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  1 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28399212
[Au] Autor:Poinar G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.
[Ti] Título:Fossilized Mammalian Erythrocytes Associated With a Tick Reveal Ancient Piroplasms.
[So] Source:J Med Entomol;54(4):895-900, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2928
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ticks transmit a variety of pathogenic organisms to vertebrates, especially mammals. The fossil record of such associations is extremely rare. An engorged nymphal tick of the genus Ambylomma in Dominican amber was surrounded by erythrocytes from its mammalian host. Some of the exposed erythrocytes contained developmental stages of a hemoprotozoan resembling members of the Order Piroplasmida. The fossil piroplasm is described, its stages compared with those of extant piroplasms, and reasons provided why the mammalian host could have been a primate. The parasites were also found in the gut epithelial cells and body cavity of the fossil tick. Aside from providing the first fossil mammalian red blood cells and the first fossil intraerythrocytic hemoparasites, the present discovery shows that tick-piroplasm associations were already well established in the Tertiary. This discovery provides a timescale that can be used in future studies on the evolution of the Piroplasmida.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fósseis
Ixodidae/microbiologia
Piroplasmida/classificação
Platirrinos/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Âmbar
Animais
República Dominicana
Eritrócitos/parasitologia
Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ixodidae/fisiologia
Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ninfa/microbiologia
Ninfa/fisiologia
Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amber)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jme/tjw247


  2 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28389720
[Au] Autor:Dasmeh P; Kepp KP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Superoxide dismutase 1 is positively selected to minimize protein aggregation in great apes.
[So] Source:Cell Mol Life Sci;74(16):3023-3037, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1420-9071
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million years, significantly higher than in other primates and rodents, although these paradoxically generally evolve much faster. The high evolutionary rate was partly due to relaxation of some selection pressures and partly to distinct positive selection of SOD1 in great apes. We then show that higher stability and net charge and changes at the dimer interface were selectively introduced upon separation from old world monkeys and lesser apes (gibbons). Consequently, human, chimpanzee and gorilla SOD1s have a net charge of -6 at physiological pH, whereas the closely related gibbons and macaques have -3. These features consistently point towards selection against the malicious aggregation effects of elevated SOD1 levels in long-living great apes. The findings mirror the impact of human SOD1 mutations that reduce net charge and/or stability and cause ALS, a motor neuron disease characterized by oxidative stress and SOD1 aggregates and triggered by aging. Our study thus marks an example of direct selection for a particular chemical phenotype (high net charge and stability) in a single human protein with possible implications for the evolution of aging.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hominidae/genética
Agregados Proteicos
Superóxido Dismutase-1/química
Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Envelhecimento
Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Cercopithecidae/genética
Estabilidade Enzimática
Evolução Molecular
Seres Humanos
Hylobatidae/genética
Camundongos
Modelos Moleculares
Estresse Oxidativo
Filogenia
Platirrinos/genética
Ratos
Alinhamento de Sequência
Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
Termodinâmica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Protein Aggregates); EC 1.15.1.1 (Superoxide Dismutase-1)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170409
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00018-017-2519-8


  3 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27562397
[Au] Autor:Vargas-Pinilla P; Babb P; Nunes L; Paré P; Rosa G; Felkl A; Longo D; Salzano FM; Paixão-Côrtes VR; Gonçalves GL; Bortolini MC
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15053, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501-970, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Progesterone Response Element Variation in the OXTR Promoter Region and Paternal Care in New World Monkeys.
[So] Source:Behav Genet;47(1):77-87, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1573-3297
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Paternal care is a complex social behavior common in primate species with socially monogamous mating systems and twin births. Evolutionary causes and consequences of such behavior are not well understood, nor are their neuroendocrine and genetic bases. However, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) are associated with parental care in mammalian lineages. Here we investigated the interspecific variation in the number of progesterone response elements (PREs) in the OXTR promoter region of 32 primate species, correlating genetic data with behavior, social systems, and ecological/life-history parameters, while controlling for phylogeny. We verified that PREs are only present in New World monkeys and that PRE number is significantly correlated with the presence of paternal care in this branch. We suggest that PRE number could be an essential part of the genetic repertoire that allowed the emergence of taxon-specific complex social behaviors, such as paternal care in marmosets and tamarins.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal
Progesterona/genética
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
Receptores de Ocitocina/genética
Elementos de Resposta/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Fenótipo
Platirrinos
Característica Quantitativa Herdável
Reprodução
Alinhamento de Sequência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Receptors, Oxytocin); 4G7DS2Q64Y (Progesterone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170508
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170508
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160827
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10519-016-9806-2


