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[PMID]:28942280
[Au] Autor:Edwards TM; Hamlin HJ; Freymiller H; Green S; Thurman J; Guillette LJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, University of the South, Sewanee, TN, USA; Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA. Electronic address: theamedwards@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Nitrate induces a type 1 diabetic profile in alligator hatchlings.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;147:767-775, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects 1 in 300 children by age 18. T1D is caused by inflammation-induced loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, leading to high blood glucose and a host of downstream complications. Although multiple genes are associated with T1D risk, only 5% of genetically susceptible individuals actually develop clinical disease. Moreover, a growing number of T1D cases occur in geographic clusters and among children with low risk genotypes. These observations suggest that environmental factors contribute to T1D etiology. One potential factor, supported primarily by epidemiological studies, is the presence of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water. To test this hypothesis, female hatchling alligators were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate in their tank water (reference, 10mg/L, or 100mg/L NO -N) from hatch through 5 weeks or 5 months of age. At each time point, endpoints related to T1D were investigated: plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, testosterone, estradiol, and thyroxine; pancreas, fat body, and thyroid weights; weight gain or loss; presence of immune cells in the pancreas; and pancreatic beta cell number, assessed by antibody staining of nkx6.1 protein. Internal dosing of nitrate was confirmed by measuring plasma and urine nitrate levels and whole blood methemoglobin. Cluster analysis indicated that high nitrate exposure (most animals exposed to 100mg/L NO3-N and one alligator exposed to 10mg/L NO3-N) induced a profile of endpoints consistent with early T1D that could be detected after 5 weeks and was more strongly present after 5 months. Our study supports epidemiological data correlating elevated nitrate with T1D onset in humans, and highlights nitrate as a possible environmental contributor to the etiology of T1D, possibly through its role as a nitric oxide precursor.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/sangue
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade
Nitratos/toxicidade
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Animais
Glicemia/análise
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacocinética
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Feminino
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue
Nitratos/farmacocinética
Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos
Tiroxina/sangue
Triglicerídeos/sangue
Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Endocrine Disruptors); 0 (Gonadal Steroid Hormones); 0 (Nitrates); 0 (Triglycerides); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); Q51BO43MG4 (Thyroxine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170925
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28469027
[Au] Autor:Cedillo-Leal C; Simoncini MS; Leiva PML; Larriera A; Lang JW; Piña CI
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Ecología Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico.
[Ti] Título:Eggshell structure in eggs improves embryo survival during nest inundation.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1854), 2017 May 17.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Egg inundation often results in poor hatching success in crocodylians. However, how tolerant eggs are to submergence, and/or how eggshell ultrastructure may affect embryo survival when inundated, are not well understood. In this study, our objective was to determine if embryo survival in is affected by eggshell surface roughness, when eggs are submerged under water. Tolerance to inundation was tested early (day 30) versus late (day 60) in development, using eight clutches (four per time treatments), subdivided into four groups: ( = 9 per clutch per treatment; 9 × 4 = 36 eggs per group). 'Rough' eggshell represented the natural, unmodified eggshell surface structure. 'Smooth' eggshell surface structure was created by mechanically sanding the natural rough surface to remove surface columnar elements and secondary layer features, e.g. irregularities that result in 'roughness'. When inundated by submerging eggs under water for 10 h at day 30, 'smooth' eggshell structure resulted in more than twice as many dead embryos (16 versus 6, smooth versus rough; = 36), and fewer than half as many healthy embryos (6 versus 13, smooth versus rough, respectively; = 36). By contrast, at day 60, inundation resulted in very low hatching success, regardless of eggshell surface structure. Only two hatchlings survived the inundation, notably in the untreated group with intact, rough eggshells. Inundation produced a high rate of malformations (58% at day 30), but did not affect hatchling size. Our results indicate that eggshell roughness enhances embryo survival when eggs are inundated early in development, but not late in development. Apparently, the natural surface 'roughness' entraps air bubbles at the eggshell surface during inundation, thereby facilitating gas exchange through the eggshell even when the egg is submerged under water.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos
Casca de Ovo/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Água
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180131
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180131
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28456036
[Au] Autor:Nilsen FM; Kassim BL; Delaney JP; Lange TR; Brunell AM; Guillette LJ; Long SE; Schock TB
[Ad] Endereço:National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC 29412, USA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Marine Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC 29425-6190, USA. Electronic address: fr
[Ti] Título:Trace element biodistribution in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).
