Nef to prevent T cell activation and antiviral gene expression by downmodulating the T cell receptor CD3. This Nef function was lost in HIV-1 and other vpu-encoding viruses suggesting that the acquisition of Vpu-mediated NF-κB inhibition reduced the selection pressure for inhibition of T cell activation by Nef. To obtain further insights into the modulation of NF-κB activity by primate lentiviral accessory factors, we analyzed 32 Vpr proteins from a large panel of divergent primate lentiviruses. We found that those of SIVcol and SIVolc infecting Colobinae monkeys showed the highest efficacy in suppressing NF-κB activation. Vpr-mediated inhibition of NF-κB resulted in decreased IFNß promoter activity and suppressed type I IFN induction in virally infected primary cells. Interestingly, SIVcol and SIVolc differ from all other primate lentiviruses investigated by the lack of both, a vpu gene and efficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of CD3. Thus, primate lentiviruses have evolved at least three alternative strategies to inhibit NF-κB-dependent immune activation. Functional analyses showed that the inhibitory activity of SIVolc and SIVcol Vprs is independent of DCAF1 and the induction of cell cycle arrest. While both Vprs target the IKK complex or a factor further downstream in the NF-κB signaling cascade, only SIVolc Vpr stabilizes IκBα and inhibits p65 phosphorylation. Notably, only de-novo synthesized but not virion-associated Vpr suppressed the activation of NF-κB, thus enabling NF-κB-dependent initiation of viral gene transcription during early stages of the replication cycle, while minimizing antiviral gene expression at later stages. Our findings highlight the key role of NF-κB in antiviral immunity and demonstrate that primate lentiviruses follow distinct evolutionary paths to modulate NF-κB-dependent expression of viral and antiviral genes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/imunologia
Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia
NF-kappa B/imunologia
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Apoptose/fisiologia
Western Blotting
Linhagem Celular
Colobus
Citometria de Fluxo
HIV/imunologia
Seres Humanos
Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (NF-kappa B)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171003
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171003
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006598


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[PMID]:27858979
[Au] Autor:Le KN; Marsik M; Daegling DJ; Duque A; McGraw WS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
[Ti] Título:Spatial variation in mandibular bone elastic modulus and its effect on structural bending stiffness: A test case using the Taï Forest monkeys.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;162(3):516-532, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: We investigated how heterogeneity in material stiffness affects structural stiffness in the cercopithecid mandibular cortical bone. We assessed (1) whether this effect changes the interpretation of interspecific structural stiffness variation across four primate species, (2) whether the heterogeneity is random, and (3) whether heterogeneity mitigates bending stress in the jaw associated with food processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of Taï Forest, Cote d'Ivoire, monkeys: Cercocebus atys, Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, and Cercopithecus diana. Vickers indentation hardness samples estimated elastic moduli throughout the cortical bone area of each coronal section of postcanine corpus. For each section, we calculated maximum area moment of inertia, I (structural mechanical property), under three models of material heterogeneity, as well as spatial autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I, I ). RESULTS: When the model considered material stiffness variation and spatial patterning, I decreased and individual ranks based on structural stiffness changed. Rank changes were not significant across models. All specimens showed positive (nonrandom) spatial autocorrelation. Differences in I were not significant among species, and there were no discernable patterns of autocorrelation within species. Across species, significant local I was often attributed to proximity of low moduli in the alveolar process and high moduli in the basal process. DISCUSSION: While our sample did not demonstrate species differences in the degree of spatial autocorrelation of elastic moduli, there may be mechanical effects of heterogeneity (relative strength and rigidity) that do distinguish at the species or subfamilial level (i.e., colobines vs. cercopithecines). The potential connections of heterogeneity to diet and/or taxonomy remain to be discovered.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cercocebus atys/fisiologia
Colobus/fisiologia
Módulo de Elasticidade/fisiologia
Mandíbula/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antropologia Física
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia
Costa do Marfim
Feminino
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170622
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170622
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23134


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[PMID]:27741408
[Au] Autor:Hartlage AS; Cullen JM; Kapoor A
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio 43205; email: amit.kapoor@nationwidechildrens.org.