  4 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27866209
[Au] Autor:Torres Junior EU; Valença-Montenegro MM; Castro CS
[Ad] Endereço:Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento Ambiental, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Rio Tinto, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Local Ecological Knowledge about Endangered Primates in a Rural Community in Paraíba, Brazil.
[So] Source:Folia Primatol (Basel);87(4):262-277, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9980
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The study of local ecological knowledge (LEK) fosters a better understanding of the relationship between humans and the environment. We assessed respondents' ecological knowledge of primates in a rural community located near the Atlantic Forest remnants in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Populations of Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkeys), Sapajus flavius (blonde capuchins), and Callithrix jacchus (the common marmoset) inhabit the region. We conducted 200 semi-structured interviews and applied thematic content analysis, with weighting, to the responses to quantify the LEK. Respondents showed a low LEK, despite the community's proximity to forest remnants. However, the LEK was significantly higher among men, as well as among those who had a greater degree of contact with the primates. Age did not influence LEK. The studied community apparently does not intensively exploit the forest resources nor does it economically depend on primates, which may explain these individuals' low levels of knowledge about these animals. Such data may support future studies, as well as environmental education and action plans, especially for A. belzebul and S. flavius, both of which are endangered species and targets of the National Action Plan for the Conservation of the Primates of the Northeast.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Ecossistema
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Platirrinos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Animais
Brasil
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Conhecimento
Masculino
População Rural
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170126
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170126
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161121
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27765146
[Au] Autor:Fulwood EL; Boyer DM; Kay RF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Box 90383, Durham, NC 27708, USA. Electronic address: ethan.fulwood@duke.edu.
[Ti] Título:Stem members of Platyrrhini are distinct from catarrhines in at least one derived cranial feature.
[So] Source:J Hum Evol;100:16-24, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8606
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The pterion, on the lateral aspect of the cranium, is where the zygomatic, frontal, sphenoid, squamosal, and parietal bones approach and contact. The configuration of these bones distinguishes New and Old World anthropoids: most extant platyrrhines exhibit contact between the parietal and zygomatic bones, while all known catarrhines exhibit frontal-alisphenoid contact. However, it is thought that early stem-platyrrhines retained the apparently primitive catarrhine condition. Here we re-evaluate the condition of key fossil taxa using µCT (micro-computed tomography) imaging. The single known specimen of Tremacebus and an adult cranium of Antillothrix exhibit the typical platyrrhine condition of parietal-zygomatic contact. The same is true of one specimen of Homunculus, while a second specimen has the 'catarrhine' condition. When these new data are incorporated into an ancestral state reconstruction, they support the conclusion that pterion frontal-alisphenoid contact characterized the last common ancestor of crown anthropoids and that contact between the parietal and zygomatic is a synapomorphy of Platyrrhini.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Catarrinos/anatomia & histologia
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia
Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Catarrinos/classificação
Filogenia
Platirrinos/classificação
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170902
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170902
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161022
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27733116
[Au] Autor:Tsutsui K; Otoh M; Sakurai K; Suzuki-Hashido N; Hayakawa T; Misaka T; Ishimaru Y; Aureli F; Melin AD; Kawamura S; Imai H
[Ad] Endereço:Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Variation in ligand responses of the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R4 among New World monkeys.
[So] Source:BMC Evol Biol;16(1):208, 2016 Oct 12.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2148
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: New World monkeys (NWMs) are unique in that they exhibit remarkable interspecific variation in color vision and feeding behavior, making them an excellent model for studying sensory ecology. However, it is largely unknown whether non-visual senses co-vary with feeding ecology, especially gustation, which is expected to be indispensable in food selection. Bitter taste, which is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in the tongue, helps organisms avoid ingesting potentially toxic substances in food. In this study, we compared the ligand sensitivities of the TAS2Rs of five species of NWMs by heterologous expression in HEK293T cells and calcium imaging. RESULTS: We found that TAS2R1 and TAS2R4 orthologs differ in sensitivity among the NWM species for colchicine and camphor, respectively. We then reconstructed the ancestral receptors of NWM TAS2R1 and TAS2R4, measured the evolutionary shift in ligand sensitivity, and identified the amino acid replacement at residue 62 as responsible for the high sensitivity of marmoset TAS2R4 to colchicine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a basis for understanding the differences in feeding ecology among NWMs with respect to bitter taste.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Platirrinos/fisiologia
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/fisiologia
Paladar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Molecular
Células HEK293
Seres Humanos
Filogenia
Platirrinos/classificação
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170707
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170707
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161014
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27457552
[Au] Autor:Marivaux L; Adnet S; Altamirano-Sierra AJ; Boivin M; Pujos F; Ramdarshan A; Salas-Gismondi R; Tejada-Lara JV; Antoine PO
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratoire de Paléontologie, Institut des Sciences de l'Évolution de Montpellier (ISE-M, UMR 5554, CNRS/UM/IRD/EPHE), c.c. 064, Université de Montpellier, place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France. Electronic address: Laurent.Marivaux@UMontpellier.fr.
[Ti] Título:Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.
[So] Source:J Hum Evol;97:159-75, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8606
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics during the Oligocene, and that several stem lineages independently reached Patagonia during the early Miocene. Finally, we are still faced with a "layered" pattern of platyrrhine evolution, but modified in terms of timing of cladogeneses. If the crown platyrrhine radiation occurred in the Neotropics around the Oligocene-Miocene transition (or at least during the earliest Miocene), it was apparently concomitant with the diversification of the latest stem forms in Patagonia.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fósseis/anatomia & histologia
Filogenia
Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia
Platirrinos/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Evolução Biológica
Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia
Peru
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170921
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170921
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160727
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27312120
[Au] Autor:St Clair EM; Boyer DM
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205. Elizabeth.StClair@jhmi.edu.
[Ti] Título:Lower molar shape and size in prosimian and platyrrhine primates.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;161(2):237-58, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The goal of this research is to evaluate the relative strength of the influences of diet, size, and phylogenetic signal on dental geometric shape. Accurate comprehension of these factors and their interaction is important for reconstructing diet and deriving characters for a cladistic analysis in fossil primates. Geometric morphometric analysis is used to identify axes of shape variation in the lower second molars of (a) prosimian primates and (b) platyrrhines. Landmarks were placed on µCT-generated surface renderings. Landmark configurations were aligned using generalized Procrustes analysis. Principal components analysis and phylogenetic principal components analysis (pPCA) were performed on species average landmark co-ordinates. pPCs were examined with phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis for association with size and with diet. PCs from both phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic analyses were sufficient to separate species by broad dietary categories, including insectivores and folivores. In neither analysis was pPC1 correlated with tooth size, but some other pPCs were significantly correlated with size. The pattern of association between pPCs and size altered when centroid size and dietary variables were combined in the model; effects of diet factors typically exceeded effects of size. These results indicate a dominant phylogenetic and dietary signal in molar shape but also show some shape change correlated with size in the absence of obvious dietary associations. Geometric morphometric analysis appears to be useful for tracking functional traits in molars, particularly in tracking differences between folivorous and insectivorous species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia
Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia
Strepsirhini/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antropologia Física
Antropometria
Evolução Biológica
Fósseis
Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem
Dente Molar/fisiologia
Filogenia
Platirrinos/classificação
Platirrinos/fisiologia
Análise de Componente Principal
Strepsirhini/classificação
Strepsirhini/fisiologia
Microtomografia por Raio-X
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170613
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170613
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160618
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23021


