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  1 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29242329
[Au] Autor:Biggs D; Holden MH; Braczkowski A; Cook CN; Milner-Gulland EJ; Phelps J; Scholes RJ; Smith RJ; Underwood FM; Adams VM; Allan J; Brink H; Cooney R; Gao Y; Hutton J; Macdonald-Madden E; Maron M; Redford KH; Sutherland WJ; Possingham HP
[Ad] Endereço:Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia. ancientantwren@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Breaking the deadlock on ivory.
[So] Source:Science;358(6369):1378-1381, 2017 12 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Elefantes
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
Extinção Biológica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Animais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180115
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180115
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aan5215


  2 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29186207
[Au] Autor:Morfeld KA; Brown JL
[Ad] Endereço:Lincoln Children's Zoo, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants: Management factors predicting leptin levels and the glucose-to-insulin ratio and their associations with health parameters.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188701, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I). In females, mean (± SD) leptin concentrations and the G:I were lower (P<0.05) in Asian (3.93 ± 2.21 ng/ml and 110 ± 86 units) compared to African (4.37 ± 2.89 ng/ml and 208 ± 133 units) elephants, respectively. For males, mean leptin and the G:I were 4.99 ± 3.61 ng/ml and 253 ± 181 units for Asian, and 3.72 ± 2.00 ng/ml and 326 ± 231 units for African elephants, respectively, with no differences between species (P>0.05). As mean leptin concentration increased there was an increase in the odds of a female being non-cycling (P = 0.0083). The G:I was associated inversely with body condition (P = 0.0002); as the G:I increased there was a decreased risk of BCS = 4 or 5 as compared to the ideal, or BCS = 3. Neither leptin nor G:I were predictive of foot or musculoskeletal health scores. Factors related to walking and feeding practices were most influential in predicting metabolic status, whereas social and housing factors showed smaller, but significant effects. The metabolic health benefits of walking were detected if the time spent in staff-directed walking was 7 hours or more per week. The most protective feeding practices included implementing a random rather than predictable feeding schedule and limiting the number of methods presentation methods. Results indicate that leptin levels and G:I can be used as predictors of both ovarian cycle function and body condition, and are affected by zoo management in elephants.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais de Zoológico
Glicemia/metabolismo
Elefantes/sangue
Insulina/metabolismo
Leptina/sangue
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bem-Estar do Animal
Animais
Elefantes/fisiologia
Feminino
Masculino
Modelos Biológicos
Reprodução
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Leptin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180101
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180101
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188701


  3 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29185668
[Au] Autor:Landman M; Schoeman DS; Hall-Martin AJ; Kerley GIH
[Ti] Título:Long­term monitoring reveals differing impacts of elephants on elements of a canopy shrub community.
[So] Source:Ecol Appl;24(8):2002-12, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1051-0761
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The conservation management of southern Africa's elephants focuses on identifying and mitigating the extent and intensity of impacts on biological diversity. However, variation in the intensity of elephant effects between elements of biodiversity is seldom explored, which limits our ability to interpret the scale of the impacts. Our study quantifies >50 years of impacts in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, contrasting hypotheses for the resilience of the canopy shrubs (a key functional guild) to elephants with those that argue the opposite. We also assess the impacts between elements of the community, ranging from community composition and structure to the structure of individual canopy species. We show the vulnerability of the canopy shrubs to transformation as the accumulated influences of elephants alter community composition and structure. The pattern of transformation is similar to that caused by domestic herbivores, which leads us to predict that elephants will eventually bring about landscape-level degradation and a significant loss of biodiversity. While we expected the canopy species to show similar declining trends in structure, providing insight into the response of the community as a whole, we demonstrate an uneven distribution of impacts between constituent elements; most of the canopy dominants exhibited little change, resisting removal. This implies that these canopy dominants might not be useful indicators of community change in thickets, a pattern that is likely repeated among the canopy trees of savanna systems. Our findings suggest that predicting elephant impacts, and finding solutions to the so-called "elephant problem," require a broader and more integrated understanding of the mechanisms driving the changes between elements of biodiversity at various spatial and temporal scales.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodiversidade
Elefantes/fisiologia
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
África do Sul
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28934325
[Au] Autor:Stacy NI; Isaza R; Wiedner E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:First report of changes in leukocyte morphology in response to inflammatory conditions in Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0185277, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although the hematology of healthy elephants has been well-described, published information on hematological changes during disease is limited. The objective of this study was to describe qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) diagnosed with a variety of inflammatory conditions. Twenty-five of 27 elephants had morphological changes in their leukocytes, although only 16 of these had a concurrent inflammatory leukogram. Morphological changes included heterophil left-shifting with or without concurrent dysgranulopoiesis, toxicity, or hypersegmentation, reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or vacuolated monocytes. Although the observed leukocyte morphological changes are non-specific, their early recognition upon blood film evaluation may provide important, clinically-relevant information, particularly if the leukogram is normal. This case series is the first description of qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of elephants in association with inflammation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Elefantes/sangue
Leucócitos/citologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Inflamação/sangue
Inflamação/veterinária
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185277


