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[PMID]:29024651
[Au] Autor:Chafee MV; Crowe DA
[Ad] Endereço:Associate Professor, Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address: chafe001@umn.edu.
[Ti] Título:Implicit and Explicit Learning Mechanisms Meet in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.
[So] Source:Neuron;96(2):256-258, 2017 Oct 11.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4199
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this issue, Loonis et al. (2017) provide the first description of unique synchrony patterns differentiating implicit and explicit forms of learning in monkey prefrontal networks. Their results have broad implications for how prefrontal networks integrate the two learning mechanisms to control behavior.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Haplorrinos
Aprendizagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Humanos
Córtex Pré-Frontal
Tempo de Reação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171026
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171026
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171012
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27960629
[Au] Autor:Okada M; Kita Y; Hashimoto S; Nakatani H; Nishimastu S; Kioka Y; Takami Y
[Ad] Endereço:a Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center , Kita-ku, Sakai City , Osaka , Japan.
[Ti] Título:Preclinical study and clinical trial of a novel therapeutic vaccine against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.
[So] Source:Hum Vaccin Immunother;13(2):298-305, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:2164-554X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:[Purpose] Multi-drug resistant (MDR), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a big problem in the world. We have developed novel TB therapeutic vaccine (HVJ-E/HSP65 DNA +IL-12 DNA). [Methods and Results] DNA vaccine expressing TB heat shock protein 65 and IL-12 was delivered by the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-envelope. This vaccine provided remarkable protective efficacy and strong therapeutic efficacy against MDR-TB and XDR-TB in murine models. Furthermore, this vaccine provided therapeutic efficacy of prolongation of survival time of TB infected monkeys and augmented the immune responses. Therefore, the preclinical tests were studied for clinical trial. The injection of 100 µg of the vaccine /mouse i.m. three times in two weeks induced significantly strong production of IFN-γ and IL-2. 100 µg and 200 µg DNA vaccine/mouse i.m. augmented the production of these cytokines compared with 25 µg DNA vaccine/mouse i.m.. The ratio of 100 µg pDNA to 1AU HVJ-E enhanced the production of IFN-γ and IL-2. The decrease in the number of M. tuberculosis in liver of mice was observed by the vaccination of 100µg pDNA. By using these conditions, safety pharmacology study and toxicology test is being studied in monkeys administered by GMP level DNA vaccines. By the toxicology test using monkeys, high dose GMP level vaccine/ monkey is administrated. Safety pharmacological study of repeated administration is also being investigated in GLP level. Furthermore, we have planned to do clinical phase I trial. Targets are human patients with MDR-TB. The safety and tolerability of the vaccine will be evaluated. [Conclusion and recommendations] These data indicate that our novel vaccine might be useful against tuberculosis including XDR-TB and MDR-TB for human therapeutic clinical applications.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Imunoterapia/métodos
Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/uso terapêutico
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Carga Bacteriana
Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos
Feminino
Haplorrinos
Japão
Fígado/microbiologia
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação
Resultado do Tratamento
Vacinas de DNA/uso terapêutico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Tuberculosis Vaccines); 0 (Vaccines, DNA)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/21645515.2017.1264781


  3 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28800957
[Au] Autor:Trottier A; Maltais R; Ayan D; Barbeau X; Roy J; Perreault M; Poulin R; Lagüe P; Poirier D
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU de Québec - Research Center (CHUL, T4), Québec, QC, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Insight into the mode of action and selectivity of PBRM, a covalent steroidal inhibitor of 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.