[So] Source:Chemosphere;181:343-351, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Routine monitoring of contaminant levels in wildlife is important for understanding chemical exposure and ultimately the link to ecosystem and human health. This is particularly important when the monitored species is recreationally hunted for human consumption. In the southeastern United States, recreational alligator harvesting takes place annually and in locations that are known to be contaminated with environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the biodistribution of trace elements in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) from five sites in Florida, USA. These sites are locations where annual recreational alligator harvesting is permitted and two of the sites are identified as having high mercury contamination with human consumption advisories in effect. We utilized routinely collected monitoring samples (blood and scute), a commonly consumed tissue (muscle), and a classically analyzed tissue for environmental contaminants (liver) to demonstrate how the trace elements were distributed within the American alligator. We describe elemental tissue compartmentalization in an apex predator and investigate if noninvasive samples (blood and scute) can be used to estimate muscle tissue concentrations for a subset of elements measured. We found significant correlations for Hg, Rb, Se, Zn and Pb between noninvasive samples and consumed tissue and also found that Hg was the only trace metal of concern for this population of alligators. This study fills a gap in trace elemental analysis for reptilian apex predators in contaminated environments. Additionally, comprehensive elemental analysis of routinely collected samples can inform biomonitoring efforts and consumption advisories.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/metabolismo
Oligoelementos/farmacocinética
Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Monitoramento Ambiental
Florida
Distribuição Tecidual
Oligoelementos/análise
Estados Unidos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Trace Elements); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180114
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180114
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 1695 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29176830
[Au] Autor:Campos Z; Mourão G; Magnusson WE
[Ad] Endereço:Embrapa Pantanal, Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:The effect of dam construction on the movement of dwarf caimans, Paleosuchus trigonatus and Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in Brazilian Amazonia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188508, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Run-of-the-river hydroelectric dams cause changes in seasonal inundation of the floodplains, and this may cause displacement of semi-aquatic vertebrates present before dam construction. This study evaluated the movement of crocodilians before and after the filling of the Santo Antônio hydroelectric reservoir on the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon, which occurred in November 2011. We radio-tracked four adult male Paleosuchus palpebrosus and four adult male Paleosuchus trigonatus before and after the formation of the reservoir between 2011 and 2013. The home ranges of the P. palpebrosus varied from < 1 km2 to 91 km2 and the home ranges of the P. trigonatus varied from < 1km2 to 5 km2. The species responded differently to time since filling and water level in weekly movement and home range. However, overall the dam appears to have had little effect on the use of space by the individuals that were present before dam construction.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Rios
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188508


  5 / 1695 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29191313
[Au] Autor:Tipton JJ; Guillette LJ; Lovelace S; Parrott BB; Rainwater TR; Reiner JL
[Ad] Endereço:College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29724, USA.
[Ti] Título:Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators part 2: Potential dietary exposure of South Carolina hunters from recreationally harvested alligator meat.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);61:31-38, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) has been linked to many harmful health effects including reproductive disorders, developmental delays, and altered liver and kidney function. Most human exposure to environmental contaminants, including PFAAs, occurs through consumption of contaminated food or drinking water. This study uses PFAA data from meat samples collected from recreationally harvested American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in South Carolina to assess potential dietary exposure of hunters and their families to PFAAs. Consumption patterns were investigated using intercept surveys of 23 hunters at a wild game meat processor. An exposure scenario using the average consumption frequency, portion size, and median perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) concentration in alligator meat from all hunt units found the daily dietary exposure to be 2.11ng/kg body weight per day for an adult human. Dietary PFOS exposure scenarios based on location of harvest suggested the highest daily exposure occurs with alligator meat from the Middle Coastal hunt unit in South Carolina. Although no samples were found to exceed the recommended threshold for no consumption of PFOS found in Minnesota state guidelines, exposure to a mixture of PFAAs found in alligator meat and site-specific exposures based on harvest location should be considered in determining an appropriate guideline for vulnerable populations potentially exposed to PFAAs through consumption of wild alligator meat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/metabolismo
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo
Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo
Carne/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo
Animais
Monitoramento Ambiental
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
Seres Humanos
South Carolina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alkanesulfonic Acids); 0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Fluorocarbons); 9H2MAI21CL (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 1695 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29191311
[Au] Autor:Tipton JJ; Guillette LJ; Lovelace S; Parrott BB; Rainwater TR; Reiner JL
[Ad] Endereço:College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424, USA.
