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  1 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28363065
[Au] Autor:Michel AF; Silva FL; Barbosa FS; de Carvalho TF; Pinto JM; Santos RL
[Ti] Título:ULCERATIVE AND NECROTIZING GASTRITIS IN A CAPTIVE SLOTH (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS, XENARTHRA, BRADYPODIDAE) DUE TO SEVERE PARASITISM WITH PARALEIURIS LOCCHII (NEMATODA, SPIROCERCIDAE).
[So] Source:J Zoo Wildl Med;48(1):255-259, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1042-7260
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This is the first reported case of lethal gastric parasitism by the nematode Paraleiuris locchii in a captive sloth ( Bradypus variegatus ). There were more than 600 parasites in the stomach of the sloth, associated with extensive areas of ulceration and necrosis. The animal developed emaciation, dehydration, and anemia that progressed to death.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Gastrite/veterinária
Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária
Bichos-Preguiça
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Animais de Zoológico
Evolução Fatal
Feminino
Gastrite/parasitologia
Gastrite/patologia
Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia
Infecções por Nematoides/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1638/2016-0135.1


  2 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28288943
[Au] Autor:Fountain ED; Pauli JN; Mendoza JE; Carlson J; Peery MZ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address: efountain@wisc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Cophylogenetics and biogeography reveal a coevolved relationship between sloths and their symbiont algae.
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;110:73-80, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Specialized species, like arboreal folivores, often develop beneficial relationships with symbionts to exploit ecologically constrained lifestyles. Although coevolution can drive speciation by specialization of a symbiont to a host, a symbiotic relationship is not indicative of coevolution between host and symbiont. We tested for coevolved relationships between highly specialized two- and three-toed sloths (Choloepus spp. and Bradypus spp., respectively) and their symbiotic algae using cophylogenies and phylogeography. Our phylogeographic analysis showed a biogeographic pattern for the sloth distribution that was not found in the algal phylogeny. We found support for congruence between the sloth and algae phylogenies, implying cospeciation, only in the Bradypus lineage. Algae host-switching occurred from Bradypus spp. to Choloepus spp. Our results support a previously hypothesized symbiotic relationship between sloths and the algae in their fur and indicate that coevolution may have played a role in algae diversification. More broadly, convergent evolution may facilitate host switching between deeply diverged host lineages.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Eucariotos/fisiologia
Filogenia
Filogeografia
Bichos-Preguiça/classificação
Simbiose/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28167595
[Au] Autor:Travassos da Rosa JF; de Souza WM; Pinheiro FP; Figueiredo ML; Cardoso JF; Acrani GO; Nunes MRT
[Ad] Endereço:Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Pará, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Oropouche Virus: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Molecular Aspects of a Neglected Orthobunyavirus.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;96(5):1019-1030, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AbstractOropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Latin American countries, more specifically in the Amazon region of Brazil, Venezuela and Peru, as well as in other countries such as Panama. In the past decades, the clinical, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of OROV have been published and provide the basis for a better understanding of this important human pathogen. Here, we describe the milestones in a comprehensive review of OROV epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular biology, including a description of the first isolation of the virus, the outbreaks during the past six decades, clinical aspects of OROV infection, diagnostic methods, genome and genetic traits, evolution, and viral dispersal.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia
Surtos de Doenças
Genoma Viral
Genótipo
Orthobunyavirus/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Aves/virologia
Brasil/epidemiologia
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/diagnóstico
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/fisiopatologia
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/transmissão
Ceratopogonidae/virologia
Mapeamento Cromossômico
Culex/virologia
Vetores de Doenças
Seres Humanos
Orthobunyavirus/classificação
Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação
Panamá/epidemiologia
Peru/epidemiologia
Bichos-Preguiça/virologia
Venezuela/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170803
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170803
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0672


  4 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27918513
[Au] Autor:Garcia E
[Ti] Título:Laziness: An Evolutionary Trait.
[So] Source:Sci Am;315(5):15, 2016 Oct 18.
[Is] ISSN:0036-8733
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Biológica
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia
Bichos-Preguiça/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170615
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170615
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/scientificamerican1116-15


