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Pesquisa : B01.050.150.900.649.313.996.770 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29292195
[Au] Autor:Luo MT; Fan Y; Mu D; Yao YG; Zheng YT
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China; Kunming College of Life Science, University of Chinese Ac
[Ti] Título:Molecular cloning and characterization of APOBEC3 family in tree shrew.
[So] Source:Gene;646:143-152, 2018 Mar 10.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The APOBEC3 family is a series antiviral factors that inhibit the replication of many viruses, such as HIV-1 and HBV. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) possess great potential as an animal model for human diseases and therapeutic responses. However, the APOBEC3 family is unknown in tree shrews. Recent work has showed the presence of the APOBEC3 family in tree shrews. In this work, the cDNA sequences of five APOBEC3 members were identified in tree shrews, namely, tsAPOBEC3A, -3C, -3F, -3G and -3H. The results showed that their sequences encoded a zinc (Z)-coordinating-domain as a characteristic of APOBEC3 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the tree shrew APOBEC3 (tsAPOBEC3) genes have occurred independently and that they are clustered with other mammalian APOBEC3 members. Transcript expression analysis indicated that tsAPOBEC3 genes are constitutively expressed, and high in immune-related tissues. tsAPOBEC3 gene expression was up-regulated in hepatocytes and PBMCs by IFN-α stimulation. Finally, tsAPOBEC3 proteins could edit both sides of DNA by inserting G→A and C→T hypermutations. Overall, the results suggest that the tsAPOBEC3 family could play a key role in defense immunity through distinct editing mechanisms. Our results provided insights into the genetic basis for the development of a tree shrew model for studying viral infection. Future studies will focus on deepening our understanding on the antiviral functions of these editing enzymes in tree shrew.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clonagem Molecular/métodos
Citidina Desaminase/genética
Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo
Tupaiidae/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Sequência Conservada
Citidina Desaminase/química
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica
Células Hep G2
Hepatócitos/metabolismo
Seres Humanos
Imunidade
Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo
Família Multigênica
Filogenia
Domínios Proteicos
Distribuição Tecidual
Tupaiidae/genética
Tupaiidae/imunologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 3.5.4.5 (Cytidine Deaminase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180103
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28423373
[Au] Autor:Mazzoleni S; Schillaci O; Sineo L; Dumas F
[Ad] Endereço:Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Distribution of Interstitial Telomeric Sequences in Primates and the Pygmy Tree Shrew (Scandentia).
[So] Source:Cytogenet Genome Res;151(3):141-150, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1424-859X
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:It has been hypothesized that interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), i.e., repeated telomeric DNA sequences found at intrachromosomal sites in many vertebrates, could be correlated to chromosomal rearrangements and plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we hybridized a telomeric PNA probe through FISH on representative species of 2 primate infraorders, Strepsirrhini (Lemur catta, Otolemur garnettii, Nycticebus coucang) and Catarrhini (Erythrocebus patas, Cercopithecus petaurista, Chlorocebus aethiops, Colobus guereza), as well as on 1 species of the order Scandentia, Tupaia minor, used as an outgroup for primates in phylogenetic reconstructions. In almost all primate species analyzed, we found a telomeric pattern only. In Tupaia, the hybridization revealed many bright ITSs on at least 11 chromosome pairs, both biarmed and acrocentric. These ITS signals in Tupaia correspond to fusion points of ancestral human syntenic associations, but are also present in other chromosomes showing synteny to only a single human chromosome. This distribution pattern was compared to that of the heterochromatin regions detected through sequential C-banding performed after FISH. Our results in the analyzed species, compared with literature data on ITSs in primates, allowed us to discuss different mechanisms responsible for the origin and distribution of ITSs, supporting the correlation between rearrangements and ITSs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Primatas/genética
Telômero/genética
Tupaiidae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Heterocromatina
Ácidos Nucleicos Peptídicos/genética
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Heterochromatin); 0 (Peptide Nucleic Acids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170914
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170914
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170420
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000467634


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[PMID]:28304244
[Au] Autor:Ward AH; Siegwart JT; Frost MR; Norton TT
[Ad] Endereço:Genetics, Genomics and Bioinformatics Theme,University of Alabama at Birmingham,Birmingham,AL 35294.
[Ti] Título:Intravitreally-administered dopamine D2-like (and D4), but not D1-like, receptor agonists reduce form-deprivation myopia in tree shrews.
