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[PMID]:27777178
[Au] Autor:Pla D; Sanz L; Sasa M; Acevedo ME; Dwyer Q; Durban J; Pérez A; Rodriguez Y; Lomonte B; Calvete JJ
[Ad] Endereço:Structural and Functional Venomics Laboratory, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Proteomic analysis of venom variability and ontogeny across the arboreal palm-pitvipers (genus Bothriechis).
[So] Source:J Proteomics;152:1-12, 2017 01 30.
[Is] ISSN:1876-7737
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Bothriechis is a genus of eleven currently recognized slender and arboreal venomous snakes, commonly called palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite dietary studies suggesting that palm-pitvipers are generalists with an ontogenetic shift toward endothermic prey, venom proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of the Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. To achieve a more complete picture of the venomic landscape across Bothriechis, the venom proteomes of biodiversity of the northern Middle American highland palm-pitvipers, B. thalassinus, B. aurifer, and B. bicolor from Guatemala, B. marchi from Honduras, and neonate Costa Rican B. lateralis and B. schlegelii, were investigated. B. thalassinus and B. aurifer venoms are comprised by similar toxin arsenals dominated by SVMPs (33-39% of the venom proteome), CTLs (11-16%), BPP-like molecules (10-13%), and CRISPs (5-10%), and are characterized by the absence of PLA proteins. Conversely, the predominant (35%) components of B. bicolor are D49-PLA molecules. The venom proteome of B. marchi is similar to B. aurifer and B. thalassinus in that it is rich in SVMPs and BPPs, but also contains appreciable amounts (14.3%) of PLA s. The major toxin family found in the venoms of both neonate B. lateralis and B. schlegelii, is serine proteinase (SVSP), comprising about 20% of their toxin arsenals. The venom of neonate B. schlegelii is the only palm-pitviper venom where relative high amounts of Kunitz-type (6.3%) and γPLA (5.2%) inhibitors have been identified. Despite notable differences between their proteomes, neonate venoms are more similar to each other than to adults of their respective species. However, the ontogenetic changes taking place in the venom of B. lateralis strongly differ from those that occur in the venom of B. schlegelii. Thus, the ontogenetic change in B. lateralis produces a SVMP-rich venom, whereas in B. schlegelii the age-dependent compositional shift generates a PLA -rich venom. Overall, genus-wide venomics illustrate the high evolvability of palm-pitviper venoms. The integration of the pattern of venom variation across Bothriechis into a phylogenetic and biogeographic framework may lay the foundation for assessing, in future studies, the evolutionary path that led to the present-day variability of the venoms of palm-pitvipers. SIGNIFICANCE: Bothriechis represents a monophyletic basal genus of eleven arboreal palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite palm-pitvipers' putative status as diet generalists, previous proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. Our current proteomic study of Guatemalan species, B. thalassinus, B. aurifer, and B. bicolor, Honduran B. marchi, and neonate B. lateralis and B. schlegelii from Costa Rica was undertaken to deepen our understanding of the evolutionary pattern of venom proteome diversity across Bothriechis. Ancestral characters are often, but not always, preserved in an organism's development. Venoms of neonate B. lateralis and B. schlegelii are more similar to each other than to adults of their respective species, suggesting that the high evolvability of palm-pitviper venoms may represent an inherent feature of Bothriechis common ancestor. Our genus-wide data identified four nodes of venom phenotype differentiation across the phylogeny of Bothriechis. Integrated into a phylogenetic and biogeographic framework, the pattern of venom variation across Bothriechis may lay the groundwork to establish whether divergence was driven by selection for efficient resource exploitation in arboreal 'islands', thereby contributing to the ecological speciation of the genus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodiversidade
Venenos de Crotalídeos/química
Proteoma/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores Etários
Animais
Evolução Biológica
Venenos de Crotalídeos/enzimologia
Fosfolipases A2/análise
Filogenia
Proteômica/métodos
Serina Proteases/análise
Toxinas Biológicas/análise
Viperidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Proteome); 0 (Toxins, Biological); EC 3.1.1.4 (Phospholipases A2); EC 3.4.- (Serine Proteases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180118
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180118
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161107
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29068263
[Au] Autor:Lourdais O; Dupoué A; Guillon M; Guiller G; Michaud B; DeNardo DF
[Ti] Título:Hydric "Costs" of Reproduction: Pregnancy Increases Evaporative Water Loss in the Snake Vipera aspis.