[Ti] Título:The Strange, Expanding World of Animal Hepaciviruses.
[So] Source:Annu Rev Virol;3(1):53-75, 2016 Sep 29.
[Is] ISSN:2327-0578
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Hepaciviruses and pegiviruses constitute two closely related sister genera of the family Flaviviridae. In the past five years, the known phylogenetic diversity of the hepacivirus genera has absolutely exploded. What was once an isolated infection in humans (and possibly other primates) has now expanded to include horses, rodents, bats, colobus monkeys, cows, and, most recently, catsharks, shedding new light on the genetic diversity and host range of hepaciviruses. Interestingly, despite the identification of these many animal and primate hepaciviruses, the equine hepaciviruses remain the closest genetic relatives of the human hepaciviruses, providing an intriguing clue to the zoonotic source of hepatitis C virus. This review summarizes the significance of these studies and discusses current thinking about the origin and evolution of the animal hepaciviruses as well as their potential usage as surrogate models for the study of hepatitis C virus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Flavivirus/genética
Vírus GB A/classificação
Vírus GB C/classificação
Genoma Viral/genética
Hepacivirus/genética
Hepatite C/veterinária
Pestivirus/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos/virologia
Quirópteros/virologia
Colobus/virologia
Flavivirus/classificação
Vírus GB A/genética
Vírus GB C/genética
Variação Genética/genética
Hepacivirus/classificação
Hepatite C/virologia
Cavalos/virologia
Especificidade de Hospedeiro
Seres Humanos
Pestivirus/genética
Tubarões/virologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161015
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27569558
[Au] Autor:Ladner JT; Wiley MR; Beitzel B; Auguste AJ; Dupuis AP; Lindquist ME; Sibley SD; Kota KP; Fetterer D; Eastwood G; Kimmel D; Prieto K; Guzman H; Aliota MT; Reyes D; Brueggemann EE; St John L; Hyeroba D; Lauck M; Friedrich TC; O'Connor DH; Gestole MC; Cazares LH; Popov VL; Castro-Llanos F; Kochel TJ; Kenny T; White B; Ward MD; Loaiza JR; Goldberg TL; Weaver SC; Kramer LD; Tesh RB; Palacios G
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Genome Sciences, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA. Electronic address: jason.t.ladner.ctr@mail.mil.
[Ti] Título:A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.
[So] Source:Cell Host Microbe;20(3):357-367, 2016 Sep 14.
[Is] ISSN:1934-6069
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Colobus/virologia
Culicidae/virologia
Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação
Vírus de RNA/ultraestrutura
Vírus/isolamento & purificação
Vírus/ultraestrutura
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Microscopia de Fluorescência
Filogenia
Vírus de RNA/classificação
Vírus de RNA/genética
Vírus/classificação
Vírus/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160830
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27348341
[Au] Autor:Lad SE; Daegling DJ; McGraw WS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611. slad@ufl.edu.
[Ti] Título:Bone remodeling is reduced in high stress regions of the cercopithecoid mandible.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;161(3):426-435, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Independent lines of evidence suggest that osteonal bone remodeling is a function of both mechanical (i.e., changes in stress) and non-mechanical (i.e., metabolic needs related to calcium liberation) factors. The degree to which secondary bone reflects mechanical factors, however, is incompletely understood despite the common assumption that the stress environment mediates remodeling activity. Here, we investigate whether there are remodeling differences between regions of primate mandibular bone known to have distinct stress environments. METHODS: Osteon density, osteon fragment density, and relative osteonal area are measured as indicators of remodeling activity from postcanine and symphyseal thin sections of four sympatric monkey species (N = 20 total) from Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, Cercocebus atys, Cercopithecus diana. Subfamily and regional effects were assessed by two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Symphyseal bone has lower osteonal density, fragment density and relative osteonal area than postcanine bone in all species, indicating relatively low remodeling activity in symphyseal bone, despite the likelihood of relatively high stresses in its lingual cortex. Subfamily differences in postcanine remodeling are significant in that colobines exhibit greater remodeling than cercopithecines. DISCUSSION: The data suggest that high strains are not requisite for bone remodeling. How the lingual symphysis negotiates a high strain environment without the reparative benefit of remodeling is yet to be elucidated, but the data prompt reevaluation of the relationship of targeted remodeling to stress histories. Differences in osteonal bone density between taxa might reflect feeding or dietary influences on remodeling activity, but sample composition prevents parsing behavioral from other taxon-specific effects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia
Cercopithecinae/fisiologia
Colobus/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Mandíbula/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Costa do Marfim
Osteon/fisiologia
Estresse Mecânico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170615
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170615
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160628
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23041


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[PMID]:27346431
[Au] Autor:Dunham NT; Lambert AL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210. dunham.102@osu.edu.