[So] Source:Vis Neurosci;34:E003, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:1469-8714
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We examined the effect of intravitreal injections of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists and D4 receptor drugs on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates. In eleven groups (n = 7 per group), we measured the amount of FDM produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) over an 11-day treatment period. The untreated fellow eye served as a control. Animals also received daily 5 µL intravitreal injections in the FD eye. The reference group received 0.85% NaCl vehicle. Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D1-like receptor agonist (SKF38393) or antagonist (SCH23390). Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole) or antagonist (spiperone). Two groups received the D4 receptor agonist (PD168077) or antagonist (PD168568). Refractions were measured daily; axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 (before treatment) and day 12. We found that in groups receiving the D1-like receptor agonist or antagonist, the development of FDM and altered ocular component dimensions did not differ from the NaCl group. Groups receiving the D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist at the higher dose developed significantly less FDM and had shorter vitreous chambers than the NaCl group. The D4 receptor agonist, but not the antagonist, was nearly as effective as the D2-like agonist in reducing FDM. Thus, using intravitreally-administered agents, we did not find evidence supporting a role for the D1-like receptor pathway in reducing FDM in tree shrews. The reduction of FDM by the dopamine D2-like agonist supported a role for the D2-like receptor pathway in the control of FDM. The reduction of FDM by the D4 receptor agonist, but not the D4 antagonist, suggests an important role for activation of the dopamine D4 receptor in the control of axial elongation and refractive development.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia
Miopia/tratamento farmacológico
Receptores de Dopamina D1/agonistas
Receptores de Dopamina D2/agonistas
Receptores de Dopamina D4/agonistas
Refração Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos
Privação Sensorial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comprimento Axial do Olho/patologia
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia
Injeções Intravítreas
Masculino
Espectrometria de Massas
Receptores de Dopamina D1/antagonistas & inibidores
Receptores de Dopamina D4/antagonistas & inibidores
Tupaiidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dopamine Agonists); 0 (Dopamine Antagonists); 0 (Receptors, Dopamine D1); 0 (Receptors, Dopamine D2); 137750-34-6 (Receptors, Dopamine D4)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171120
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171120
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170318
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0952523816000195


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[PMID]:28199986
[Au] Autor:Tong Y; Hao J; Tu Q; Yu H; Yan L; Li Y; Lv L; Wang F; Iavarone A; Zhao X
[Ad] Endereço:School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.
[Ti] Título:A tree shrew glioblastoma model recapitulates features of human glioblastoma.
[So] Source:Oncotarget;8(11):17897-17907, 2017 Mar 14.
[Is] ISSN:1949-2553
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), an animal species whose genome has significantly higher similarity to primates than rodents, has been used in biomedical research. To generate animal models that reproduce the human tumors more faithfully than rodents, we present the first report of a cancer model mimicking human tumor genetics in tree shrew. By engineering a lentiviral system for the transduction of mutant H-Ras and a shRNA against tree shrew p53, we successfully generated malignant glioma in tree shrew. The tree shrew glioma exhibited aggressive behavior and a relatively short latency, and markedly reduced animal survival. Remarkably, the biological features of human high-grade glioma (necrosis, microvascular proliferation, pseudopalisading) were all present in tree shrew glioma. Furthermore, genetic analysis of tree shrew glioma revealed that the tumors were clustered within the mesenchymal subgroup of human glioblastoma multiforme. Compared with the corresponding mouse glioma, tree shrew gliomas were markedly more similar to human glioblastoma at gene expression profile. The tree shrew glioma model provides colleagues working in the field of gliomas and cancer in general with a more accurate animal model.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Animais de Doenças
Glioblastoma/diagnóstico
Glioblastoma/patologia
Tupaiidae
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
Glioblastoma/genética
Glioblastoma/mortalidade
Seres Humanos
Lentivirus/genética
Masculino
Interferência de RNA
RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
Transcriptoma/genética
Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Small Interfering); 0 (Tumor Suppressor Protein p53)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.15225


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[PMID]:28032601
[Au] Autor:Shao M; Ge GZ; Liu WJ; Xiao J; Xia HJ; Fan Y; Zhao F; He BL; Chen C
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
[Ti] Título:Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) gene family in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).