  5 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28915245
[Au] Autor:Lueders I; Young D; Maree L; van der Horst G; Luther I; Botha S; Tindall B; Fosgate G; Ganswindt A; Bertschinger HJ
[Ad] Endereço:GEOlifes-Animal Fertility and Reproductive Research, Frohmestr. 7, Hamburg, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Effects of GnRH vaccination in wild and captive African Elephant bulls (Loxodonta africana) on reproductive organs and semen quality.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0178270, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Although the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), in some isolated habitats in southern Africa, contraception is of major interest due to local overpopulation. GnRH vaccination has been promoted as a non-invasive contraceptive measure for population management of overabundant wildlife. We tested the efficacy of this treatment for fertility control in elephant bulls. METHODS: In total, 17 male African elephants that were treated with a GnRH vaccine were examined in two groups. In the prospective study group 1 (n = 11 bulls, ages: 8-36 years), semen quality, the testes, seminal vesicles, ampullae and prostate, which were all measured by means of transrectal ultrasound, and faecal androgen metabolite concentrations were monitored over a three-year period. Each bull in the prospective study received 5 ml of Improvac® (1000 µg GnRH conjugate) intramuscularly after the first examination, followed by a booster six weeks later and thereafter every 5-7 months. In a retrospective study group (group 2, n = 6, ages: 19-33 years), one examination was performed on bulls which had been treated with GnRH vaccine for 5-11 years. RESULTS: In all bulls of group 1, testicular and accessory sex gland sizes decreased significantly after the third vaccination. In six males examined prior to vaccination and again after more than five vaccinations, the testis size was reduced by 57.5%. Mean testicular height and length decreased from 13.3 ± 2.6 cm x 15.2 ± 2.8 cm at the beginning to 7.6 ± 2.1 cm x 10.2 ± 1.8 cm at the end of the study. Post pubertal bulls (>9 years, n = 6) examined prior to vaccination produced ejaculates with viable spermatozoa (volume: 8-175 ml, sperm concentration: 410-4000x106/ml, total motility: 0-90%), while after 5-8 injections, only 50% of these bulls produced ejaculates with a small number of immotile spermatozoa. The ejaculates of group 2 bulls (vaccinated >8 times) were devoid of spermatozoa. Faecal androgen metabolite concentrations measured in captive males decreased significantly after the fourth vaccination. None of the males entered musth during the treatment period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a marked decrease in semen quality, testicle and secondary sex gland sizes following repeated GnRH vaccinations. After 2-4 years of continuous treatment every 5-7 months, the effects were similar to surgical castration.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticoncepção Imunológica
Elefantes
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina
Reprodução
Análise do Sêmen
Testículo
Vacinação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
33515-09-2 (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178270


  6 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28653455
[Au] Autor:Stokes H; Perera V; Jayasena N; Silva-Fletcher A
[Ad] Endereço:Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Nocturnal behavior of orphaned Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves in Sri Lanka.
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;36(4):261-272, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Many animals exhibit circadian variation in behavior; thus, studying nocturnal behavior is important to fully understand species activity patterns. The nocturnal behavior of Asian elephants, and specifically calves, has received little previous study. We carried out observational study of the nocturnal behavior of orphaned Asian elephant calves at three age groups: "infant" (0-24 months), "young juvenile" (25-36 months) and "old juveniles" (over 36 months). Project aims were to build a nocturnal activity budget, to investigate key age differences, and whether calves exhibited synchronous behavior patterns. We carried out focal animal sampling and instantaneous group scan sampling on 34 calves for 18 nights using an infra-red camera. Focal results indicated that calves spent the highest percentage of scans in lying rest (46.2%) and feeding (28.4%). There was no significant difference between lying rest in the three age groups. Calves spent the majority of time within 5 m of their nearest neighbor, with infants remaining in closest proximity to conspecifics compared to older calves. Synchronous behavior could not be proved statistically but two distinct lying rest periods between 2300 and 0100, and 0330 and 0530, were noted. We found that calves spent more time in lying rest than previously observed in adult elephants. Activity patterns observed suggest that the orphaned group behavior is similar to that reported in the wild and captive zoological collections, and appears to be in concordance with "natural" behavior patterns, a defining feature of animal welfare. This research provides valuable data as a preliminary study.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Ritmo Circadiano
Elefantes/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Envelhecimento
Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Variações Dependentes do Observador
Comportamento Social
Sri Lanka
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170628
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21360