[Ti] Título:Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators part 1: Concentrations in alligators harvested for consumption during South Carolina public hunts.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);61:24-30, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Environmental contamination resulting from the production or release of harmful chemicals can lead to negative consequences for wildlife and human health. Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were historically produced as protective coatings for many household items and currently persist in the environment, wildlife, and humans. PFAAs have been linked to immune suppression, endocrine disruption, and developmental toxicity in wildlife and laboratory studies. This study examines the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, as an important indicator of ecosystem contamination and a potential pathway for PFAA exposure in humans. Alligator meat harvested in the 2015 South Carolina (SC) public hunt season and prepared for human consumption was collected and analyzed for PFAAs to determine meat concentrations and relationships with animal body size (total length), sex, and location of harvest. Of the 15 PFAAs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found in all alligator meat samples and at the highest concentrations (median 6.73ng/g). No relationship was found between PFAA concentrations and total length or sex. Concentrations of one or all compounds varied significantly across sampling locations, with alligators harvested in the Middle Coastal hunt unit having the highest PFOS concentrations (median 16.0ng/g; p=0.0001). Alligators harvested specifically from Berkley County, SC (located in the Middle Coastal hunt unit) had the highest PFOS concentrations and the greatest number of PFAAs detected (p<0.0001). The site-specific nature of PFAA concentrations in alligator meat observed in this study suggests a source of PFAA contamination in Berkley County, SC.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/metabolismo
Monitoramento Ambiental
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo
Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo
Animais
Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo
South Carolina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Alkanesulfonic Acids); 0 (Endocrine Disruptors); 0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Fluorocarbons); 9H2MAI21CL (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 1695 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29091706
[Au] Autor:Pauvolid-Corrêa A; Campos Z; Soares R; Nogueira RMR; Komar N
[Ad] Endereço:Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, CO, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Neutralizing antibodies for orthobunyaviruses in Pantanal, Brazil.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(11):e0006014, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Pantanal is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. Various medically important flaviviruses and alphaviruses have been reported in domestic and wild animals in the region. To expand the knowledge of local arbovirus circulation, a serosurvey for 14 Brazilian orthobunyaviruses was conducted with equines, sheep and free-ranging caimans. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Monotypic reactions were detected for Maguari, Xingu, Apeu, Guaroa, Murutucu, Oriboca, Oropouche and Nepuyo viruses. Despite the low titers for most of the orthobunyaviruses tested, the detection of monotypic reactions for eight orthobunyaviruses suggests the Pantanal as a region of great orthobunyavirus diversity. The present data, in conjunction with previous studies that detected a high diversity of other arboviruses, ratify the Pantanal as an important natural reservoir for sylvatic and medically important arboviruses in Brazil.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia
Orthobunyavirus/imunologia
Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/virologia
Animais
Animais Domésticos/virologia
Animais Selvagens/virologia
Brasil/epidemiologia
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/imunologia
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia
Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia
Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia
Cavalos/virologia
Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Ovinos/virologia
Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia
Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Neutralizing); 0 (Antibodies, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171102
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006014


  8 / 1695 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29020111
[Au] Autor:Evans LJ; Davies AB; Goossens B; Asner GP
[Ad] Endereço:Danau Girang Field Centre, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
[Ti] Título:Riparian vegetation structure and the hunting behavior of adult estuarine crocodiles.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0184804, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Riparian ecosystems are amongst the most biodiverse tropical habitats. They are important, and essential, ecological corridors, linking remnant forest fragments. In this study, we hypothesised that crocodile's actively select nocturnal resting locations based on increased macaque predation potential. We examined the importance of riparian vegetation structure in the maintenance of crocodile hunting behaviours. Using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and GPS telemetry on animal movement, we identified the repeated use of nocturnal resting sites by adult estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) throughout the fragmented Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary in Sabah, Malaysia. Crocodile resting locations were found to resemble, in terms of habitat characteristics, the sleeping sites of long-tailed macaque; positioned in an attempt to avoid predation by terrestrial predators. We found individual crocodiles were actively selecting overhanging vegetation and that the protrusion of trees from the tree line was key to site selection by crocodiles, as well as influencing both the presence and group size of sleeping macaques. Although these findings are correlational, they have broad management implications, with the suggestion that riparian corridor maintenance and quality can have implications beyond that of terrestrial fauna. We further place our findings in the context of the wider ecosystem and the maintenance of trophic interactions, and discuss how future habitat management has the potential to mitigate human-wildlife conflict.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia
Estuários
Plantas
Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ecossistema
Geografia
Malásia
Modelos Teóricos
Árvores
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171012
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184804


  9 / 1695 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28953895
[Au] Autor:Lapbenjakul S; Thapana W; Twilprawat P; Muangmai N; Kanchanaketu T; Temsiripong Y; Unajak S; Peyachoknagul S; Srikulnath K
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics and Comparative Genomics (ACCG), Department of Genetics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, Thailand.