[So] Source:Biochem Pharmacol;144:149-161, 2017 Nov 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2968
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:17ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17ß-HSD1) is involved in the biosynthesis of estradiol, the major bioactive endogenous estrogen in mammals, and constitutes an interesting therapeutic target for estrogen-dependent diseases. A steroidal derivative, 3-{[(16ß,17ß)-3-(2-bromoethyl)-17-hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-16-yl]methyl} benzamide (PBRM), has recently been described as a non-estrogenic, irreversible inhibitor of 17ß-HSD1. However, the mode of action of this inhibitor and its selectivity profile have not yet been elucidated. We assessed PBRM potency via in vitro kinetic measurements. The mechanism of enzyme inactivation was also investigated using interspecies (human, mouse, pig and monkey) comparisons via both in vitro assays and in silico analysis. Mouse and human plasma protein binding of PBRM was determined, whereas its selectivity of action was studied using a wide range of potential off-targets (e.g. GPCR, hERG, CYPs, etc.). The affinity constant (K =368nM) and the enzyme inactivation rate (k =0.087min ) values for PBRM were determined with purified 17ß-HSD1. PBRM was found to be covalently linked to the enzyme. A long delay period (i.e. 3-5days) is required to recover 17ß-HSD1 activity following a pretreatment of breast and placenta cell lines with PBRM. Mechanistic analyses showed important interspecies differences of 17ß-HSD1 inhibition which support the importance of inactivation for PBRM effect. Evidences of the potency and selectivity of action presented herein for this first non-estrogenic and steroidal covalent irreversible inhibitor of 17ß-HSD1 warrant its further development as a potential drug candidate for estrogen-dependent disorders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia
Estradiol Desidrogenases/antagonistas & inibidores
Estradiol Desidrogenases/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Benzamidas/química
Benzamidas/metabolismo
Benzamidas/farmacologia
Callithrix
Linhagem Celular Tumoral
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química
Feminino
Células HEK293
Haplorrinos
Humanos
Camundongos
Ligação Proteica/fisiologia
Suínos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Benzamides); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); EC 1.1.1.62 (Estradiol Dehydrogenases); EC 1.1.1.62 (HSD17B1 protein, human)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170812
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28128668
[Au] Autor:Hadrian R; Palmes D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Hospital Münster , Münster, Germany .
[Ti] Título:Animal Models of Secondary Lymphedema: New Approaches in the Search for Therapeutic Options.
[So] Source:Lymphat Res Biol;15(1):2-16, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8585
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Secondary lymphedema is still a worldwide problem. Symptomatic approaches to lymphedema therapy have been mainly used, with complete decongestive therapy as the cornerstone. Due to a lack of regenerative therapy, researchers have established various animal models to obtain insights into pathomechanisms and to reveal the best therapeutic option. Since the first reproducible and reliable animal model of lymphedema was reported in dogs, the technique of circumferential excision of lymphatic tissue has been translated mainly to rodents to induce secondary lymphedema. In these models, various promising pharmacological and surgical approaches have been investigated to improve secondary lymphedema therapy. Imaging modalities are crucial to detect the extent of lymphatic dysfunction and decide the best therapy. The gold standard of lymphoscintigraphy is currently limited by poor spatial resolution and lack of quantification. Animal models could help to bridge a gap in improving morphological correlation and quantifying lymphatic functionality. This review summarizes the animal models used in lymphatic research and focuses on new therapeutic options and requirements for imaging modalities to visualize the lymphatic system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Linfedema/diagnóstico
Linfedema/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia
Terapia Combinada
Citocinas/farmacologia
Citocinas/uso terapêutico
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Feminino
Haplorrinos
Humanos
Hialuronoglucosaminidase/farmacologia
Hialuronoglucosaminidase/uso terapêutico
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/uso terapêutico
Vasos Linfáticos/efeitos de drogas
Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo
Vasos Linfáticos/patologia
Linfedema/etiologia
Linfografia/métodos
Linfocintigrafia
Terapia de Alvo Molecular
Coelhos
Roedores
Ovinos
Células-Tronco/efeitos de drogas
Células-Tronco/metabolismo
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
Suínos
Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (Antibodies, Monoclonal); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C); EC 3.2.1.35 (Hyaluronoglucosaminidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/lrb.2016.0015


  5 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28934219
[Au] Autor:Zimmermann F; Köhler SM; Nowak K; Dupke S; Barduhn A; Düx A; Lang A; De Nys HM; Gogarten JF; Grunow R; Couacy-Hymann E; Wittig RM; Klee SR; Leendertz FH
[Ad] Endereço:Robert Koch Institute, P3: "Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms", Seestraße 10, Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Low antibody prevalence against Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, indicates high rate of lethal infections in wildlife.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(9):e0005960, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva) is a member of the B. cereus group which carries both B. anthracis virulence plasmids, causes anthrax-like disease in various wildlife species and was described in several sub-Saharan African rainforests. Long-term monitoring of carcasses in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, revealed continuous wildlife mortality due to Bcbva in a broad range of mammalian species. While non-lethal anthrax infections in wildlife have been described for B. anthracis, nothing is known about the odds of survival following an anthrax infection caused by Bcbva. To address this gap, we present the results of a serological study of anthrax in five wildlife species known to succumb to Bcbva in this ecosystem. Specific antibodies were only detected in two out of 15 wild red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and one out of 10 black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus polykomos), but in none of 16 sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), 9 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and 9 Maxwell's duikers (Cephalophus maxwellii). The combination of high mortality and low antibody detection rates indicates high virulence of this disease across these different mammalian species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/imunologia
Antraz/mortalidade
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
Bacillus cereus/imunologia
Bacillus cereus/patogenicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia
Haplorrinos
Parques Recreativos
Prevalência
Ruminantes
Virulência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Bacterial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170921
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005960


  6 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28915417
[Au] Autor:Kang L; Connolly TM; Weng N; Jian W
[Ad] Endereço:Janssen Research & Development, Johnson & Johnson, 1400 McKean Road, Spring House, PA, 19477, USA.
