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[PMID]:29281731
[Au] Autor:Nyari S; Waugh CA; Dong J; Quigley BL; Hanger J; Loader J; Polkinghorne A; Timms P
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Epidemiology of chlamydial infection and disease in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0190114, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Chlamydial disease continues to be one of the main factors threatening the long-term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Despite this, large epidemiological studies of chlamydial infection and disease in wild koala populations are lacking. A better understanding of the prevalence, transmission and pathogenesis is needed to improve control measures, such as the development of vaccines. We investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum infection and disease in 160 koalas in a peri-urban wild population in Queensland, Australia and found that 31% of koalas were Chlamydia PCR positive and 28% had clinically detectable chlamydial disease. Most infections were at the urogenital site (27%; both males and females) with only 14% at the ocular site. Interestingly, we found that 27% (4/15) of koalas considered to be sexually immature (9-13 months) were already infected with C. pecorum, suggesting that a significant percentage of animals are infected directly from their mother. Ocular infection levels were less prevalent with increasing age (8% in koalas older than 4 years), whereas the prevalence of urogenital tract infections remained high into older age (26% in koalas older than 4 years), suggesting that, after mother-to-young transmission, C. pecorum is predominantly a sexually transmitted infection. While 28% of koalas in this population had clinically detectable chlamydial disease (primarily urogenital tract disease), many PCR positive koalas had no detectable disease and importantly, not all diseased animals were PCR positive. We also observed higher chlamydial loads in koalas who were C. pecorum infected without clinical disease than in koalas who were C. pecorum infected with clinical disease. These results shed light on the potential mechanisms of transmission of C. pecorum in koalas and also guide future control measures, such as vaccination.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia
Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação
Phascolarctidae/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/microbiologia
Masculino
Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia
Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/microbiologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Prevalência
Queensland/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190114


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[PMID]:28704541
[Au] Autor:Barbosa AD; Gofton AW; Paparini A; Codello A; Greay T; Gillett A; Warren K; Irwin P; Ryan U
[Ad] Endereço:School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Perth, Western Australia.
[Ti] Título:Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0181279, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani) removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8%) were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%), T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%), T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8%) and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%). Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%), and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017) was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%). Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35%) of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%). Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7%) of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS) within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights on the natural genetic diversity of Trypanosoma communities infecting koalas and constitutes a benchmark for future clinical and epidemiological studies required to quantify the contribution of trypanosome infections on koala survival rates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Variação Genética
Ixodes/parasitologia
Phascolarctidae/parasitologia
Trypanosoma/genética
Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação
Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia
Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia
Animais
Coinfecção/epidemiologia
DNA de Protozoário/análise
Feminino
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
Masculino
Prevalência
RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise
RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
Tripanossomíase/veterinária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170714
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0181279


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[PMID]:28575080
[Au] Autor:Desclozeaux M; Robbins A; Jelocnik M; Khan SA; Hanger J; Gerdts V; Potter A; Polkinghorne A; Timms P
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Immunization of a wild koala population with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) or Polymorphic Membrane Protein (PMP) based vaccine: New insights into immune response, protection and clearance.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0178786, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We assessed the effects of two different single-dose anti-Chlamydia pecorum (C. pecorum) vaccines (containing either Major Outer Membrane Protein (3MOMP) or Polymorphic Membrane Protein (Pmp) as antigens) on the immune response of a group of wild koalas. Both vaccines elicited a systemic humoral response as seen by the production of anti-chlamydial IgG antibodies in more than 90% of vaccinated koalas. A mucosal immune response was also observed, with an increase in Chlamydia-specific mucosal IgG and/or IgA antibodies in some koalas post-vaccination. Both vaccines elicited a cell-mediated immune response as measured by the production of the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 post-vaccination. To determine the level of protection provided by the vaccines under natural conditions we assessed C. pecorum infection loads and chlamydial disease status of all vaccinated koalas pre- and post-vaccination, compared to a non-vaccinated cohort from the same habitat. The MOMP vaccinated koalas that were infected on the day of vaccination showed significant clearance of their infection at 6 months post-vaccination. In contrast, the number of new infections in the PMP vaccine was similar to the control group, with some koalas progressing to disease. Genotyping of the ompA gene from the C. pecorum strains infecting the vaccinated animals, identified genetic variants of ompA-F genotype and a new genotype ompA-O. We found that those animals that were the least well protected became infected with strains of C. pecorum not covered by the vaccine. In conclusion, a single dose vaccine formulated with either recombinant PmpG or MOMP can elicit both cell-mediated and humoral (systemic and mucosal) immune responses, with the MOMP vaccine showing clearance of infection in all infected koalas. Although the capability of our vaccines to stimulate an adaptive response and be protective needs to be fully evaluated, this work illustrates the necessity to combine epitopes most relevant to a large panel of variable strains with an efficient adjuvant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem
Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle
Chlamydia/imunologia
Phascolarctidae/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/biossíntese
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia
Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia
Imunidade nas Mucosas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins); 0 (Bacterial Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178786