  5 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27420784
[Au] Autor:Pauli JN; Peery MZ; Fountain ED; Karasov WH
[Ti] Título:Arboreal Folivores Limit Their Energetic Output, All the Way to Slothfulness.
[So] Source:Am Nat;188(2):196-204, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1537-5323
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:By exploiting unutilized resources, organisms expand into novel niches, which can lead to adaptive radiation. However, some groups fail to diversify despite the apparent opportunity to do so. Although arising multiple times, arboreal folivores are rare and have not radiated, presumably because of energetic constraints. To explore this hypothesis, we quantified the field metabolic rate (FMR), movement, and body temperature for syntopic two- and three-toed sloths, extreme arboreal folivores that differ in their degree of specialization. Both species expended little energy, but three-toed sloths (162 kJ/day*kg(0.734)) possessed the lowest FMR recorded for any mammal. Three-toed sloths were more heterothermic and moved less than two-toed sloths. We then compared FMRs and basal metabolic rates (BMRs) for 19 species of arboreal folivores along a spectrum of specialization. Overall, arboreal folivores had lower BMRs and FMRs than other mammals, and increasing specialization led to lower FMRs but not BMRs. Thus, reduced energetic expenditure in specialized species was the result of thermoregulatory and behavioral strategies, rather than simply a proportionate reduction in BMR. Altogether, our findings support the concept that arboreal folivores are tightly constrained by nutritional energetics and help to explain the lack of radiation among species exploiting a lifestyle in the trees.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Herbivoria/fisiologia
Bichos-Preguiça/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Metabolismo Basal
Temperatura Corporal
Costa Rica
Folhas de Planta
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160716
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1086/687032


  6 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27324923
[Au] Autor:Marchi D; Ruff CB; Capobianco A; Rafferty KL; Habib MB; Patel BA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, 56126, Italy.
[Ti] Título:The locomotion of Babakotia radofilai inferred from epiphyseal and diaphyseal morphology of the humerus and femur.
[So] Source:J Morphol;277(9):1199-218, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Palaeopropithecids, or "sloth lemurs," are a diverse clade of large-bodied Malagasy subfossil primates characterized by their inferred suspensory positional behavior. The most recently discovered genus of the palaeopropithecids is Babakotia, and it has been described as more arboreal than Mesopropithecus, but less than Palaeopropithecus. In this article, the within-bone and between-bones articular and cross-sectional diaphyseal proportions of the humerus and femur of Babakotia were compared to extant lemurs, Mesopropithecus and Palaeopropithecus in order to further understand its arboreal adaptations. Additionally, a sample of apes and sloths (Choloepus and Bradypus) are included as functional outgroups composed of suspensory adapted primates and non-primates. Results show that Babakotia and Mesopropithecus both have high humeral/femoral shaft strength proportions, similar to extant great apes and sloths and indicative of forelimb suspensory behavior, with Babakotia more extreme in this regard. All three subfossil taxa have relatively large femoral heads, also associated with suspension in modern taxa. However, Babakotia and Mesopropithecus (but not Palaeopropithecus) have relatively small femoral head surface area to shaft strength proportions suggesting that hind-limb positioning in these taxa during climbing and other behaviors was different than in extant great apes, involving less mobility. Knee and humeral articular dimensions relative to shaft strengths are small in Babakotia and Mesopropithecus, similar to those found in modern sloths and divergent from those in extant great apes and lemurs, suggesting more sloth-like use of these joints during locomotion. Mesopropithecus and Babakotia are more similar to Choloepus in humerofemoral head and length proportions while Palaeopropithecus is more similar to Bradypus. These results provide further evidence of the suspensory adaptations of Babakotia and further highlight similarities to both extant suspensory primates and non-primate slow arboreal climbers and hangers. J. Morphol. 277:1199-1218, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fêmur/anatomia & histologia
Úmero/anatomia & histologia
Lemur/anatomia & histologia
Locomoção
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Epífises/anatomia & histologia
Fósseis
Hominidae/anatomia & histologia
Bichos-Preguiça/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170815
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170815
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160622
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jmor.20569


  7 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26878870
[Au] Autor:Slater GJ; Cui P; Forasiepi AM; Lenz D; Tsangaras K; Voirin B; de Moraes-Barros N; MacPhee RD; Greenwood AD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Paleobiology & Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago.
[Ti] Título:Evolutionary Relationships among Extinct and Extant Sloths: The Evidence of Mitogenomes and Retroviruses.
[So] Source:Genome Biol Evol;8(3):607-21, 2016 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1759-6653
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Macroevolutionary trends exhibited by retroviruses are complex and not entirely understood. The sloth endogenized foamy-like retrovirus (SloEFV), which demonstrates incongruence in virus-host evolution among extant sloths (Order Folivora), has not been investigated heretofore in any extinct sloth lineages and its premodern history within folivorans is therefore unknown. Determining retroviral coevolutionary trends requires a robust phylogeny of the viral host, but the highly reduced modern sloth fauna (6 species in 2 genera) does not adequately represent what was once a highly diversified clade (∼100 genera) of placental mammals. At present, the amount of molecular data available for extinct sloth taxa is limited, and analytical results based on these data tend to conflict with phylogenetic inferences made on the basis of morphological studies. To augment the molecular data set, we applied hybridization capture and next-generation Illumina sequencing to two extinct and three extant sloth species to retrieve full mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from the hosts and the polymerase gene of SloEFV. The results produced a fully resolved and well-supported phylogeny that supports dividing crown families into two major clades: 1) The three-toed sloth, Bradypus, and Nothrotheriidae and 2) Megalonychidae, including the two-toed sloth, Choloepus, and Mylodontidae. Our calibrated time tree indicates that the Miocene epoch (23.5 Ma), particularly its earlier part, was an important interval for folivoran diversification. Both extant and extinct sloths demonstrate multiple complex invasions of SloEFV into the ancestral sloth germline followed by subsequent introgressions across different sloth lineages. Thus, sloth mitogenome and SloEFV evolution occurred separately and in parallel among sloths.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Evolução Molecular
Genoma Mitocondrial
Retroviridae/genética
Bichos-Preguiça/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética
Mamíferos/genética
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/gbe/evw023