[So] Source:Oncotarget;8(10):16325-16339, 2017 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1949-2553
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating embryonic development and diseases. The phylogenetics of KLFs has not been studied in tree shrews, an animal lineage with a closer relationship to primates than rodents. Here, we identified 17 KLFs from Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). KLF proteins are highly conserved among humans, monkeys, rats, mice and tree shrews compared to zebrafish and chickens. The CtBP binding site, Sin3A binding site and nuclear localization signals are largely conserved between tree shrews and human beings. Tupaia belangeri (Tb) KLF5 contains several conserved post-transcriptional modification motifs. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of multiple tbKLFs are tissue-specific . TbKLF5, like hKLF5, significantly promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide insight for future studies regarding the structure and function of the tbKLF gene family.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética
Família Multigênica
Filogenia
Tupaiidae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Sítios de Ligação/genética
Western Blotting
Linhagem Celular
Proliferação Celular/genética
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
Seres Humanos
Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/classificação
Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo
Células MCF-7
Camundongos
Células NIH 3T3
Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
Dedos de Zinco/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170707
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170707
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161230
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.13883


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[PMID]:27979713
[Au] Autor:Gawne TJ; Siegwart JT; Ward AH; Norton TT
[Ad] Endereço:University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Dept. Optometry and Vision Science, 924 South 18th St., Birmingham, AL 35294, United States. Electronic address: tgawne@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:The wavelength composition and temporal modulation of ambient lighting strongly affect refractive development in young tree shrews.
[So] Source:Exp Eye Res;155:75-84, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0007
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Shortly after birth, the eyes of most animals (including humans) are hyperopic because the short axial length places the retina in front of the focal plane. During postnatal development, an emmetropization mechanism uses cues related to refractive error to modulate the growth of the eye, moving the retina toward the focal plane. One possible cue may be longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), to signal if eyes are getting too long (long [red] wavelengths in better focus than short [blue]) or too short (short wavelengths in better focus). It could be difficult for the short-wavelength sensitive (SWS, "blue") cones, which are scarce and widely spaced across the retina, to detect and signal defocus of short wavelengths. We hypothesized that the SWS cone retinal pathway could instead utilize temporal (flicker) information. We thus tested if exposure solely to long-wavelength light would cause developing eyes to slow their axial growth and remain refractively hyperopic, and if flickering short-wavelength light would cause eyes to accelerate their axial growth and become myopic. Four groups of infant northern tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri, dichromatic mammals closely related to primates) began 13 days of wavelength treatment starting at 11 days of visual experience (DVE). Ambient lighting was provided by an array of either long-wavelength (red, 626 ± 10 nm) or short-wavelength (blue, 464 ± 10 nm) light-emitting diodes placed atop the cage. The lights were either steady, or flickering in a pseudo-random step pattern. The approximate mean illuminance (in human lux) on the cage floor was red (steady, 527 lux; flickering, 329 lux), and blue (steady, 601 lux; flickering, 252 lux). Refractive state and ocular component dimensions were measured and compared with a group of age-matched normal animals (n = 15 for refraction (first and last days); 7 for ocular components) raised in broad spectrum white fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux). During the 13 day period, the refraction of the normal animals decreased from (mean ± SEM) 5.8 ± 0.7 diopters (D) to 1.5 ± 0.2 D as their vitreous chamber depth increased from 2.77 ± 0.01 mm to 2.80 ± 0.03 mm. Animals exposed to red light (both steady and flickering) remained hyperopic throughout the treatment period so that the eyes at the end of wavelength treatment were significantly hyperopic (7.0 ± 0.7 D, steady; 4.7 ± 0.8 D, flickering) compared with the normal animals (p < 0.01). The vitreous chamber of the steady red group (2.65 ± 0.03 mm) was significantly shorter than normal (p < 0.01). On average, steady blue light had little effect; the refractions paralleled the normal refractive decrease. In contrast, animals housed in flickering blue light increased the rate of refractive decrease so that the eyes became significantly myopic (-2.9 ± 1.3 D) compared with the normal eyes and had longer vitreous chambers (2.93 ± 0.04 mm). Upon return to colony lighting, refractions in all groups gradually returned toward emmetropia. These data are consistent both with the hypothesis that LCA can be an important visual cue for postnatal refractive development, and that short-wavelength temporal flicker provides an important cue for assessing and signaling defocus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Óculos
Iluminação
Refração Ocular/fisiologia
Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia
Retina/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Tupaiidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170615
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170615
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161217
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27840186
[Au] Autor:Reuss S; Brauksiepe B; Disque-Kaiser U; Olivier T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: reuss@uni-mainz.de.