[Ti] Título:LC-MS/MS quantification of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) in rat and monkey plasma.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1064:49-55, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) is an oxidative enzymatic product of cholesterol metabolism via cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, an enzyme also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1). C4 is a stable intermediate in the rate limiting pathway of bile acid biosynthesis. Previous studies showed that plasma C4 levels correlated with CYP7A1 enzymatic activity and could serve as a biomarker for bile acid synthesis. Here we developed and qualified a simple and robust high-throughput method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify C4 in rat and monkey plasma. As C4 being an endogenous compound, this method used calibration standards in 50/50: acetonitrile/water (v/v). In order to mimic the incurred samples, quality control samples were prepared in the authentic plasma. Stable isotope labeled C4 (C4-d ) was used as the internal standard. The sample volume for analysis was 20µL and the sample preparation method was protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The average endogenous C4 concentrations, from 10 different lots of rat and monkey plasma, were 53.0±16.5ng/mL and 6.8±5.6ng/mL, respectively. Based on these observed endogenous C4 levels, the calibration curve ranges were established at 1-200ng/mL and 0.5-100ng/mL for rat assay and monkey assay, respectively. The method was qualified with acceptable accuracy, precision, linearity, and specificity. Matrix effect, recovery, and plasma stability of bench-top, freeze-thaw, and long-term frozen storage were also evaluated. The method has been successfully applied to pre-clinical studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomarcadores/sangue
Colestenonas/sangue
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Haplorrinos
Modelos Lineares
Ratos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Cholestenones); 3862-25-7 (7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170915
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28001002
[Au] Autor:Duggins P; Stewart TC; Choo X; Eliasmith C
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Theoretical Neuroscience, University of Waterloo.
[Ti] Título:The Effects of Guanfacine and Phenylephrine on a Spiking Neuron Model of Working Memory.
[So] Source:Top Cogn Sci;9(1):117-134, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1756-8765
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We use a spiking neural network model of working memory (WM) capable of performing the spatial delayed response task (DRT) to investigate two drugs that affect WM: guanfacine (GFC) and phenylephrine (PHE). In this model, the loss of information over time results from changes in the spiking neural activity through recurrent connections. We reproduce the standard forgetting curve and then show that this curve changes in the presence of GFC and PHE, whose application is simulated by manipulating functional, neural, and biophysical properties of the model. In particular, applying GFC causes increased activity in neurons that are sensitive to the information currently being remembered, while applying PHE leads to decreased activity in these same neurons. Interestingly, these differential effects emerge from network-level interactions because GFC and PHE affect all neurons equally. We compare our model to both electrophysiological data from neurons in monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and to behavioral evidence from monkeys performing the DRT.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Guanfacina/farmacologia
Neurônios/efeitos de drogas
Fenilefrina/farmacologia
Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos de drogas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Haplorrinos
Humanos
Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos de drogas
Modelos Neurológicos
Neurônios/fisiologia
Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
1WS297W6MV (Phenylephrine); 30OMY4G3MK (Guanfacine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tops.12247


  8 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28822762
[Au] Autor:Wang K; Li S; Worku T; Hao X; Yang L; Zhang S
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China. Electronic address: wangkai2015@webmail.hzau.edu.cn.
