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[PMID]:28968440
[Au] Autor:Oklander LI; Miño CI; Fernández G; Caputo M; Corach D
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Biología Subtropical (IBS), Nodo Iguazú, Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNaM) - CONICET and Asociación Civil Centro de Investigaciones del Bosque Atlántico (CeIBA), Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.
[Ti] Título:Genetic structure in the southernmost populations of black-and-gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) and its conservation implications.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185867, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Black-and-gold howler monkeys Alouatta caraya, are arboreal primates, inhabitants of Neotropical forests, highly susceptible to the yellow fever virus, considered early 'sentinels' of outbreaks, and thus, of major epidemiological importance. Currently, anthropogenic habitat loss and modifications threatens their survival. Habitat modification can prevent, reduce or change dispersal behavior, which, in turn, may influence patterns of gene flow. We explored past and contemporary levels of genetic diversity, elucidated genetic structure and identified its possible drivers, in ten populations (n = 138) located in the southernmost distribution range of the species in South America, in Argentina and Paraguay. Overall, genetic variability was moderate (ten microsatellites: 3.16 ± 0.18 alleles per locus, allelic richness of 2.93 ± 0.81, 0.443±0.025 unbiased expected heterozygosity; 22 haplotypes of 491-bp mitochondrial Control Region, haplotypic diversity of 0.930 ± 0.11, and nucleotide diversity of0.01± 0.007). Significant evidence of inbreeding was found in a population that was, later, decimated by yellow fever. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.13; θST = 018), hierarchical analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering methods revealed significant genetic structure, grouping individuals into four clusters. Shared haplotypes and lack of mitochondrial differentiation (non-significant θST) among some populations seem to support the hypothesis of historical dispersal via riparian forests. Current resistance analyses revealed a significant role of landscape features in modeling contemporary gene flow: continuous forest and riparian forests could promote genetic exchange, whereas disturbed forests or crop/grassland fields may restrict it. Estimates of effective population size allow anticipating that the studied populations will lose 75% of heterozygosity in less than 50 generations. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic modifications on native forests, increasingly ongoing in Northeastern Argentina, Southern Paraguay and Southeastern Brazil, might prevent the dispersal of howlers, leading to population isolation. To ensure long-term viability and maintain genetic connectivity of A. caraya remnant populations, we recommend preserving and restoring habitat continuity. To conserve the species genetic pool, as well, the four genetic clusters identified here should be considered separate Management Units and given high conservation priority. In light of our findings and considering complementary non-genetic information, we suggest upgrading the international conservation status of A. caraya to "Vulnerable".
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/genética
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Haplótipos
Heterozigoto
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171003
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185867


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Bonaldo, Myrna C
Castro, Marcia Gonçalves de
Texto completo SciELO Brasil
[PMID]:28591405
[Au] Autor:Bonaldo MC; Gómez MM; Dos Santos AA; Abreu FVS; Ferreira-de-Brito A; Miranda RM; Castro MG; Lourenço-de-Oliveira R
[Ad] Endereço:Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Flavivírus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Genome analysis of yellow fever virus of the ongoing outbreak in Brazil reveals polymorphisms.