  8 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26840445
[Au] Autor:Glass JR; Davis M; Walsh TJ; Sargis EJ; Caccone A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club?
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(2):e0146825, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Accounts of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) preserved so well in ice that their meat is still edible have a long history of intriguing the public and influencing paleontological thought on Quaternary extinctions and climate, with some scientists resorting to catastrophism to explain the instantaneous freezing necessary to preserve edible meat. Famously, members of The Explorers Club purportedly dined on frozen mammoth from Alaska, USA, in 1951. This event, well received by the press and general public, became an enduring legend for the Club and popularized the notorious annual tradition of serving rare and exotic food at Club dinners that continues to this day. The Yale Peabody Museum holds a sample of meat preserved from the 1951 meal, interestingly labeled as a South American giant ground sloth (Megatherium), not mammoth. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and studied archival material to verify its identity, which if genuine, would extend the range of Megatherium over 600% and alter our views on ground sloth evolution. Our results indicate that the meat was not mammoth or Megatherium but green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). The prehistoric dinner was likely an elaborate publicity stunt. Our study emphasizes the value of museums collecting and curating voucher specimens, particularly those used for evidence of extraordinary claims.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mamutes
Carne
Bichos-Preguiça
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alaska
Animais
Citocromos b/genética
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Alimentos em Conserva
Seres Humanos
Mamutes/classificação
Mamutes/genética
Filogenia
Bichos-Preguiça/classificação
Bichos-Preguiça/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial); 9035-37-4 (Cytochromes b)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0146825


  9 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26271635
[Au] Autor:Dill-McFarland KA; Weimer PJ; Pauli JN; Peery MZ; Suen G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
[Ti] Título:Diet specialization selects for an unusual and simplified gut microbiota in two- and three-toed sloths.
[So] Source:Environ Microbiol;18(5):1391-402, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1462-2920
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Symbiotic microbial communities are critical to the function and survival of animals. This relationship is obligatory for herbivores that engage gut microorganisms for the conversion of dietary plant materials into nutrients such as short-chain organic acids (SCOAs). The constraint on body size imposed by their arboreal lifestyle is thought to make this symbiosis especially important for sloths. Here, we use next-generation sequencing to identify the bacteria present in the fore and distal guts of wild two- and three-toed sloths, and correlate these communities with both diet and SCOAs. We show that, unlike other mammalian herbivores, sloth gut communities are dominated by the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Specifically, three-toed sloths possess a highly conserved, low-diversity foregut community with a highly abundant Neisseria species associated with foregut lactate. In contrast, two-toed sloths have a more variable and diverse foregut microbiota correlated with a variety of SCOAs. These differences support the hypothesis that feeding behaviour selects for specific gut bacterial communities, as three-toed sloths subsist primarily on Cecropia tree leaves while two-toed sloths have a more generalist diet. The less diverse diet and gut microbiota of three-toed sloths may render them more susceptible to habitat loss and other diet-altering conditions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Bichos-Preguiça/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bactérias/classificação
Dieta
Comportamento Alimentar
Feminino
Herbivoria
Masculino
Simbiose
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170822
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170822
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150815
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1462-2920.13022


  10 / 179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26250652
[Au] Autor:Favoretto SM; daSilva EG; Menezes J; Guerra RR; Campos DB
[Ad] Endereço:Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Animal, Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Reproductive System of Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus, Schinz 1825, Pilosa, Xenarthra): Anatomy and Histology.
[So] Source:Anat Histol Embryol;45(4):249-59, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0264
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia
Tubas Uterinas/anatomia & histologia
Microscopia/veterinária
Ovário/anatomia & histologia
Bichos-Preguiça/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Membrana Mucosa/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170217
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170217
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150808
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/ahe.12193



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