[So] Source:Physiol Biochem Zool;90(6):663-672, 2017 Nov/Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1537-5293
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper. We found that both physiological (increased metabolism and body temperature) and morphological (body distension) changes contribute to an increased evaporative water loss in pregnant females. We also found that pregnant females in the wild select warmer and moister basking locations than nonreproductive females, likely to mitigate the conflict between thermal needs and water loss. Water resources likely induce significant reproductive constraints across diverse taxa and thus warrant further consideration in ecological research. From an evolutionary perspective, water constraints during reproduction may contribute to shaping reproductive effort.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Viperidae/fisiologia
Viviparidade não Mamífera/fisiologia
Perda Insensível de Água/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171106
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171106
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1086/694848


  3 / 1178 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28847519
[Au] Autor:Rogalski A; Soerensen C; Op den Brouw B; Lister C; Dashevsky D; Arbuckle K; Gloria A; Zdenek CN; Casewell NR; Gutiérrez JM; Wüster W; Ali SA; Masci P; Rowley P; Frank N; Fry BG
[Ad] Endereço:Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072 Australia.
[Ti] Título:Differential procoagulant effects of saw-scaled viper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Echis) snake venoms on human plasma and the narrow taxonomic ranges of antivenom efficacies.
[So] Source:Toxicol Lett;280:159-170, 2017 Oct 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3169
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Saw-scaled vipers (genus Echis) are one of the leading causes of snakebite morbidity and mortality in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and vast regions of Asia, constituting a public health burden exceeding that of almost any other snake genus globally. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy, owing to the action of potent procoagulant toxins, is one of the most relevant clinical manifestations of envenomings by Echis spp. Clinical experience and prior studies examining a limited range of venoms and restricted antivenoms have demonstrated for some antivenoms an extreme lack of antivenom cross-reactivity between different species of this genus, sometimes resulting in catastrophic treatment failure. This study undertook the most comprehensive testing of Echis venom effects upon the coagulation of human plasma, and also the broadest examination of antivenom potency and cross-reactivity, to-date. 10 Echis species/populations and four antivenoms (two African, two Asian) were studied. The results indicate that the venoms are, in general, potently procoagulant but that the relative dependence on calcium or phospholipid cofactors is highly variable. Additionally, three out of the four antivenoms tested demonstrated only a very narrow taxonomic range of effectiveness in preventing coagulopathy, with only the SAIMR antivenom displaying significant levels of cross-reactivity. These results were in conflict with previous studies using prolonged preincubation of antivenom with venom to suggest effective cross-reactivity levels for the ICP Echi-Tab antivenom. These findings both inform upon potential clinical effects of envenomation in humans and highlight the extreme limitations of available treatment. It is hoped that this will spur efforts into the development of antivenoms with more comprehensive coverage for bites not only from wild snakes but also from specimens widely kept in zoological collections.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos
Plasma/fisiologia
Venenos de Víboras/toxicidade
Viperidae
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Proteínas de Bactérias
Exotoxinas
Seres Humanos
Superantígenos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Exotoxins); 0 (SpeJ protein, Streptococcus pyogenes); 0 (Superantigens); 0 (Viper Venoms)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170830
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 1178 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28708892
[Au] Autor:Engmark M; Lomonte B; Gutiérrez JM; Laustsen AH; De Masi F; Andersen MR; Lund O
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
[Ti] Título:Cross-recognition of a pit viper (Crotalinae) polyspecific antivenom explored through high-density peptide microarray epitope mapping.