[Ti] Título:The role of leaf toughness on foraging efficiency in Angola black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus).
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;161(2):343-54, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Examining the relationships among foraging behavior, food mechanical properties, and masticatory morphology is a bourgeoning research topic among behavioral ecologists and functional morphologists. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which leaf toughness influences foraging efficiency with regard to ingestion rate, masticatory investment, and masticatory rate. METHODS: Diet and feeding data were collected on adults from three groups of Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya, from July 2014 to December 2015. Ingestion rates were estimated by counting the number of items consumed during feeding bouts and multiplying this value by the mean mass of a particular food item. The number of mastications was also counted during 3-5 minute focal periods. Mechanical toughness of commonly eaten young leaves (n = 27 species) and mature leaves (n = 13 species) was recorded using a toughness tester equipped with a razor blade. RESULTS: Ingestion rates (g/min) negatively correlated with leaf toughness (r(2) = 0.73; p < 0.01) while masticatory investment (chews/g) positively correlated with leaf toughness (r(2) = 0.72; p < 0.01). Chewing rate (chews/min) was remarkably consistent regardless of leaf species and toughness values (r(2) = 0.09; p = 0.07). DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the degree to which toughness values can vary among leaves and how this variation can dramatically influence ingestion rates and chewing efficiency in black and white colobus monkeys. Studies that link food mechanical properties with oral processing behaviors will ultimately provide important context for understanding craniofacial and dentognathic traits in primates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Colobus/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Mastigação/fisiologia
Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antropologia Física
Feminino
Florestas
Quênia
Masculino
Análise de Regressão
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170613
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170613
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160628
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23036


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[PMID]:26908578
[Au] Autor:Wahl-Jensen V; Johnson JC; Lauck M; Weinfurter JT; Moncla LH; Weiler AM; Charlier O; Rojas O; Byrum R; Ragland DR; Huzella L; Zommer E; Cohen M; Bernbaum JG; Caì Y; Sanford HB; Mazur S; Johnson RF; Qin J; Palacios GF; Bailey AL; Jahrling PB; Goldberg TL; O'Connor DH; Friedrich TC; Kuhn JH
[Ad] Endereço:Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
[Ti] Título:Divergent Simian Arteriviruses Cause Simian Hemorrhagic Fever of Differing Severities in Macaques.