  9 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27209233
[Au] Autor:Smith AL; Freeman SM; Barnhart TE; Abbott DH; Ahlers EO; Kukis DL; Bales KL; Goodman MM; Young LJ
[Ad] Endereço:Silvio O. Conte Center for Oxytocin and Social Cognition, Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA; Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences
[Ti] Título:Initial investigation of three selective and potent small molecule oxytocin receptor PET ligands in New World monkeys.
[So] Source:Bioorg Med Chem Lett;26(14):3370-3375, 2016 07 15.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3405
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The neuropeptide oxytocin is part of a neuroendocrine system that has physiological effects ranging from ensuring uterine myometrial contractions at parturition and post-partum mammary gland milk ejection to the modulation of neural control of social relationships. This initial study was performed to investigate the potential use of positron emission tomography (PET) for localizing oxytocin receptors in two New World primates. Three biomarkers for PET (1-3) that are known to have high affinity and selectivity for the human oxytocin receptor were investigated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) via PET imaging. Brain penetration, and uptake in the salivary gland area were both observed with biomarkers 2 and 3. No brain penetration was observed with 1, but uptake was observed more specifically in several peripheral endocrine glands compared to 2 or 3. Biomarker 2, which displayed the best brain penetration of the three biomarkers in the marmoset, was then investigated in the monogamous coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) in a brain scan and a limited full body scan. No significant brain penetration of 2 was observed in the titi monkey, but significant uptake was observed in various locations throughout the periphery. Metabolism of 2 was suspected to have been significant based upon HPLC analysis of blood draws, but parent compound was still present near the end of the scan. Follow-up investigations will focus on next generation biomarkers bearing improved binding characteristics and brain penetrability as well as investigating tissue in regions where biomarker uptake was observed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
Receptores de Ocitocina/análise
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacocinética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biomarcadores/análise
Biomarcadores/metabolismo
Ligantes
Estrutura Molecular
Platirrinos
Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Ligands); 0 (Receptors, Oxytocin); 0 (Small Molecule Libraries)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171122
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171122
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160523
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 196 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27096364
[Au] Autor:Bloch JI; Woodruff ED; Wood AR; Rincon AF; Harrington AR; Morgan GS; Foster DA; Montes C; Jaramillo CA; Jud NA; Jones DS; MacFadden BJ
[Ad] Endereço:Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7800, USA.
[Ti] Título:First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.
[So] Source:Nature;533(7602):243-6, 2016 05 12.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Migração Animal
Fósseis
Platirrinos
Clima Tropical
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Região do Caribe
Cebidae
Florestas
História Antiga
América do Norte
Oceanos e Mares
Panamá
Filogenia
Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia
Platirrinos/classificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160421
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature17415



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