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(7):e0005768, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Snakebite antivenom is a 120 years old invention based on polyclonal mixtures of antibodies purified from the blood of hyper-immunized animals. Knowledge on antibody recognition sites (epitopes) on snake venom proteins is limited, but may be used to provide molecular level explanations for antivenom cross-reactivity. In turn, this may help guide antivenom development by elucidating immunological biases in existing antivenoms. In this study, we have identified and characterized linear elements of B-cell epitopes from 870 pit viper venom protein sequences by employing a high-throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays. By combining data on antibody-peptide interactions with multiple sequence alignments of homologous toxin sequences and protein modelling, we have determined linear elements of antibody binding sites for snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs), phospholipases A2s (PLA2s), and snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs). The studied antivenom antibodies were found to recognize linear elements in each of the three enzymatic toxin families. In contrast to a similar study of elapid (non-enzymatic) neurotoxins, these enzymatic toxins were generally not recognized at the catalytic active site responsible for toxicity, but instead at other sites, of which some are known for allosteric inhibition or for interaction with the tissue target. Antibody recognition was found to be preserved for several minor variations in the protein sequences, although the antibody-toxin interactions could often be eliminated completely by substitution of a single residue. This finding is likely to have large implications for the cross-reactivity of the antivenom and indicate that multiple different antibodies are likely to be needed for targeting an entire group of toxins in these recognized sites.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antivenenos/imunologia
Venenos de Crotalídeos/imunologia
Mapeamento de Epitopos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia
Metaloproteases/imunologia
Fosfolipases A2/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antivenenos/uso terapêutico
Reações Cruzadas
Seres Humanos
Análise em Microsséries
Alinhamento de Sequência
Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia
Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
Viperidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antivenins); 0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte); EC 3.1.1.4 (Phospholipases A2); EC 3.4.- (Metalloproteases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170715
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005768


  5 / 1178 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28579355
[Au] Autor:Sun K; Huang C; Yu F; Zhu S; Xu S; He Y; Xu W; Xu L; Feng Y; Wu H; Li X; Fang L; Hu Q
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, School of Pre-clinical Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Expression, purification and characterization of a novel recombinant SVTLE, r-agkihpin-2, from Gloydius halys Pallas venom gland in Escherichia coli.
[So] Source:Protein Expr Purif;136:7-13, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0279
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In our previous work, a thrombin-like enzyme (TLE), agkihpin, was successfully isolated, purified, cloned and named from the venom of Gloydius halys Pallas, having fibrinolytic, fibrinogenolytic and thrombosis-reduced activities, attenuating migration of liver cancer cell, and without bleeding risk. To explore the possibility of agkihpin as a thrombolytic and/or anti-metastasis agent in the future, in this study recombinant agkihpin was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli, and its biological activities investigated. Thus, r-agkihpin-2 was successfully expressed and purified and confirmed by Western blot and peptide mass fingerprinting. After purification and renaturation, 46 mg (399 U) of active r-agkihpin-2 was obtained from 1 L bacterial culture. The results of the arginine esterase activity assay, fibrin plate test fibrinogenolytic activity assay, thrombin-induced venous thrombosis assay, Scratch-Wound assay and bleeding assay showed that active r-agkihpin-2 had slightly lower TAME hydrolytic, fibrinolytic, fibrinogenolytic, thrombus-reduced and migration-attenuated activities than those of native agkihpin, and had no bleeding risk. These findings confirmed that, active r-agkihpin-2 could be further investigated for thrombolytic and/or anti-metastasis drug discovery in the future.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico
Venenos de Crotalídeos
Viperidae/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/biossíntese
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/classificação
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/isolamento & purificação
Venenos de Crotalídeos/biossíntese
Venenos de Crotalídeos/química
Venenos de Crotalídeos/genética
Venenos de Crotalídeos/isolamento & purificação
Escherichia coli/genética
Escherichia coli/metabolismo
Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
Proteínas Recombinantes/química
Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Crotalid Venoms); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); EC 3.1.- (agkihpin protein, Gloydius halys); EC 3.1.1.- (Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170807
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170807
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170606
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 1178 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28411931
[Au] Autor:Corbett B; Clark RF
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, UC San Diego Health, 200 West Arbor Drive # 8676, San Diego, CA 92103, USA. Electronic address: bcorbett1982@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:North American Snake Envenomation.