[So] Source:Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz;112(6):447-451, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1678-8060
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil is the most severe one in the country in recent times. It has rapidly spread to areas where YF virus (YFV) activity has not been observed for more than 70 years and vaccine coverage is almost null. Here, we sequenced the whole YFV genome of two naturally infected howler-monkeys (Alouatta clamitans) obtained from the Municipality of Domingos Martins, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These two ongoing-outbreak genome sequences are identical. They clustered in the 1E sub-clade (South America genotype I) along with the Brazilian and Venezuelan strains recently characterised from infections in humans and non-human primates that have been described in the last 20 years. However, we detected eight unique amino acid changes in the viral proteins, including the structural capsid protein (one change), and the components of the viral replicase complex, the NS3 (two changes) and NS5 (five changes) proteins, that could impact the capacity of viral infection in vertebrate and/or invertebrate hosts and spreading of the ongoing outbreak.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/virologia
Genoma Viral/genética
Doenças dos Macacos/virologia
Polimorfismo Genético/genética
Febre Amarela/veterinária
Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Brasil/epidemiologia
Surtos de Doenças
Genótipo
Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia
Filogenia
Alinhamento de Sequência
Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
Febre Amarela/virologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170824
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170824
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170608
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28402969
[Au] Autor:Steinberg ER; Fortes VB; Rossi LF; Murer L; Lovato M; Merani MS; Mudry MD
[Ad] Endereço:Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Grupo de Investigación en Biología Evolutiva (GIBE), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
[Ti] Título:Cytogenetic Characterization of Brown Howler Monkeys, Alouatta guariba clamitans (Atelidae, Platyrrhini): Meiotic Confirmation of an X1X1X2X2X3X3/X1X2X3Y1Y2 Sex Chromosome System.
[So] Source:Cytogenet Genome Res;151(3):131-140, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1424-859X
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:For brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans), diploid chromosome numbers varying from 2n = 45 to 2n = 52, with XX/XY, X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y, and X1X1X2X2X3X3/X1X2X3Y1Y2 sex chromosome systems have been described by mitotic studies but still await confirmation by meiotic analyses. We analyzed 3 male individuals sampled in the wild (in the municipality of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil) as well as 1 male and 1 female individual in captivity at the São Braz breeding center. Peripheral blood samples and testicular biopsies were taken. We found different diploid numbers for both sexes in somatic cells, 2n = 45,X1X2X3Y1Y2 in males and 2n = 46,X1X1X2X2X3X3 in females, with 4 metacentric (9-12), 7 submetacentric (1-6, 8), and 9 acrocentric autosomal chromosome pairs (13-20, 22). X1 and X2 were submetacentric chromosomes, while X3, Y1, and Y2 were acrocentric ones. Spermatocyte microspreads were examined for synaptonemal complexes. Pachytene spermatocyte analysis was done to verify the chromosome number and morphologies observed in mitotic karyotypes. Immunodetection was performed using anti-SMC3 and anti-CREST antibodies. The presence of a sex chromosome pentavalent X1X2X3Y1Y2 in the males was confirmed by C-banding in metaphase I and by immunodetection in prophase I by the clear identification of 5 centromeres. The G-banded karyotype corresponded to that previously described for A. g. clamitans in the south of Brazil (Curitiba, Parana State, and Blumenau, Santa Catarina State) and for the Misiones Province, Argentina.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/genética
Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
Processos de Determinação Sexual
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alouatta/fisiologia
Animais
Análise Citogenética/veterinária
Feminino
Células Germinativas/citologia
Masculino
Meiose
Espermatócitos/citologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000464375


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[PMID]:28355111
[Au] Autor:Solórzano-García B; Andrade DMG; de León GP
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-153, C.P. 04510, México D.F., Mexico. Correspondence should be sent to G. Pérez-Ponce de Leon at: ppdleon@ib.unam.mx.
[Ti] Título:The Missing Fellow: First Description of the Trypanoxyuris pigrae Male (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), a Parasite of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Mexico.