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[PMID]:28363053
[Au] Autor:Martínez-Nevado E; Alonso-Alegre EG; Martínez MÁ; Rodríguez-Álvaro A; de Merlo EM; García JG; Real IG
[Ti] Título:ATYPICAL PRESENTATION OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS IN A KOALA (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS): A MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY.
[So] Source:J Zoo Wildl Med;48(1):250-254, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1042-7260
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cryptococcosis is a worldwide and potentially fatal mycosis documented in wild and captive koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans . Though mainly a subclinical disease, when the nasal cavity is affected, epistaxis, mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnea, and facial distortion may occur. This report describes a case of cryptococcosis in a koala where unilateral exophthalmos was the only evident clinical sign and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings are described. Both advanced imaging techniques should be considered as standard and complementary techniques for nasal cavity evaluation in koalas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Criptococose/veterinária
Cryptococcus neoformans
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária
Phascolarctidae
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais de Zoológico
Criptococose/diagnóstico por imagem
Criptococose/patologia
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1638/2016-0089.1


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[PMID]:28266284
[Au] Autor:Legione AR; Patterson JL; Whiteley P; Firestone SM; Curnick M; Bodley K; Lynch M; Gilkerson JR; Sansom FM; Devlin JM
[Ad] Endereço:1​Asia Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Koala retrovirus genotyping analyses reveal a low prevalence of KoRV-A in Victorian koalas and an association with clinical disease.
[So] Source:J Med Microbiol;66(2):236-244, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1473-5644
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is undergoing endogenization into the genome of koalas in Australia, providing an opportunity to assess the effect of retrovirus infection on the health of a population. The prevalence of KoRV in north-eastern Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) is 100 %, whereas previous preliminary investigations in south-eastern Australia (Victoria) suggested KoRV is present at a lower prevalence, although the values have varied widely. Here, we describe a large study of free-ranging koalas in Victoria to estimate the prevalence of KoRV and assess the clinical significance of KoRV infection in wild koalas. METHODOLOGY: Blood or spleen samples from 648 koalas where tested for KoRV provirus, and subsequently genotyped, using PCRs to detect the pol and env genes respectively. Clinical data was also recorded where possible and analysed in comparison to infection status. RESULTS: The prevalence of KoRV was 24.7 % (160/648). KoRV-A was detected in 141/160 cases, but KoRV-B, a genotype associated with neoplasia in captive koalas, was not detected. The genotype in 19 cases could not be determined. Genomic differences between KoRV in Victoria and type strains may have impacted genotyping. Factors associated with KoRV infection, based on multivariable analysis, were low body condition score, region sampled, and 'wet bottom' (a staining of the fur around the rump associated with chronic urinary incontinence). Koalas with wet bottom were nearly twice as likely to have KoRV provirus detected than those without wet bottom (odds ratio=1.90, 95 % confidence interval 1.21, 2.98). CONCLUSION: Our findings have important implications for the conservation of this iconic species, particularly regarding translocation potential of Victorian koalas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Phascolarctidae/virologia
Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária
Retroviridae/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
DNA Viral/genética
Genótipo
Técnicas de Genotipagem
Modelos Logísticos
Análise Multivariada
New South Wales/epidemiologia
Prevalência
Queensland/epidemiologia
Retroviridae/genética
Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170315
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170315
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170308
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000416