[Ti] Título:Serine/threonine-kinase 33 (Stk33) - Component of the neuroendocrine network?
[So] Source:Brain Res;1655:152-160, 2017 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6240
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The present study was conducted to investigate the expression of serine/threonine-kinase 33 (Stk33) in neuronal structures of the central nervous system in rat and hamster as well as the presence of the protein in the brain of higher mammals, using a polyclonal antibody on cryosections of fixed brains. We found a distinct immunostaining pattern that included intense fluorescence of the ependymal lining of cerebral ventricles, and of hypothalamic tanycytes and their processes. We further observed intense staining of magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic and accessory neurosecretory nuclei, in particular the circular nuclei, and less intense stained neurons in other diencephalic regions. Double-immunostaining experiments showed a partial colocalization of Stk33 with arginine-vasopressin, oxytocin or neuronal nitric oxide-synthase in a large number of neurons of the hypothalamic nuclear regions. Colocalization of Stk33 with substance P or the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine-hydroxylase was not observed. Immunofluorescence was not found in autonomic regions of the lateral horn, suggesting that Stk33 does not contribute to hypothalamo-spinal connections. However, large Stk33-immunoreactive axonal projections from magnocellular hypothalamus to the neurohypophysis were evident. These functionally important connections provide the bridge from neuronal to humoral regulation of the endocrine system. Additionally, Western blots from mouse brain showed two distinct bands representing two Stk33 isoforms. We also present first evidence for the presence of Stk33/STK33 in neuronal structures, ependymal cells and tanycytes in tree shrew, baboon, and human brain.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/enzimologia
Neurônios/enzimologia
Sistemas Neurossecretores/enzimologia
Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Animais
Western Blotting
Encéfalo/citologia
Cricetinae
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Imuno-Histoquímica
Masculino
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Neurônios/citologia
Sistemas Neurossecretores/citologia
Papio
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Tupaiidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 2.7.11.1 (Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161115
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27276555
[Au] Autor:Takahata T; Kaas JH
[Ad] Endereço:Zhejiang University Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology (ZIINT), Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 310016.
[Ti] Título:c-FOS expression in the visual system of tree shrews after monocular inactivation.
[So] Source:J Comp Neurol;525(1):151-165, 2017 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9861
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Tree shrews possess an unusual segregation of ocular inputs to sublayers rather than columns in the primary visual cortex (V1). In this study, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and V1 were examined for changes in c-FOS, an immediate-early gene, expression after 1 or 24 hours of monocular inactivation with tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tree shrews. Monocular inactivation greatly reduced gene expression in LGN layers related to the blocked eye, whereas normally high to moderate levels were maintained in the layers that receive inputs from the intact eye. The SC and caudal pulvinar contralateral to the blocked eye had greatly (SC) or moderately (pulvinar) reduced gene expressions reflective of dependence on the contralateral eye. c-FOS expression in V1 was greatly reduced contralateral to the blocked eye, with most of the expression that remained in upper layer 4a and lower 4b and lower layer 6 regions. In contrast, much of V1 contralateral to the active eye showed normal levels of c-FOS expression, including the inner parts of sublayers 4a and 4b and layers 2, 3, and 6. In some cases, upper layer 4a and lower 4b showed a reduction of gene expression. Layers 5 and sublayer 3c had normally low levels of gene expression. The results reveal the functional dominance of the contralateral eye in activating the SC, pulvinar, and V1, and the results from V1 suggest that the sublaminar organization of layer 4 is more complex than previously realized. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:151-165, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/metabolismo
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo
Privação Sensorial/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia
Expressão Gênica
Hibridização In Situ
Modelos Animais
Plasticidade Neuronal
Tetrodotoxina
Tupaiidae
Vias Visuais/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos); 4368-28-9 (Tetrodotoxin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160609
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cne.24053


  9 / 725 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26971364
[Au] Autor:Day-Brown JD; Slusarczyk AS; Zhou N; Quiggins R; Petry HM; Bickford ME
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia, 25755.
[Ti] Título:Synaptic organization of striate cortex projections in the tree shrew: A comparison of the claustrum and dorsal thalamus.