[So] Source:MBio;7(1):e02009-15, 2016 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:2150-7511
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:UNLABELLED: Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. Three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past SHF epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), has been isolated in cell culture. The natural reservoir(s) of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but African nonhuman primates are suspected. Eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy African cercopithecid monkeys. Here, we report the successful isolation in MARC-145 cell culture of one of these viruses, Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1), from serum of a naturally infected red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) sampled in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Intramuscular (i.m.) injection of KRCV-1 into four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) resulted in a self-limiting nonlethal disease characterized by depressive behavioral changes, disturbance in coagulation parameters, and liver enzyme elevations. In contrast, i.m. injection of SHFV resulted in typical lethal SHF characterized by mild fever, lethargy, lymphoid depletion, lymphoid and hepatocellular necrosis, low platelet counts, increased liver enzyme concentrations, coagulation abnormalities, and increasing viral loads. As hypothesized based on the genetic and presumed antigenic distance between KRCV-1 and SHFV, all four macaques that had survived KRCV-1 injection died of SHF after subsequent SHFV injection, indicating a lack of protective heterotypic immunity. Our data indicate that SHF is a disease of macaques that in all likelihood can be caused by a number of distinct simian arteriviruses, although with different severity depending on the specific arterivirus involved. Consequently, we recommend that current screening procedures for SHFV in primate-holding facilities be modified to detect all known simian arteriviruses. IMPORTANCE: Outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) have devastated captive Asian macaque colonies in the past. SHF is caused by at least three viruses of the family Arteriviridae: simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), simian hemorrhagic encephalitis virus (SHEV), and Pebjah virus (PBJV). Nine additional distant relatives of these three viruses were recently discovered in apparently healthy African nonhuman primates. We hypothesized that all simian arteriviruses are potential causes of SHF. To test this hypothesis, we inoculated cynomolgus macaques with a highly divergent simian arterivirus (Kibale red colobus virus 1 [KRCV-1]) from a wild Ugandan red colobus. Despite being only distantly related to red colobuses, all of the macaques developed disease. In contrast to SHFV-infected animals, KRCV-1-infected animals survived after a mild disease presentation. Our study advances the understanding of an important primate disease. Furthermore, our data indicate a need to include the full diversity of simian arteriviruses in nonhuman primate SHF screening assays.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Arterivirus/veterinária
Arterivirus/isolamento & purificação
Arterivirus/patogenicidade
Colobus/virologia
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/veterinária
Macaca fascicularis/virologia
Doenças dos Macacos/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Arterivirus/genética
Arterivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Infecções por Arterivirus/imunologia
Infecções por Arterivirus/fisiopatologia
Infecções por Arterivirus/virologia
Linhagem Celular
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/imunologia
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/fisiopatologia
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/virologia
Fígado/química
Fígado/enzimologia
Masculino
Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia
Doenças dos Macacos/fisiopatologia
Uganda
Carga Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., INTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171028
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171028
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160225
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26872896
[Au] Autor:Dunham NT; Opere PO
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. dunham.102@osu.edu.
[Ti] Título:A unique case of extra-group infant adoption in free-ranging Angola black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus).
[So] Source:Primates;57(2):187-94, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1610-7365
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Infant adoption has been reported in a variety of primate taxa both in captive and natural settings. Adoption by females may be adaptive by increasing inclusive fitness via shared genes between adoptive mother and adoptee or by providing valuable maternal practice which, in turn, may increase the female's future reproductive success. Others have argued that adoption may be non-adaptive and the result of a general attraction toward infants. Our study examines a unique case of adoption by an adult female Angola black and white colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus) who adopted an extra-group infant alongside her own biological infant. We compare infant behaviors and mother-infant interactions between biological infant and adoptee and then compare both biological infant and adoptee behavioral profiles to those of infants under normal circumstances. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015 on three habituated groups in the Diani Forest of Kenya. Scan sampling and pooled data were used to create daily and monthly behavioral profiles for the biological infant and adoptee, as well as a mean monthly profile of four infants under normal circumstances. Data include time spent (1) clinging to mother/adoptive mother, (2) clinging to another individual, (3) behaving independently, and (4) behaving in close proximity to mother/adoptive mother. Initially, the adoptee struggled to achieve behavioral profiles consistent with those of the biological infant and normal colobus infants of the same age as he spent significantly more time moving independently and significantly less time clinging to the adoptive mother. After the mysterious death of the biological infant in mid-January 2015, the adoptee assumed a behavioral profile similar to that of infants under normal conditions. This case does not support adaptive hypotheses for adoption (i.e., inclusive fitness or learning to mother). Instead, because the biological infant died, possibly due to the presence of the adoptee, we argue that this case of infant adoption was non-adaptive. Ultimately, this adoption appears to have been an outcome of the adoptee's persistent desire to be cared for and the female's strong propensity to engage in allomaternal behavior.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Colobus/fisiologia