[Ti] Título:High genetic diversity and demographic history of captive Siamese and Saltwater crocodiles suggest the first step toward the establishment of a breeding and reintroduction program in Thailand.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184526, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) and Saltwater crocodile (C. porosus) are two of the most endangered animals in Thailand. Their numbers have been reduced severely by hunting and habitat fragmentation. A reintroduction plan involving captive-bred populations that are used commercially is important and necessary as a conservation strategy to aid in the recovery of wild populations. Here, the genetic diversity and population structure of 69 individual crocodiles, mostly members of captive populations, were analyzed using both mitochondrial D-loop DNA and microsatellite markers. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.924-0.971 and the mean expected heterozygosity across 22 microsatellite loci was 0.578-0.701 for the two species. This agreed with the star-like shaped topology of the haplotype network, which suggests a high level of genetic diversity. The mean ratio of the number of alleles to the allelic range (M ratio) for the populations of both species was considerably lower than the threshold of 0.68, which was interpreted as indicative of a historical genetic bottleneck. Microsatellite markers provided evidence of introgression for three individual crocodiles, which suggest that hybridization might have occurred between C. siamensis and C. porosus. D-loop sequence analysis detected bi-directional hybridization between male and female individuals of the parent species. Therefore, identification of genetically non-hybrid and hybrid individuals is important for long-term conservation management. Relatedness values were low within the captive populations, which supported their genetic integrity and the viability of a breeding and reintroduction management plan. This work constitutes the first step in establishing an appropriate source population from a scientifically managed perspective for an in situ/ex situ conservation program and reintroduction of crocodile individuals to the wild in Thailand.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/genética
Cruzamento
Variação Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/classificação
Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia
Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Haplótipos
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
Filogenia
Tailândia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170928
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184526


  10 / 1695 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28854258
[Au] Autor:Torralvo K; Botero-Arias R; Magnusson WE
[Ad] Endereço:Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, National Institute of Amazonian Research; Manaus, AM, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Temporal variation in black-caiman-nest predation in varzea of central Brazilian amazonia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183476, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:On the Amazon floodplain, the main predators of black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) eggs are jaguars (Panthera onca), tegu lizards (Tupinambis teguixim), capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In this study, we investigated the relationship between predator attacks on nests and incubation period, and evaluated the influence of initial predation on subsequent predation in the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve. We also evaluated the influence of presence of females near the nests and manipulation of nests on the occurrence of attacks. We compared results from data obtained with camera traps and vestiges left by predators on estimates of rates of predation by different predators. Egg predation was recorded in 32% of the 658 black caiman nests monitored during two years. Our results suggest that the probability of predation on black caiman eggs is relatively constant throughout the incubation period and that predation on eggs was lower when adults, presumably females, were present. Careful opening of nests and handling of eggs did not increase the number of attacks on black caiman nests. Nest opening by a predator appeared to increase the chances of a subsequent attack because most of the attacks on nests occurred soon after a predator first opened the nest. However, attacks by another species of predator do not appear to be necessary to initiate attacks by any other species of predator. Results based on camera traps and vestiges differed, but use of vestiges was adequate for identifying the principal predators on eggs in black caiman nests and, in many circumstances, the vestiges may be better for estimating predation by humans. In this study, opening nests and handling eggs did not increase the number of attacks on black caiman nests.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia
Ovos
Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia
Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos
Ecossistema
Feminino
Geografia
Seres Humanos
Densidade Demográfica
Fatores de Risco
Estações do Ano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170831
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183476



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