[So] Source:J Parasitol;103(4):404-406, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1937-2345
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The first morphological description of the male of Trypanoxyuris pigrae Solórzano-García, Nadler, and Pérez-Ponce de León, 2016 , is presented in this study. Morphological data are supported by molecular data. Specimens of T. pigrae were recovered after the necropsy of a roadkill black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in southeastern Mexico. Males of T. pigrae are characterized by having 3 notched lips and a long esophagus with a posterior bulb; they also show a single crested lateral alae, a single spicule, and 4 caudal papillae. Morphological features coincide with those of the previously described T. pigrae females, and molecular profiles confirmed species identification. Males of T. pigrae are very similar to those of Trypanoxyuris minutus, another species of pinworm that also parasitizes the black howler monkey, A. pigra; however, the shape of the lips represents a very reliable diagnostic feature. Because of this, detailed en face observations are recommended to discriminate between these pinworm species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/parasitologia
Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia
Oxiuríase/veterinária
Oxyuroidea/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/química
Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética
Feminino
Masculino
México
Oxiuríase/parasitologia
Oxyuroidea/genética
Oxyuroidea/ultraestrutura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 1.14.99.1 (Cyclooxygenase 1)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170330
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1645/17-8


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[PMID]:28187130
[Au] Autor:Morales MA; Fabbri CM; Zunino GE; Kowalewski MM; Luppo VC; Enría DA; Levis SC; Calderón GE
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento Investigación, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas "Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui", ANLIS, Pergamino, Argentina.
[Ti] Título:Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) of Northeastern Argentina.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(2):e0005351, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July-August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3), ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108). Monotypic (13/70, 19%) and heterotypic (27/70, 39%) patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33%) monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT)-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/virologia
Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária
Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação
Doenças dos Macacos/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Argentina
Culicidae/virologia
Vírus da Dengue/classificação
Vírus da Dengue/genética
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação
Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia
Feminino
Flavivirus/classificação
Flavivirus/genética
Flavivirus/fisiologia
Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia
Masculino
Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/classificação
Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170211
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005351


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[PMID]:28095604
[Au] Autor:Briseño-Jaramillo M; Biquand V; Estrada A; Lemasson A
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, México City, México.
[Ti] Título:Vocal repertoire of free-ranging black howler monkeys' (Alouatta pigra): Call types, contexts, and sex-related contributions.
[So] Source:Am J Primatol;79(5), 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2345
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repertoire, needed to be explored further. This report provides the first detailed description of the vocal repertoire of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), focusing on acoustic structures and contexts of emission of both loud and soft calls as well as on the contribution rate of males and females to the different call types. Three free-ranging social groups of black howler monkeys living in Palenque National Park, Mexico were monitored. We identified twelve acoustically discriminable call types, eight described previously and four described here for the first time. A few call types were systematically emitted either isolated or during howling bouts, but most of them could be heard in both calling contexts. Three call types were emitted only by females and two only by males. Adult males' call rates (for the seven shared call types) were higher than those of females but only when considering calls emitted within howling bouts. Our contextual analysis enabled us to divide call types into potential functional categories, according to their degree of contribution, to intra-group versus inter-group interactions and to neutral-positive versus negative situations. We then discussed how socio-ecological factors, notably sex differences in social behaviors, may explain the variability found in the vocal repertoire of this species and compared our findings with the literature on other primate species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/fisiologia
Comportamento Social
Vocalização Animal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acústica
Animais
Masculino
México
Fatores Sexuais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170524
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170524
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajp.22630


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[PMID]:28056072
[Au] Autor:Villanueva-Garcia C; Gordillo-Chavez EJ; Lopez-Escamilla E; Rendon-Franco E; Muñoz-Garcia CI; Gama L; Martinez-Flores WA; Gonzalez-Rodriguez N; Romero-Valdovinos M; Diaz-Lopez H; Galian J; Villalobos G; Maravilla P; Martinez-Hernandez F
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Zoologia y Antropologia Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, España.