Comportamento Materno
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Quênia
Mães
Comportamento Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171014
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171014
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10329-016-0515-5


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[PMID]:26844891
[Au] Autor:Cavada N; Barelli C; Ciolli M; Rovero F
[Ad] Endereço:DICAM Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Primates in Human-Modified and Fragmented Landscapes: The Conservation Relevance of Modelling Habitat and Disturbance Factors in Density Estimation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(2):e0148289, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Accurate density estimations of threatened animal populations is essential for management and conservation. This is particularly critical for species living in patchy and altered landscapes, as is the case for most tropical forest primates. In this study, we used a hierarchical modelling approach that incorporates the effect of environmental covariates on both the detection (i.e. observation) and the state (i.e. abundance) processes of distance sampling. We applied this method to already published data on three arboreal primates of the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, including the endangered and endemic Udzungwa red colobus (Procolobus gordonorum). The area is a primate hotspot at continental level. Compared to previous, 'canonical' density estimates, we found that the inclusion of covariates in the modelling makes the inference process more informative, as it takes in full account the contrasting habitat and protection levels among forest blocks. The correction of density estimates for imperfect detection was especially critical where animal detectability was low. Relative to our approach, density was underestimated by the canonical distance sampling, particularly in the less protected forest. Group size had an effect on detectability, determining how the observation process varies depending on the socio-ecology of the target species. Lastly, as the inference on density is spatially-explicit to the scale of the covariates used in the modelling, we could confirm that primate densities are highest in low-to-mid elevations, where human disturbance tend to be greater, indicating a considerable resilience by target monkeys in disturbed habitats. However, the marked trend of lower densities in unprotected forests urgently calls for effective forest protection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecossistema
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Colobus
Florestas
Seres Humanos
Densidade Demográfica
Tanzânia
Clima Tropical
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0148289


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[PMID]:26456122
[Au] Autor:Thackeray JF; Dykes S
[Ad] Endereço:Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, PO WITS, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Electronic address: francis.thackeray@wits.ac.za.
[Ti] Título:Morphometric analyses of hominoid crania, probabilities of conspecificity and an approximation of a biological species constant.
[So] Source:Homo;67(1):1-10, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1618-1301
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Thackeray has previously explored the possibility of using a morphometric approach to quantify the "amount" of variation within species and to assess probabilities of conspecificity when two fossil specimens are compared, instead of "pigeon-holing" them into discrete species. In an attempt to obtain a statistical (probabilistic) definition of a species, Thackeray has recognized an approximation of a biological species constant (T=-1.61) based on the log-transformed standard error of the coefficient m (log sem) in regression analysis of cranial and other data from pairs of specimens of conspecific extant species, associated with regression equations of the form y=mx+c where m is the slope and c is the intercept, using measurements of any specimen A (x axis), and any specimen B of the same species (y axis). The log-transformed standard error of the co-efficient m (log sem) is a measure of the degree of similarity between pairs of specimens, and in this study shows central tendency around a mean value of -1.61 and standard deviation 0.10 for modern conspecific specimens. In this paper we focus attention on the need to take into account the range of difference in log sem values (Δlog sem or "delta log sem") obtained from comparisons when specimen A (x axis) is compared to B (y axis), and secondly when specimen A (y axis) is compared to B (x axis). Thackeray's approach can be refined to focus on high probabilities of conspecificity for pairs of specimens for which log sem is less than -1.61 and for which Δlog sem is less than 0.03. We appeal for the adoption of a concept here called "sigma taxonomy" (as opposed to "alpha taxonomy"), recognizing that boundaries between species are not always well defined.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cefalometria/métodos
Hominidae/anatomia & histologia
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Cefalometria/estatística & dados numéricos
Colobus/anatomia & histologia
Feminino
Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia
Hominidae/classificação
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Paleontologia
Pan paniscus/anatomia & histologia
Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia
Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151013
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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