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  1 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28224607
[Au] Autor:Svensson MS; Bersacola E; Mills MSL; Munds RA; Nijman V; Perkin A; Masters JC; Couette S; Nekaris KA; Bearder SK
[Ad] Endereço:Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK.
[Ti] Título:A giant among dwarfs: a new species of galago (Primates: Galagidae) from Angola.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;163(1):30-43, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Based on vocalization recordings of an unknown galago species, our main objectives were to compare morphology and call structure with known closely-related taxa and describe a new species of galago. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted field surveys in three forest habitats along the escarpment region in western Angola (Kumbira Forest, Bimbe Area, and Northern Scarp Forest), and examined galago specimens from museums worldwide. We digitized and analyzed calls using Avisoft SASLab Pro software. We also compared museum specimens from Angola with other Galago and Galagoides specimens, and conducted comparative analyses (ANOVA and between group principle component analysis) based on a set of twelve linear measurements of skulls and teeth. RESULTS: We describe the new species to which we give the name Angolan dwarf galago, Galagoides kumbirensis sp. nov. The new species has a loud and characteristic crescendo call, used by other Galagoides spp. (sensu stricto) in West Africa to attract companions and repel rivals. However, this call shows species-typical differences from its closest relatives. Galagoides kumbirensis sp. nov. is also distinguished by differences in the skull morphology, pelage color and facial markings, as well as a larger body size, similar to that of Galago moholi, which is not known to be sympatric. CONCLUSION: This discovery points to the importance of Angolan forests as refuges for endemic biodiversity. These forests are under severe threat from overexploitation, and there is an urgent need to establish conservation measures and designate protected areas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Galago/anatomia & histologia
Galago/classificação
Crânio/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Angola
Animais
Tamanho Corporal
Feminino
Masculino
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170609
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170609
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170223
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23175


  2 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27338233
[Au] Autor:Salleng KJ; Burton BJ; Apple TM; Sanchez S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology-Section on Comparative Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
[Ti] Título:Isolation of Trueperella pyogenes in a case of thoracic and abdominal abscess in a galago (Otolemur garnettii).
[So] Source:J Med Primatol;45(4):198-201, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0684
[Cp] País de publicação:Denmark
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: An adult male galago (Otolemur garnettii) presented for fight wounds following pairing for breeding. Treatment was symptomatic with recovery. Following resolution, the animal re-presented and died, despite additional treatment. METHODS: Necropsy, histopathology, bacterial cultures, and 16S RNA sequencing. RESULTS: A large intrathoracic/intra-abdominal abscess due to Trueperella pyogenes was found at necropsy. CONCLUSIONS: T. pyogenes should be considered in abscesses/wounds of galagos.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abscesso/veterinária
Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária
Arcanobacterium/isolamento & purificação
Galago
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abscesso Abdominal/diagnóstico
Abscesso Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico
Abscesso Abdominal/microbiologia
Abscesso Abdominal/veterinária
Abscesso/diagnóstico
Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico
Abscesso/microbiologia
Infecções por Actinomycetales/diagnóstico
Infecções por Actinomycetales/tratamento farmacológico
Infecções por Actinomycetales/microbiologia
Animais
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem
Arcanobacterium/genética
Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária
Masculino
RNA Bacteriano/genética
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Análise de Sequência de RNA
Doenças Torácicas/diagnóstico
Doenças Torácicas/tratamento farmacológico
Doenças Torácicas/microbiologia
Doenças Torácicas/veterinária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (RNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160625
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jmp.12223