[So] Source:Emerg Med Clin North Am;35(2):339-354, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1558-0539
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Native US snakes that produce clinically significant envenomation can be divided into 2 groups, crotalids and elapids. The crotalids include rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads. Crotalid envenomation can result in significant local tissue damage as well as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Rarely are bites fatal. Native US elapids are all coral snakes that possess neurotoxic venom that can cause weakness, respiratory paralysis, and rarely death. Treatment of both types of envenomation revolves around general supportive care and antivenom administration when indicated. Previously advocated treatments, such as tourniquets, venom extraction, and bite site excision are not recommended.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antivenenos/uso terapêutico
Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia
Venenos de Serpentes/envenenamento
Viperidae
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Doenças Hematológicas/etiologia
Doenças Hematológicas/terapia
Seres Humanos
Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antivenins); 0 (Snake Venoms)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170421
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170421
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170417
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 1178 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28409495
[Au] Autor:Chernyshenko V; Petruk N; Korolova D; Kasatkina L; Gornytska O; Platonova T; Chernyshenko T; Rebriev A; Dzhus O; Garmanchuk L; Lugovskoy E
[Ad] Endereço:Volodymyr Chernyshenko, 9 Leontovych Street, Kyiv 01030, Ukraine, bio.cherv@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Antiplatelet and anti-proliferative action of disintegrin from Echis multisquamatis snake venom.
[So] Source:Croat Med J;58(2):118-127, 2017 Apr 14.
[Is] ISSN:1332-8166
[Cp] País de publicação:Croatia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIM: To purify the platelet aggregation inhibitor from Echis multisquamatis snake venom (PAIEM) and characterize its effect on platelet aggregation and HeLa cell proliferation. METHODS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) were used for PAIEM identification. Platelet aggregation in the presence of PAIEM was studied on aggregometer Solar-AP2110. The changes of shape and granularity of platelets in the presence of PAIEM were studied on flow cytometer COULTER EPICS XL, and degranulation of platelets was estimated using spectrofluorimetry. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the determination of target of PAIEM on platelet surface. An assay based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to evaluate the effect of PAIEM on the proliferation of HeLa cells in cell culture. RESULTS: The molecular weight of the protein purified from Echis multisquamatis venom was 14.9 kDa. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PAIEM needed to inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was 7 µM. PAIEM did not affect thrombin- or ADP-induced platelet activation, but it did prevent binding of the anti-IIb antibody to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIbIIIa)-receptor of adhered platelets and inhibited the viability of HeLa cells by 54%. CONCLUSION: As a member of the disintegrin family, PAIEM inhibited platelet aggregation and cell proliferation possibly by blocking integrin-mediated interactions. However, it did not impair cellular signaling causing any changes in platelet shape and granularity and did not affect ADP-induced platelet degranulation. This disintegrin was shown to be a potent inhibitor of integrin-mediated cellular interactions including platelet aggregation or cancer cell proliferation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos
Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia
Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos
Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia
Viperidae
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Células HeLa
Seres Humanos
Peso Molecular
Venenos de Serpentes/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors); 0 (Snake Venoms)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170531
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170531
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170415
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 1178 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28349771
[Au] Autor:Lamb T; de Haro L; Lonati D; Brvar M; Eddleston M
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics , University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , UK.
[Ti] Título:Antivenom for European Vipera species envenoming.