  7 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28591179
[Au] Autor:Guldemond RAR; Purdon A; van Aarde RJ
[Ad] Endereço:Conservation Ecology Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:A systematic review of elephant impact across Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0178935, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species and their environment can benefit from such an approach. After some 68 years, 367 peer-reviewed papers covered the topic and 51 of these papers provided sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis. We separated the direct impact that elephants had on trees and herbs from the indirect effects on other vertebrates, invertebrates, and soil properties. Elephants have an impact on tree structure and abundance but no overall negative cascading effects for species that share space with them. Primary productivity explained a small amount of variation of elephant impact on vegetation. Elephant numbers (density), study duration, rainfall, tree cover, and the presence of artificial water and fences failed to describe patterns of impact. We conclude that published information do not support the calls made for artificially manipulating elephant numbers to ameliorate elephant impact, and call for the management of space use by elephants to maintain savanna heterogeneity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Elefantes/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Animais
Ecossistema
Geografia
Dinâmica Populacional
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170608
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178935


  8 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28582425
[Au] Autor:Pozo RA; Coulson T; McCulloch G; Stronza AL; Songhurst AC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Determining baselines for human-elephant conflict: A matter of time.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0178840, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Elephant crop raiding is one of the most relevant forms of human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Africa. Northern Botswana holds the largest population of African elephants in the world, and in the eastern Okavango Panhandle, 16,000 people share and compete for resources with more than 11,000 elephants. Hence, it is not surprising this area represents a HEC 'hotspot' in the region. Crop-raiding impacts lead to negative perceptions of elephants by local communities, which can strongly undermine conservation efforts. Therefore, assessing trends in conflict levels is essential to developing successful management strategies. In this context, we investigated the trend in the number of reported raiding incidents as one of the indicators of the level of HEC, and assessed its relationship to trends in human and elephant population size, as well as land-use in the study area. For each of these factors, we considered data spanning historical (since the 1970s) and contemporary (2008-2015) time frames, with the aim of comparing subsequent inferences on the drivers of crop raiding and predictions for the future. We find that the level of reported crop raiding by elephants in the eastern Panhandle appears to have decreased since 2008, which seems to be related to the reduction in agricultural land allocated to people in recent years, more than with human and elephant population size. We show that inferences regarding the drivers of HEC and predictions for the future are dependent on the time span of the data used. Although our study represents a first step in developing a HEC baseline in the eastern Panhandle, it highlights the need for additional multi-scale analyses that consider progress in conservation conflict to better understand and predict drivers of HEC in the region.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conflito (Psicologia)
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Elefantes/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Modelos Estatísticos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Botsuana
Produtos Agrícolas
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Densidade Demográfica
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170606
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178840


  9 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28550796
[Au] Autor:Fernandes R; Koudelka T; Tholey A; Dreves A
[Ad] Endereço:McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (University of Cambridge), Downing St., CB2 3ER, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research (University of Kiel), Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address: rf385@cam.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:A novel tertiary prep-HPLC method for the isolation of single amino acids for AMS-radiocarbon measurement.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1058:85-92, 2017 Jul 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AMS-radiocarbon measurements of amino acids can potentially provide more reliable radiocarbon dates than bulk collagen analysis. Nonetheless, the applicability of such an approach is often limited by the low-throughput of existing isolation methods and difficulties in determining the contamination introduced during the separation process. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC amino acid isolation method was developed that relies on the combustion of eluted material without requiring any additional chemical steps. Amino acid separation was carried out using a gradient mix of pure water and phosphoric acid with an acetonitrile step in-between runs to remove hydrophobic molecules from the separation column. The amount of contaminant carbon and its C content were determined from two-point measurements of collagen samples of known C content. The amount of foreign carbon due to the isolation process was estimated at 4±1µg and its C content was 0.43±0.01 F C. Radiocarbon values corrected for carbon contamination have only a minor increase in uncertainties. For Holocene samples, this corresponds to an added uncertainty typically smaller than 10 Cyears. The developed method can be added to routine AMS measurements without implying significant operational changes and offers a level of measurement uncertainty that is suitable for many archaeological, ecological, environmental, and biological applications.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aminoácidos/análise
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Datação Radiométrica/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aminoácidos/química
Animais
Bovinos
Colágeno/química
Elefantes
Fósseis
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amino Acids); 9007-34-5 (Collagen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170528
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1746 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28510590
[Au] Autor:Gunaryadi D; Sugiyo; Hedges S
[Ad] Endereço:Wildlife Conservation Society - Indonesia Program, Bogor, Indonesia.
[Ti] Título:Community-based human-elephant conflict mitigation: The value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(5):e0173742, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007) in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) out of crop fields in 91.2% (52 out of 57), 87.6% (156 out of 178), and 80.0% (16 out of 20) of attempted raids. Once the method had been shown to be effective at demonstration sites, farmers in 16 villages around WKNP voluntarily adopted it during the July 2008 to March 2009 period and were able to repel elephants in 73.9% (150 out of 203) of attempted raids, with seven villages repelling 100% of attempted raids. These 16 villages had all experienced high levels of HEC in the preceding years; e.g. they accounted for >97% of the 742 HEC incidents recorded for the entire park in 2006. Our work shows, therefore, that a simple evidence-based approach can facilitate significant reductions in HEC at the protected area scale.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Elefantes
Atividades Humanas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura
Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Seres Humanos
Indonésia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170517
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0173742



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