  3 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27176898
[Au] Autor:Tramacere A; Ferrari PF
[Ad] Endereço:University of Parma, Dep. of Neuroscience, via Volturno 39, 43100, Parma, Italy, a.tramacere@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Faces in the mirror, from the neuroscience of mimicry to the emergence of mentalizing.
[So] Source:J Anthropol Sci;94:113-26, 2016 Jun 20.
[Is] ISSN:2037-0644
[Cp] País de publicação:Italy
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the current opinion paper, we provide a comparative perspective on specific aspects of primate empathic abilities, with particular emphasis on the mirror neuron system associated with mouth/face actions and expression. Mouth and faces can be very salient communicative classes of stimuli that allow an observer access to the emotional and physiological content of other individuals. We thus describe patterns of activations of neural populations related to observation and execution of specific mouth actions and emotional facial expressions in some species of monkeys and in humans. Particular attention is given to dynamics of face-to-face interactions in the early phases of development and to the differences in the anatomy of facial muscles among different species of primates. We hypothesize that increased complexity in social environments and patterns of social development have promoted specializations of facial musculature, behavioral repertoires related to production and recognition of facial emotional expression, and their neural correlates. In several primates, mirror circuits involving parietal-frontal regions, insular regions, cingulate cortices, and amygdala seem to support automatic forms of embodied empathy, which probably contribute to facial mimicry and behavioural synchrony. In humans these circuits interact with specific prefrontal and temporo-parietal cortical regions, which facilitates higher order cognitive functions such as cognitive empathy and mental state attribution. Our analysis thus suggests that the evolution of higher forms of empathy, such as mentalizing, is also linked to the coupling between the perceptual and motor system related to face processing, which may have undergone a process of exaptation during primate phylogeny.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Neurônios-Espelho/fisiologia
Primatas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Expressão Facial
Galago/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
Macaca/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160514
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4436/JASS.94037


  4 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26912593
[Au] Autor:Qi HX; Reed JL; Franca JG; Jain N; Kajikawa Y; Kaas JH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee; and.
[Ti] Título:Chronic recordings reveal tactile stimuli can suppress spontaneous activity of neurons in somatosensory cortex of awake and anesthetized primates.
[So] Source:J Neurophysiol;115(4):2105-23, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In somatosensory cortex, tactile stimulation within the neuronal receptive field (RF) typically evokes a transient excitatory response with or without postexcitatory inhibition. Here, we describe neuronal responses in which stimulation on the hand is followed by suppression of the ongoing discharge. With the use of 16-channel microelectrode arrays implanted in the hand representation of primary somatosensory cortex of New World monkeys and prosimian galagos, we recorded neuronal responses from single units and neuron clusters. In 66% of our sample, neuron activity tended to display suppression of firing when regions of skin outside of the excitatory RF were stimulated. In a small proportion of neurons, single-site indentations suppressed firing without initial increases in response to any of the tested sites on the hand. Latencies of suppressive responses to skin indentation (usually 12-34 ms) were similar to excitatory response latencies. The duration of inhibition varied across neurons. Although most observations were from anesthetized animals, we also found similar neuron response properties in one awake galago. Notably, suppression of ongoing neuronal activity did not require conditioning stimuli or multi-site stimulation. The suppressive effects were generally seen following single-site skin indentations outside of the neuron's minimal RF and typically on different digits and palm pads, which have not often been studied in this context. Overall, the characteristics of widespread suppressive or inhibitory response properties with and without initial facilitative or excitatory responses add to the growing evidence that neurons in primary somatosensory cortex provide essential processing for integrating sensory stimulation from across the hand.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados
Inibição Neural
Neurônios/fisiologia
Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia
Percepção do Tato
Vigília
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Galago
Masculino
Tempo de Reação
Saimiri
Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia
Tato
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170403
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170403
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160226
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/jn.00634.2015


  5 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26741794
[Au] Autor:Schneiderová I; Zouhar J; Stefanská L; Bolfíková BC; Lhota S; Brandl P
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Game Management and Wildlife Biology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
[Ti] Título:Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;35(2):147-56, 2016 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia
Galago/fisiologia
Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160411
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160411
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160108
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21261