[So] Source:Clin Toxicol (Phila);55(6):557-568, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1556-9519
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: European viper bite is relatively uncommon but can cause serious envenoming, particularly swelling and hemorrhage spreading from limb to trunk that can cause long term disability. Systemic features are relatively mild compared to many other venomous species. Moderate-to-severe envenoming requires antivenom, which is given many hundreds of times each year across the continent. Several Vipera spp antivenoms are produced in Europe, but there is little comparative information available for the antivenoms and none is licensed with the European Medicines Agency. We aimed to collect descriptive data on European viper antivenoms and assess their relative effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic review of articles relating to antivenom in Europe was performed using the Medline medical database. The following keywords "Europ*" or the individual names of each European country and "antiven*" or "immun*" or "envenom*" and "snake" or "viper*" or "adder" were used. Articles published between 1 January 1996 and 11 March 2016 pertaining to clinical outcome, including case reports, were selected. Referenced articles in the indexed articles were explored for suitability and included if they met any of the criteria: specific antivenom used, route of antivenom administration, adverse reactions to antivenom therapy and length of hospital admission. All accepted abstracts from EAPCCT conferences since 2000 were searched and abstracts relating to Vipera spp envenoming were assessed for suitability. We extracted data on study type, safety and effectiveness. We sought information on antivenoms from manufacturers and individual patient data from authors of publications. Since individual patient data were only rarely available, we compared median length of stay between case series reporting each antivenom. We identified 40 papers and six published abstracts, and one unpublished paper that reported clinical cases and case series of envenomed patients treated with antivenom. No publication reported randomized controlled trials comparing any European Vipera antivenom with either placebo or another antivenom. 25 reports were of retrospective hospital- (n = 13) or poison center-based (n = 12) case series including five or more patients; a further 12 reports were either case reports or case series with less than five patients and one paper was a limited literature review. An additional nine papers reported prospective data; seven collected data remotely through poison service telephone communication with the attending physicians. Antivenoms available in Europe: Eight antivenoms are available for European Vipera spp envenoming; a material safety data sheet providing information on manufacture was available for seven. Six are raised against V. berus or V. ammodytes venom; the seventh is raised against a mixture of V. ammodytes, V. aspis and V. berus venom and the eighth is raised against V. ammodytes, Macrovipera lebetina and Montivipera xanthina venom. Six manufacturers recommended intramuscular administration while two recommended intravenous administration. No randomized control trials comparing the effectiveness of antivenoms were identified. Pre-clinical data: We found two papers presenting comparative preclinical data. Clinical data: Clinical studies were predominantly retrospective and contained clinical data on antivenom used in 2602 patients; where the antivenom was identified (n = 2174), 2061 (94.8%) received Zagreb, ViperFAV or ViperaTAb antivenoms. There were few published data on the other antivenoms. Repeated use of antivenom: Repeat doses were reported in 230/1491 of cases (15.4%) where this information was recorded. Outcome and length of hospital stay: Intravenous administration of antivenom was associated with shorter length of hospital stay (median length of hospital stay in studies of intravenous ViperFAV or ViperaTAb ranged from 1 to 4.8 days versus 2 to 18 days for intramuscular Bulbio or Zagreb antivenoms). Antivenom versus no antivenom: Some small studies demonstrated no difference in the length of hospital stay in patients with equivalent envenomation grading who either did or did not receive antivenom. Adverse events: Adverse reactions were reported in 37 of 2408 cases (1.5%) including seven cases of anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: There are very limited pre-clinical comparative data and no randomised controlled trials assessing effectiveness of the antivenoms against different Vipera species. Most descriptive data suggest the efficacy of Zagreb, ViperFAV and ViperaTAb antivenoms by the intravenous route but not intramuscular route, although this is level D evidence. Reported adverse reactions were rare, suggesting that the modern intravenous antivenoms are of good quality. Better and more systematic data, including perhaps randomized controlled trials comparing different antivenoms, are required for the many hundreds of antivenom administrations that occur annually across Europe.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antivenenos/administração & dosagem
Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia
Venenos de Víboras/antagonistas & inibidores
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Europa (Continente)
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Tempo de Internação
Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos
Mordeduras de Serpentes/fisiopatologia
Venenos de Víboras/toxicidade
Viperidae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antivenins); 0 (Viper Venoms)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170620
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170620
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170329
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15563650.2017.1300261


  9 / 1178 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28196149
[Au] Autor:Hileman ET; King RB; Adamski JM; Anton TG; Bailey RL; Baker SJ; Bieser ND; Bell TA; Bissell KM; Bradke DR; Campa H; Casper GS; Cedar K; Cross MD; DeGregorio BA; Dreslik MJ; Faust LJ; Harvey DS; Hay RW; Jellen BC; Johnson BD; Johnson G; Kiel BD; Kingsbury BA; Kowalski MJ; Lee YM; Lentini AM; Marshall JC; Mauger D; Moore JA; Paloski RA; Phillips CA; Pratt PD; Preney T; Prior KA; Promaine A; Redmer M; Reinert HK; Rouse JD; Shoemaker KT; Sutton S; VanDeWalle TJ; Weatherhead PJ; Wynn D; Yagi A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Climatic and geographic predictors of life history variation in Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus): A range-wide synthesis.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0172011, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size-fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions. To address Eastern Massasauga life history data gaps, we compiled data from 47 study sites representing 38 counties across the range. We used multimodel inference and general linear models with geographic coordinates and annual climate normals as explanatory variables to clarify patterns of variation in life history traits. We found strong evidence for geographic variation in six of nine life history variables. Adult female snout-vent length and neonate mass increased with increasing mean annual precipitation. Litter size decreased with increasing mean temperature, and the size-fecundity relationship and growth prior to first hibernation both increased with increasing latitude. The proportion of gravid females also increased with increasing latitude, but this relationship may be the result of geographically varying detection bias. Our results provide insights into ectotherm life history variation and fill critical data gaps, which will inform Eastern Massasauga conservation efforts by improving biological realism for models of population viability and climate change.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Variação Genética
Modelos Biológicos
Viperidae/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Great Lakes Region
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170809
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170809
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172011


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[PMID]:28187594
[Au] Autor:Mizsei E; Jablonski D; Roussos SA; Dimaki M; Ioannidis Y; Nilson G; Nagy ZT
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Evolutionary Zoology & Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary. edvardmizsei@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Nuclear markers support the mitochondrial phylogeny of Vipera ursinii-renardi complex (Squamata: Viperidae) and species status for the Greek meadow viper.
[So] Source:Zootaxa;4227(1):zootaxa.4227.1.4, 2017 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1175-5334
[Cp] País de publicação:New Zealand
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Meadow vipers (Vipera ursinii-renardi complex) are small-bodied snakes that live in either lowland grasslands or montane subalpine-alpine meadows spanning a distribution from France to western China. This complex has previously been the focus of several taxonomic studies which were based mainly on morphological, allozyme or immunological characters and did not clearly resolve the relationships between the various taxa. Recent mitochondrial DNA analyses found unexpected relationships within the complex which had taxonomical consequences for the detected lineages. The most surprising was the basal phylogenetic position of Vipera ursinii graeca, a taxon described almost 30 years ago from the mountains of Greece. We present here new analyses of three nuclear markers (BDNF, NT3, PRLR; a first for studies of meadow and steppe vipers) as well as analyses of newly obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences (CYT B, ND4).Our Bayesian analyses of nuclear sequences are concordant with previous studies of mitochondrial DNA, in that the phylogenetic position of the graeca clade is a clearly distinguished and distinct lineage separated from all other taxa in the complex. These phylogenetic results are also supported by a distinct morphology, ecology and isolated distribution of this unique taxon. Based on several data sets and an integrative species concept we recommend to elevate this taxon to species level: Vipera graeca Nilson & Andrén, 1988 stat. nov.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Viperidae
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
China
DNA Mitocondrial
França
Pradaria
Grécia
Filogenia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170802
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170802
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170212
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4227.1.4



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