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[PMID]:28026882
[Au] Autor:Shibata E; Shindo I; Miyakawa E; Kido N
[Ad] Endereço:Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, Kanazawa ku, Yokohama, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Supplemental feeding of captive neonatal koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;36(1):62-65, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated. The amount of formula fed was determined according to the product instructions, and offspring weight was monitored. Slower than normal growth was not initially noticed in the first offspring. This caused delayed commencement of supplemental feeding. An attempt was made to counteract this by providing more formula for a longer period; however, this meant No. 1 was unable to eat enough eucalyptus when weaning. Supplemental feeding was started earlier for the second offspring than for the first, and was terminated at weaning; this juvenile showed a healthy body weight increase. Furthermore, it was able to eat eucalyptus leaves at an earlier stage than No. 1. Although No. 1 showed delayed growth, both koalas matured and are still living. This study showed that supplemental feeding is useful for koalas, if the mother will accept human intervention. The key factors for successful supplemental feeding of koalas identified by comparing the two feeding systems observed in this study are that: (1) it should be initiated as soon as insufficient growth is identified; and (2) it should be terminated before weaning age. Zoo Biol. 36:62-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos
Animais Recém-Nascidos
Animais de Zoológico
Dieta/veterinária
Phascolarctidae/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Animais
Feminino
Alimentos Formulados
Lactação/fisiologia
Comportamento Materno
Ganho de Peso
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21343


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[PMID]:27881645
[Au] Autor:Chappell KJ; Brealey JC; Amarilla AA; Watterson D; Hulse L; Palmieri C; Johnston SD; Holmes EC; Meers J; Young PR
[Ad] Endereço:School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia k.chappell@uq.edu.au p.young@uq.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Phylogenetic Diversity of Koala Retrovirus within a Wild Koala Population.
[So] Source:J Virol;91(3), 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Koala populations are in serious decline across many areas of mainland Australia, with infectious disease a contributing factor. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus present in most wild koala populations and captive colonies. Five subtypes of KoRV (A to E) have been identified based on amino acid sequence divergence in a hypervariable region of the receptor binding domain of the envelope protein. However, analysis of viral genetic diversity has been conducted primarily on KoRV in captive koalas housed in zoos in Japan, the United States, and Germany. Wild koalas within Australia have not been comparably assessed. Here we report a detailed analysis of KoRV genetic diversity in samples collected from 18 wild koalas from southeast Queensland. By employing deep sequencing we identified 108 novel KoRV envelope sequences and determined their phylogenetic diversity. Genetic diversity in KoRV was abundant and fell into three major groups; two comprised the previously identified subtypes A and B, while the third contained the remaining hypervariable region subtypes (C, D, and E) as well as four hypervariable region subtypes that we newly define here (F, G, H, and I). In addition to the ubiquitous presence of KoRV-A, which may represent an exclusively endogenous variant, subtypes B, D, and F were found to be at high prevalence, while subtypes G, H, and I were present in a smaller number of animals. IMPORTANCE: Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is thought to be a significant contributor to koala disease and population decline across mainland Australia. This study is the first to determine KoRV subtype prevalence among a wild koala population, and it significantly expands the total number of KoRV sequences available, providing a more precise picture of genetic diversity. This understanding of KoRV subtype prevalence and genetic diversity will be important for conservation efforts attempting to limit the spread of KoRV. Furthermore, KoRV is one of the only retroviruses shown to exist in both endogenous (transmitted vertically to offspring in the germ line DNA) and exogenous (horizontally transmitted between infected individuals) forms, a division of fundamental evolutionary importance.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Gammaretrovirus/classificação
Gammaretrovirus/genética
Variação Genética
Phascolarctidae/virologia
Filogenia
Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais Selvagens
Evolução Molecular
Feminino
Produtos do Gene env
Masculino
Motivos de Nucleotídeos
Filogeografia
Recombinação Genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Gene Products, env)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170718
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170718
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161125
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27838759
[Au] Autor:Jones EA; Cheng Y; O'Meally D; Belov K
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Veterinary Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, 2006, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Characterization of the antimicrobial peptide family defensins in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).
[So] Source:Immunogenetics;69(3):133-143, 2017 03.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1211
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Defensins comprise a family of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides with important roles in innate and adaptive immune defense in vertebrates. We characterized alpha and beta defensin genes in three Australian marsupials: the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and identified 48, 34, and 39 defensins, respectively. One hundred and twelve have the classical antimicrobial peptides characteristics required for pathogen membrane targeting, including cationic charge (between 1+ and 15+) and a high proportion of hydrophobic residues (>30%). Phylogenetic analysis shows that gene duplication has driven unique and species-specific expansions of devil, koala, and tammar wallaby beta defensins and devil alpha defensins. Defensin genes are arranged in three genomic clusters in marsupials, whereas further duplications and translocations have occurred in eutherians resulting in four and five gene clusters in mice and humans, respectively. Marsupial defensins are generally under purifying selection, particularly residues essential for defensin structural stability. Certain hydrophobic or positively charged sites, predominantly found in the defensin loop, are positively selected, which may have functional significance in defensin-target interaction and membrane insertion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo
Defensinas/genética
Genoma
Macropodidae/genética
Marsupiais/genética
Phascolarctidae/genética
Seleção Genética/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Austrália
Evolução Molecular
Duplicação Gênica
Genômica
Camundongos
Filogenia
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Defensins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171122
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171122
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161114
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00251-016-0959-1