[Ti] Título:Clarifying the Cryptic Host Specificity of Blastocystis spp. Isolates from Alouatta palliata and A. pigra Howler Monkeys.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(1):e0169637, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although the presence of cryptic host specificity has been documented in Blastocystis, differences in infection rates and high genetic polymorphism within and between populations of some subtypes (ST) have impeded the clarification of the generalist or specialist specificity of this parasite. We assessed the genetic variability and host specificity of Blastocystis spp. in wild howler monkeys from two rainforest areas in the southeastern region of Mexico. Fecal samples of 225 Alouatta palliata (59) and A. pigra (166) monkeys, belonging to 16 sylvatic sites, were analyzed for infection with Blastocystis ST using a region of the small subunit rDNA (SSUrDNA) gene as a marker. Phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses were performed according to the geographic areas where the monkeys were found. Blastocystis ST2 was the most abundant (91.9%), followed by ST1 and ST8 with 4.6% and 3.5%, respectively; no association between Blastocystis ST and Alouatta species was observed. SSUrDNA sequences in GenBank from human and non-human primates (NHP) were used as ST references and included in population analyses. The haplotype network trees exhibited different distributions: ST1 showed a generalist profile since several haplotypes from different animals were homogeneously distributed with few mutational changes. For ST2, a major dispersion center grouped the Mexican samples, and high mutational differences were observed between NHP. Furthermore, nucleotide and haplotype diversity values, as well as migration and genetic differentiation indexes, showed contrasting values for ST1 and ST2. These data suggest that ST1 populations are only minimally differentiated, while ST2 populations in humans are highly differentiated from those of NHP. The host generalist and specialist specificities exhibited by ST1 and ST2 Blastocystis populations indicate distinct adaptation processes. Because ST1 exhibits a generalist profile, this haplotype can be considered a metapopulation; in contrast, ST2 exists as a set of local populations with preferences for either humans or NHP.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Blastocystis/virologia
Blastocystis/patogenicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alouatta
Animais
Blastocystis/classificação
Blastocystis/genética
DNA Ribossômico/genética
Fezes/parasitologia
Haplótipos/genética
Especificidade de Hospedeiro
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Ribosomal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170828
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170828
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0169637


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[PMID]:28010815
[Au] Autor:Thompson CL; Scheidel C; Glander KE; Williams SH; Vinyard CJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Grand Valley State University, 1 N Campus Drive, Allendale, MI 49401, USA. Electronic address: thompscy@gvsu.edu.
[Ti] Título:An assessment of skin temperature gradients in a tropical primate using infrared thermography and subcutaneous implants.
[So] Source:J Therm Biol;63:49-57, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0306-4565
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Infrared thermography has become a useful tool to assess surface temperatures of animals for thermoregulatory research. However, surface temperatures are an endpoint along the body's core-shell temperature gradient. Skin and fur are the peripheral tissues most exposed to ambient thermal conditions and are known to serve as thermosensors that initiate thermoregulatory responses. Yet relatively little is known about how surface temperatures of wild mammals measured by infrared thermography relate to subcutaneous temperatures. Moreover, this relationship may differ with the degree that fur covers the body. To assess the relationship between temperatures and temperature gradients in peripheral tissues between furred and bare areas, we collected data from wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. We used infrared thermography to measure surface temperatures of the furred dorsum and bare facial areas of the body, recorded concurrent subcutaneous temperatures in the dorsum, and measured ambient thermal conditions via a weather station. Temperature gradients through cutaneous tissues (subcutaneous-surface temperature) and surface temperature gradients (surface-ambient temperature) were calculated. Our results indicate that there are differences in temperatures and temperature gradients in furred versus bare areas of mantled howlers. Under natural thermal conditions experienced by wild animals, the bare facial areas were warmer than temperatures in the furred dorsum, and cutaneous temperature gradients in the face were more variable than the dorsum, consistent with these bare areas acting as thermal windows. Cutaneous temperature gradients in the dorsum were more closely linked to subcutaneous temperatures, while facial temperature gradients were more heavily influenced by ambient conditions. These findings indicate that despite the insulative properties of fur, for mantled howling monkeys surface temperatures of furred areas still demonstrate a relationship with subcutaneous temperatures. Given that most mammals possess dense fur, this provides insight for using infrared imaging in thermoregulatory studies of wild animals lacking bare skin.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/fisiologia
Temperatura Cutânea
Termografia/métodos
Clima Tropical
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aclimatação
Animais
Raios Infravermelhos
Termografia/instrumentação
Termômetros
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170414
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170414
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161225
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27541307
[Au] Autor:Silvestre T; Zanetti ES; Duarte JMB; Barriento FG; Hirano ZMB; Souza JC; Passos FC
[Ad] Endereço:Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. emaildosilvestre@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Ovarian cycle of southern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) through fecal progestin measurement.