  6 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26649553
[Au] Autor:Scheun J; Nowack J; Bennett NC; Ganswindt A
[Ad] Endereço:Endocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, 0110, Pretoria, South Africa. jscheun@zoology.up.ac.za.
[Ti] Título:Female reproductive activity and its endocrine correlates in the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi.
[So] Source:J Comp Physiol B;186(2):255-64, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1432-136X
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Steroid hormones play an important role in female reproductive physiology and behaviour and are often used to monitor important female reproductive events. However, such studies are often attempted on captive populations alone, delivering limited data. One such example is the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, for which contradicting observational data exist between captive and free-ranging populations, while hormonal analyses have only been obtained from a single captive population. To extend and rectify the limited information, we monitored faecal progestagen and oestrogen metabolite levels across various important life history stages of both captive and free-ranging G. moholi. We additionally recorded changes in vaginal state as well as the occurrence of reproductive and aggressive behaviour throughout the study. Data from our captive population revealed an ovarian cycle length of 33.44 ± 0.59 days (mean ± SD), with follicular and luteal phases of 14.2 ± 1.0 and 19.1 ± 1.5 days, respectively, and an average pregnancy length of 128 ± 3.3 days. The initiation of female reproductive activity was closely linked to an oestrus-related increase in faecal oestrogen metabolite levels. Four of the seven captive females monitored in our study conceived during the May mating period, with one additional female fertilised in September, supporting the idea that the September mating period functions as a back-up for female G. moholi. Identified benchmark faecal progestagen metabolite levels (non-pregnant: >1 µg/g dry weight (DW), pregnant: >9 µg/g DW) should help researchers to determine pregnancy status of randomly wild-caught females in even a cross-sectional study setup.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estrogênios/metabolismo
Galago/metabolismo
Galago/psicologia
Progestinas/metabolismo
Reprodução
Comportamento Sexual Animal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agressão
Animais
Fezes/química
Feminino
Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo
Ovário/metabolismo
Gravidez
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Estrogens); 0 (Progestins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1610
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00360-015-0947-z


  7 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26088972
[Au] Autor:Stepniewska I; Cerkevich CM; Kaas JH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA.
[Ti] Título:Cortical Connections of the Caudal Portion of Posterior Parietal Cortex in Prosimian Galagos.
[So] Source:Cereb Cortex;26(6):2753-77, 2016 06.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2199
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of prosimian galagos includes a rostral portion (PPCr) where electrical stimulation evokes different classes of complex movements from different subregions, and a caudal portion (PPCc) where such stimulation fails to evoke movements in anesthetized preparations ( Stepniewska, Fang et al. 2009). We placed tracer injections into PPCc to reveal patterns of its cortical connections. There were widespread connections within PPCc as well as connections with PPCr and extrastriate visual areas, including V2 and V3. Weaker connections were with dorsal premotor cortex, and the frontal eye field. The connections of different parts of PPCc with visual areas were roughly retinotopic such that injections to dorsal PPCc labeled more neurons in the dorsal portions of visual areas, representing lower visual quadrant, and injections to ventral PPCc labeled more neurons in ventral portions of these visual areas, representing the upper visual quadrant. We conclude that much of the PPCc contains a crude representation of the contralateral visual hemifield, with inputs largely, but not exclusively, from higher-order visual areas that are considered part of the dorsal visuomotor processing stream. As in galagos, the caudal half of PPC was likely visual in early primates, with the rostral PPC half mediating sensorimotor functions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Galago/anatomia & histologia
Lobo Parietal/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia
Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico
Neurônios/citologia
Fotomicrografia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170601
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170601
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150620
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv132