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[PMID]:27418014
[Au] Autor:Webster K; Narayan E; de Vos N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia. Electronic address: koa.webster@mq.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite response of captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) to visitor encounters.
[So] Source:Gen Comp Endocrinol;244:157-163, 2017 Apr 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6840
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Physiological responses of wildlife species to zoo visitors should be studied to better understand how wildlife perceive human encounters. We conducted an experimental test of the effect of changes in zoo visitor encounter experiences on the glucocorticoid (GC) response of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in a Sydney zoo. Koalas were housed in a multiple-bay enclosure (two to three koalas per bay) for photography sessions with zoo visitors (no touching of koalas permitted by visitors). Following a one-week no-photography baseline period, photography sessions were rotated between three enclosure bays for four weeks (Intensive photography), then between five enclosure bays for an additional four weeks (Standard photography). A sixth enclosure bay was never included in the photography sessions (control bay); koalas in this bay showed no significant change in fecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) during the course of the study. In the five experimental bays differences were seen between male and female koalas. Males had higher mean FCMs than females, and individual FCM traces showed that two male koalas that were related and of similar age responded strongly to the experimental manipulation. These two males showed a peak in FCMs at the beginning of the Intensive photography period, then a decline when photography sessions returned to the Standard protocol. No systematic pattern in response to photography sessions was observed in females. Our results demonstrate successful application of a non-invasive endocrinology tool for assessing the stress biology and welfare of captive zoo wildlife.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fezes/química
Glucocorticoides/metabolismo
Phascolarctidae/metabolismo
Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Glucocorticoides/química
Seres Humanos
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucocorticoids); WI4X0X7BPJ (Hydrocortisone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170829
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170829
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160716
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27999419
[Au] Autor:Denner J
[Ad] Endereço:Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany. DennerJ@rki.de.
[Ti] Título:Transspecies Transmission of Gammaretroviruses and the Origin of the Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus (GaLV) and the Koala Retrovirus (KoRV).
[So] Source:Viruses;8(12), 2016 Dec 20.
[Is] ISSN:1999-4915
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV), two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from , the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys. However, only the habitats of the koalas and the grassland melomys in Australia are overlapping, indicating that the melomys virus may not be the precursor of the GaLV. Viruses closely related to GaLV/KoRV were also detected in bats. Therefore, given the fact that the habitats of the gibbons in Thailand and the koalas in Australia are far away, and that bats are able to fly over long distances, the hypothesis that retroviruses of bats are the origin of GaLV and KoRV deserves consideration. Analysis of previous transspecies transmissions of retroviruses may help to evaluate the potential of transmission of related retroviruses in the future, e.g., that of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa
Evolução Molecular
Gammaretrovirus/classificação
Gammaretrovirus/genética
Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Austrália
Quirópteros
Gammaretrovirus/isolamento & purificação
Hylobates
Camundongos
Phascolarctidae
Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia
Tailândia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170913
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170913
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161222
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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