[So] Source:Primates;58(1):131-139, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1610-7365
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The ovarian cycle in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) has beean investigated through several biological parameters (ranging between 16.3 and 29.5 days); however, no data exist concerning the ovarian activity of the southern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans). This study aimed to describe the ovarian cycle of A. g. clamitans by profiling fecal progestin concentrations. Over 20 weeks, fecal samples of eight captive adult females of A. g. clamitans were collected. The collections were made at dawn, 5 days a week, and the samples were frozen immediately following collection. Next, they were dried, pulverized and hormonal metabolites were extracted to determine progestin concentrations by enzyme immunoassay. Of the 758 samples tested, the mean concentration of fecal progestins was 2866.40 ± 470.03 ng/g of dry feces, while the mean concentration at baseline was 814.47 ± 164.36 ng/g of dry feces. Among the eight females, one showed no ovarian cyclicity and three presented periods of probable absence of cyclicity and low progestin concentrations. A mean duration of 16 ± 0.52 days was observed for the 35 cycles studied. The interluteal phase lasted 4 ± 0.37 days on average, with a mean concentration of fecal progestins of 467.98 ± 29.12 ng/g of dry feces, while the luteal phase lasted 11 ± 0.50 days, with a mean concentration of 4283.27 ± 193.31 ng/g of dry feces. Besides describing the characteristics of the ovarian cycle, possible causes for the low concentrations of fecal progestins and periods of absence of cyclicity are also discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/fisiologia
Fezes/química
Ciclo Menstrual
Progestinas/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Feminino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Progestins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171014
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171014
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160820
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10329-016-0561-z


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[PMID]:27634058
[Au] Autor:Pampush JD; Spradley JP; Morse PE; Harrington AR; Allen KL; Boyer DM; Kay RF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
[Ti] Título:Wear and its effects on dental topography measures in howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata).
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;161(4):705-721, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Three dental topography measurements: Dirichlet Normal Energy (DNE), Relief Index (RFI), and Orientation Patch Count Rotated (OPCR) are examined for their interaction with measures of wear, within and between upper and lower molars in Alouatta palliata. Potential inferences of the "dental sculpting" phenomenon are explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen occluding pairs of howling monkey first molars (15 upper, 15 lower) opportunistically collected from La Pacifica, Costa Rica, were selected to sample wear stages ranging from unworn to heavily worn as measured by the Dentine Exposure Ratio (DER). DNE, RFI, and OPCR were measured from three-dimensional surface reconstructions (PLY files) derived from high-resolution CT scans. Relationships among the variables were tested with regression analyses. RESULTS: Upper molars have more cutting edges, exhibiting significantly higher DNE, but have significantly lower RFI values. However, the relationships among the measures are concordant across both sets of molars. DER and EDJL are curvilinearly related. DER is positively correlated with DNE, negatively correlated with RFI, and uncorrelated with OPCR. EDJL is not correlated with DNE, or RFI, but is positively correlated with OPCR among lower molars only. DISCUSSION: The relationships among these metrics suggest that howling monkey teeth adaptively engage macrowear. DNE increases with wear in this sample presumably improving food breakdown. RFI is initially high but declines with wear, suggesting that the initially high RFI safeguards against dental senescence. OPCR values in howling monkey teeth do not show a clear relationship with wear changes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alouatta/anatomia & histologia
Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia
Dente Molar/patologia
Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antropologia Física
Costa Rica
Odontometria
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170620
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170620
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160917
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23077



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