  8 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26562782
[Au] Autor:Calvey T; Patzke N; Kaswera-Kyamakya C; Gilissen E; Bertelsen MF; Pettigrew JD; Manger PR
[Ad] Endereço:School of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Organization of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic nuclei in three strepsirrhine primates: Galago demidoff, Perodicticus potto and Lemur catta.
[So] Source:J Chem Neuroanat;70:42-57, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6300
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of three species of strepsirrhine primates is presented. We aimed to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to those of simian primates, megachiropterans and other mammalian species. The brains were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The nuclei identified were identical among the strepsirrhine species investigated and identical to previous reports in simian primates. Moreover, a general similarity to other mammals was found, but specific differences in the nuclear complement highlighted potential phylogenetic interrelationships. The central feature of interest was the structure of the locus coeruleus complex in the primates, where a central compactly packed core (A6c) of tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive neurons was surrounded by a shell of less densely packed (A6d) tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive neurons. This combination of compact and diffuse divisions of the locus coeruleus complex is only found in primates and megachiropterans of all the mammalian species studied to date. This neural character, along with variances in a range of other neural characters, supports the phylogenetic grouping of primates with megachiropterans as a sister group.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia
Galago/anatomia & histologia
Lemur/anatomia & histologia
Lorisidae/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Encéfalo/metabolismo
Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo
Nervos Cranianos/metabolismo
Galago/metabolismo
Lemur/metabolismo
Locus Cerúleo/citologia
Locus Cerúleo/metabolismo
Lorisidae/metabolismo
Neurônios/metabolismo
Orexinas/metabolismo
Serotonina/metabolismo
Especificidade da Espécie
Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Orexins); 333DO1RDJY (Serotonin); EC 1.14.16.2 (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase); EC 2.3.1.6 (Choline O-Acetyltransferase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151217
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151217
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151113
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26416885
[Au] Autor:Tsukamoto H; Kubo Y; Farrens DL; Koyanagi M; Terakita A; Furutani Y
[Ad] Endereço:From the Department of Life and Coordination-Complex Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, 444-8585, Japan, Department of Structural Molecular Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193, Japan, tsukamoh@ims.ac.jp.
[Ti] Título:Retinal Attachment Instability Is Diversified among Mammalian Melanopsins.
[So] Source:J Biol Chem;290(45):27176-87, 2015 Nov 06.
[Is] ISSN:1083-351X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Melanopsins play a key role in non-visual photoreception in mammals. Their close phylogenetic relationship to the photopigments in invertebrate visual cells suggests they have evolved to acquire molecular characteristics that are more suited for their non-visual functions. Here we set out to identify such characteristics by comparing the molecular properties of mammalian melanopsin to those of invertebrate melanopsin and visual pigment. Our data show that the Schiff base linking the chromophore retinal to the protein is more susceptive to spontaneous cleavage in mammalian melanopsins. We also find this stability is highly diversified between mammalian species, being particularly unstable for human melanopsin. Through mutagenesis analyses, we find that this diversified stability is mainly due to parallel amino acid substitutions in extracellular regions. We propose that the different stability of the retinal attachment in melanopsins may contribute to functional tuning of non-visual photoreception in mammals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mamíferos/genética
Mamíferos/metabolismo
Retinaldeído/química
Opsinas de Bastonetes/química
Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Evolução Molecular
Feminino
Galago
Variação Genética
Seres Humanos
Anfioxos
Camundongos
Modelos Moleculares
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Oócitos/metabolismo
Oócitos/efeitos da radiação
Papio anubis
Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/química
Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/efeitos da radiação
Filogenia
Conformação Proteica
Estabilidade Proteica
Proteínas Recombinantes/química
Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos da radiação
Células Ganglionares da Retina/química
Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação
Pigmentos da Retina/química
Pigmentos da Retina/genética
Pigmentos da Retina/efeitos da radiação
Opsinas de Bastonetes/efeitos da radiação
Saimiri
Bases de Schiff/química
Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
Aranhas
Xenopus
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Recombinant Proteins); 0 (Retinal Pigments); 0 (Rod Opsins); 0 (Schiff Bases); 0 (melanopsin); RR725D715M (Retinaldehyde)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1604
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150930
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.666305


  10 / 446 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26336811
[Au] Autor:Scheun J; Bennett NC; Ganswindt A; Nowack J
[Ad] Endereço:Endocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 0110, South Africa, Jscheun@zoology.up.ac.za.
[Ti] Título:The hustle and bustle of city life: monitoring the effects of urbanisation in the African lesser bushbaby.
[So] Source:Naturwissenschaften;102(9-10):57, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1904
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Urbanisation has become a severe threat to pristine natural areas, causing habitat loss and affecting indigenous animals. Species occurring within an urban fragmented landscape must cope with changes in vegetation type as well as high degrees of anthropogenic disturbance, both of which are possible key mechanisms contributing to behavioural changes and perceived stressors. We attempted to elucidate the effects of urbanisation on the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, by (1) recording activity budgets and body condition (body mass index, BMI) of individuals of urban and rural populations and (2) further determining adrenocortical activity in both populations as a measure of stress via faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, following successful validation of an appropriate enzyme immunoassay test system (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test). We found that both sexes of the urban population had significantly higher BMIs than their rural counterparts, while urban females had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than rural females. While individuals in the urban population fed mainly on provisioned anthropogenic food sources and spent comparatively more time resting and engaging in aggressive interactions, rural individuals fed almost exclusively on tree exudates and spent more time moving between food sources. Although interactions with humans are likely to be lower in nocturnal than in diurnal species, our findings show that the impact of urbanisation on nocturnal species is still considerable, affecting a range of ecological and physiological aspects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Galago/fisiologia
Urbanização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Índice de Massa Corporal
Ecossistema
Fezes/química
Feminino
Galago/anatomia & histologia
Glucocorticoides/análise
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucocorticoids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1510
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170916
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170916
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150905
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00114-015-1305-4



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