[So] Source:J Comp Neurol;525(6):1403-1420, 2017 Apr 15.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9861
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) striate cortex is reciprocally connected with the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the ventral pulvinar nucleus (Pv), and the claustrum. In the Pv or the dLGN, striate cortex projections are thought to either strongly "drive", or more subtly "modulate" activity patterns respectively. To provide clues to the function of the claustrum, we compare the synaptic arrangements of striate cortex projections to the dLGN, Pv, and claustrum, using anterograde tracing and electron microscopy. Tissue was additionally stained with antibodies against γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to identify GABAergic interneurons and non-GABAergic projection cells. The striate cortex terminals were largest in the Pv (0.94 ± 0.08 µm ), intermediate in the claustrum (0.34 ± 0.02 µm ), and smallest in the dLGN (0.24 ± 0.01 µm ). Contacts on interneurons were most common in the Pv (39%), intermediate in the claustrum (15%), and least common in the dLGN (12%). In the claustrum, non-GABAergic terminals (0.34 ± 0.01 µm ) and striate cortex terminals were not significantly different in size. The largest terminals in the claustrum were GABAergic (0.51 ± 0.02 µm ), and these terminals contacted dendrites and somata that were significantly larger (1.90 ± 0.30 µm ) than those contacted by cortex or non-GABAergic terminals (0.28 ± 0.02 µm and 0.25 ± 0.02 µm , respectively). Our results indicate that the synaptic organization of the claustrum does not correspond to a driver/modulator framework. Instead, the circuitry of the claustrum suggests an integration of convergent cortical inputs, gated by GABAergic circuits. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1403-1420, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Gânglios da Base/ultraestrutura
Corpos Geniculados/ultraestrutura
Vias Neurais/ultraestrutura
Tupaiidae/anatomia & histologia
Córtex Visual/ultraestrutura
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Western Blotting
Feminino
Imuno-Histoquímica
Masculino
Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
Sinapses/ultraestrutura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170927
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170927
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cne.23998


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[PMID]:27870875
[Au] Autor:Baldivia S; Levy A; Hegde S; Aper SJ; Merkx M; Grytz R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A Novel Organ Culture Model to Quantify Collagen Remodeling in Tree Shrew Sclera.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(11):e0166644, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Increasing evidence suggests that unknown collagen remodeling mechanisms in the sclera underlie myopia development. We are proposing a novel organ culture system in combination with two-photon fluorescence imaging to quantify collagen remodeling at the tissue- and lamella-level. Tree shrew scleral shells were cultured up to 7 days in serum-free media and cellular viability was investigated under: (i) minimal tissue manipulations; (ii) removal of intraocular tissues; gluing the eye to a washer using (iii) 50 µL and (iv) 200 µL of cyanoacrylate adhesive; (v) supplementing media with Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture; and (vi) culturing eyes subjected to 15 mmHg intraocular pressure in our new bioreactor. Two scleral shells of normal juvenile tree shrews were fluorescently labeled using a collagen specific protein and cultured in our bioreactor. Using two-photon microscopy, grid patterns were photobleached into and across multiple scleral lamellae. These patterns were imaged daily for 3 days, and tissue-/lamella-level strains were calculated from the deformed patterns. No significant reduction in cell viability was observed under conditions (i) and (v). Compared to condition (i), cell viability was significantly reduced starting at day 0 (condition (ii)) and day 3 (conditions (iii, iv, vi)). Tissue-level strain and intralamellar shear angel increased significantly during the culture period. Some scleral lamellae elongated while others shortened. Findings suggest that tree shrew sclera can be cultured in serum-free media for 7 days with no significant reduction in cell viability. Scleral fibroblasts are sensitive to tissue manipulations and tissue gluing. However, Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture has a protective effect on cell viability and can offset the cytotoxic effect of cyanoacrylate adhesive. This is the first study to quantify collagen micro-deformations over a prolonged period in organ culture providing a new methodology to study scleral remodeling in myopia.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Colágeno/metabolismo
Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro/química
Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/instrumentação
Esclera/citologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Reatores Biológicos
Sobrevivência Celular
Miopia/metabolismo
Refração Ocular
Esclera/metabolismo
Tupaiidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Culture Media, Serum-Free); 9007-34-5 (Collagen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161122
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0166644



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