[Ti] Título:Rab11a is required for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induced autophagy to promote viral replication.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun;492(2):236-242, 2017 Oct 14.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2104
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the leading virus known to cause massive economic loss in pig industry worldwide. In our previous study, transcriptional profiling of PRRSV-infected lung tissue of Tongcheng and Landrane pigs, which have highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) susceptibility differences, showed differential expression of Rab11a. The small GTPase Rab11a regulates intracellular membrane trafficking events involved in autophagy. However, the involvement of the convergence of endosomal Rab11a and autophagy pathways during PRRSV infection is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that PRRSV infection induced complete autophagy and up-regulated the expression of Rab11a. Furthermore, interference of the expression of Rab11a resulted in the accumulation of endogenous LC3-II and p62, indicating that Rab11a played a vital role in autophagosome maturation. Silencing of Rab11a resulted in a compromise the expression of intracellular viral NSP2 and ORF7. Besides, confocal microscopy analysis showed that viral NSP2 was colocalized with Rab11a in Marc145 cells. Collectively, our findings revealed that Rab11a acted as a proviral host factor that benefited PRRSV replication in a manner that correlates with autophagy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Autofagia
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/metabolismo
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patologia
Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia
Replicação Viral
Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Linhagem Celular
Haplorrinos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia
Suínos
Regulação para Cima
Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 3.6.1.- (rab11 protein); EC 3.6.5.2 (rab GTP-Binding Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170925
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170925
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170820
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28193685
[Au] Autor:Schomers MR; Garagnani M; Pulvermüller F
[Ad] Endereço:Brain Language Laboratory, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany, malte2011@cantab.net.
[Ti] Título:Neurocomputational Consequences of Evolutionary Connectivity Changes in Perisylvian Language Cortex.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;37(11):3045-3055, 2017 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The human brain sets itself apart from that of its primate relatives by specific neuroanatomical features, especially the strong linkage of left perisylvian language areas (frontal and temporal cortex) by way of the arcuate fasciculus (AF). AF connectivity has been shown to correlate with verbal working memory-a specifically human trait providing the foundation for language abilities-but a mechanistic explanation of any related causal link between anatomical structure and cognitive function is still missing. Here, we provide a possible explanation and link, by using neurocomputational simulations in neuroanatomically structured models of the perisylvian language cortex. We compare networks mimicking key features of cortical connectivity in monkeys and humans, specifically the presence of relatively stronger higher-order "jumping links" between nonadjacent perisylvian cortical areas in the latter, and demonstrate that the emergence of working memory for syllables and word forms is a functional consequence of this structural evolutionary change. We also show that a mere increase of learning time is not sufficient, but that this specific structural feature, which entails higher connectivity degree of relevant areas and shorter sensorimotor path length, is crucial. These results offer a better understanding of specifically human anatomical features underlying the language faculty and their evolutionary selection advantage. Why do humans have superior language abilities compared to primates? Recently, a uniquely human neuroanatomical feature has been demonstrated in the strength of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), a fiber pathway interlinking the left-hemispheric language areas. Although AF anatomy has been related to linguistic skills, an explanation of how this fiber bundle may support language abilities is still missing. We use neuroanatomically structured computational models to investigate the consequences of evolutionary changes in language area connectivity and demonstrate that the human-specific higher connectivity degree and comparatively shorter sensorimotor path length implicated by the AF entail emergence of verbal working memory, a prerequisite for language learning. These results offer a better understanding of specifically human anatomical features for language and their evolutionary selection advantage.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia
Linguagem
Modelos Genéticos
Modelos Neurológicos
Plasticidade Neuronal/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo/fisiologia
Simulação por Computador
Conectoma/métodos
Haplorrinos
Humanos
Macaca
Pan troglodytes
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2693-16.2017


  10 / 41615 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28877535
[Au] Autor:Devkar D; Wright AA; Ma WJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.
[Ti] Título:Monkeys and humans take local uncertainty into account when localizing a change.
[So] Source:J Vis;17(11):4, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1534-7362
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Since sensory measurements are noisy, an observer is rarely certain about the identity of a stimulus. In visual perception tasks, observers generally take their uncertainty about a stimulus into account when doing so helps task performance. Whether the same holds in visual working memory tasks is largely unknown. Ten human and two monkey subjects localized a single change in orientation between a sample display containing three ellipses and a test display containing two ellipses. To manipulate uncertainty, we varied the reliability of orientation information by making each ellipse more or less elongated (two levels); reliability was independent across the stimuli. In both species, a variable-precision encoding model equipped with an "uncertainty-indifferent" decision rule, which uses only the noisy memories, fitted the data poorly. In both species, a much better fit was provided by a model in which the observer also takes the levels of reliability-driven uncertainty associated with the memories into account. In particular, a measured change in a low-reliability stimulus was given lower weight than the same change in a high-reliability stimulus. We did not find strong evidence that observers took reliability-independent variations in uncertainty into account. Our results illustrate the importance of studying the decision stage in comparison tasks and provide further evidence for evolutionary continuity of working memory systems between monkeys and humans.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
Orientação/fisiologia
Percepção Visual/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Animais
Feminino
Haplorrinos
Humanos
Masculino
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
Incerteza
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170906
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1167/17.11.4



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