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[PMID]:28930522
[Au] Autor:Andreotti R; Giachetto PF; Cunha RC
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratorio de Biologia Molecular do Carrapato, Sanidade Animal, Embrapa Gado de Corte, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil, renato.andreotti@embrapa.br.
[Ti] Título:Advances in tick vaccinology in Brazil: from gene expression to immunoprotection.
[So] Source:Front Biosci (Schol Ed);10:127-142, 2018 01 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-0524
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:has substantial economic impact on the cattle breeding industry and, chemical control and tick resistance development are the major concern. There is a worldwide search for new options, and control using vaccines has been the main focus nowadays. Studies performed in Brazil found that Bm86-based immunization of bovines reduced the infestation of of vaccinated bovines by 45% to 60%. Native tripsin inhibitors (BmTIs) with trypsin-, kallikrein-, and elastase-inhibiting activities have been used as immunogens in bovines reaching 72.8.% of efficacy. The reverse vaccinology approach has also been used for antigen search using transcriptome analysis to identify and characterize potential antigens. Study has generated more than 600 million sequences using RNA-seq of larvae, nymphs, salivary glands, intestines, and ovaries of the tick . Based on the set of transcripts obtained using this strategy, a total of 20,326 protein sequences have been identified. A pipeline analysis built in house identified the protein sequences that were most likely to be immunogenic based on the overall structural characteristic analysis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia
Rhipicephalus/genética
Rhipicephalus/imunologia
Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
Vacinas/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Bovinos
Expressão Gênica
Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
Inibidores da Tripsina/imunologia
Vacinação/veterinária
Vacinas/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Trypsin Inhibitors); 0 (Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180122
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180122
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170921
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28449954
[Au] Autor:Wang F; Lu X; Guo F; Gong H; Zhang H; Zhou Y; Cao J; Zhou J
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Animal Parasitology of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, China.
[Ti] Título:The immunomodulatory protein RH36 is relating to blood-feeding success and oviposition in hard ticks.
[So] Source:Vet Parasitol;240:49-59, 2017 Jun 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2550
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An immunomodulatory protein designated RH36 was identified in the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides. The cDNA sequence of RH36 has 844bp and encodes a deduced protein with a predicted molecular weight of 24kDa. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that RH36 presented a degree of similarity of 34.36% with the immunomodulatory protein p36 from the tick Dermacentor andersoni. The recombinant RH36 (rRH36) expressed in Sf9 insect cells suppressed the T-lymphocyte mitogen-driven in vitro proliferation of splenocytes and the expression of several cytokines such as IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-α. Furthermore, the proliferation of splenocytes isolated from rRH36-inoculated mice was significantly lower than that in control mice, suggesting that rRH36 could directly suppress immune responses in vivo. In addition, microarray analysis of splenocytes indicated that the expression of several immunomodulatory genes was downregulated by rRH36. The silencing of the RH36 gene by RNAi led to a 37.5% decrease in the tick attachment rate 24h after placement into the rabbit ears, whereas vaccination with RH36 caused a 53.06% decrease in the tick engorgement rate. Unexpectedly, RNAi induced a significant decrease in the oviposition rate, ovary weight at day 12 after engorgement, and egg-hatching rate. The effects of RH36 on blood feeding and oviposition were further confirmed by vaccination tests using the recombinant protein. These results indicate that RH36 is a novel member of immunosuppressant proteins and affects tick blood feeding and oviposition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo
Dermacentor/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia
Oviposição/fisiologia
Rhipicephalus/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Animais
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética
Sequência de Bases
Proliferação Celular
Feminino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Oviposição/genética
RNA Mensageiro/genética
RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
Coelhos
Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo
Baço/citologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Arthropod Proteins); 0 (RNA, Messenger)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180102
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180102
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28456306
[Au] Autor:Ghosh S; Gupta S; Ajith Kumar KG; Sharma AK; Kumar S; Nagar G; Kumar R; Paul S; Fular A; Chigure G; Nandi A; Manjunathachar HV; Mohammad A; Verma MR; Saravanan BC; Ray D
[Ad] Endereço:Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122, U.P., India. Electronic address: sghoshtick@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Characterization and establishment of a reference deltamethrin and cypermethrin resistant tick line (IVRI-IV) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.
[So] Source:Pestic Biochem Physiol;138:66-70, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9939
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The problem of ticks and tick borne diseases is a global threat and growing reports of resistance to commonly used insecticides further aggravated the condition and demands for country specific resistance monitoring tools and possible solutions of the problem. Establishment of standard reference is prerequisite for development of monitoring tools. For studying possible role of different mechanisms involved in development of resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population and to develop newer drug to manage the problem of resistance, a deltamethrin exposed and selected tick colony, referred to as IVRI-IV, was characterized using reference susceptible IVRI-I tick line as control. The RF values of IVRI-IV ticks against deltamethrin, cypermethrin and diazinon were determined as 194.0, 26.6, 2.86, respectively, against adults. The esterase enzyme ratios of 2.60 and 5.83 was observed using α-naphthyl and ß-naphthyl acetate while glutathione S-transferase (GST) ratio was 3.77. Comparative analysis of IVRI-I and IVRI-IV carboxylesterase gene sequences revealed 13 synonymous and 5 non synonymous mutations, reported for the first time. The C190A mutation in the domain II S4-5 linker region of sodium channel gene leading to leucine to isoleucine (L64I) amino acid substitution was also detected in the IVRI-IV population. In the present study, monitorable indicators for the maintenance of the reference IVRI-IV colony, the first established deltamethrin and cypermethrin resistant tick line of India, were identified.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Inseticidas/farmacologia
Nitrilos/farmacologia
Piretrinas/farmacologia
Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Resistência a Inseticidas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insecticides); 0 (Nitriles); 0 (Pyrethrins); 1TR49121NP (cypermethrin); 2JTS8R821G (decamethrin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170501
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28985216
[Au] Autor:Hussein HE; Bastos RG; Schneider DA; Johnson WC; Adham FK; Davis WC; Laughery JM; Herndon DR; Alzan HF; Ueti MW; Suarez CE
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The Babesia bovis hap2 gene is not required for blood stage replication, but expressed upon in vitro sexual stage induction.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(10):e0005965, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Babesia bovis, is a tick borne apicomplexan parasite responsible for important cattle losses globally. Babesia parasites have a complex life cycle including asexual replication in the mammalian host and sexual reproduction in the tick vector. Novel control strategies aimed at limiting transmission of the parasite are needed, but transmission blocking vaccine candidates remain undefined. Expression of HAP2 has been recognized as critical for the fertilization of parasites in the Babesia-related Plasmodium, and is a leading candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against malaria. Hereby we identified the B. bovis hap2 gene and demonstrated that it is widely conserved and differentially transcribed during development within the tick midgut, but not by blood stage parasites. The hap2 gene was disrupted by transfecting B. bovis with a plasmid containing the flanking regions of the hap2 gene and the GPF-BSD gene under the control of the ef-1α-B promoter. Comparison of in vitro growth between a hap2-KO B. bovis clonal line and its parental wild type strain showed that HAP2 is not required for the development of B. bovis in erythrocytes. However, xanthurenic acid-in vitro induction experiments of sexual stages of parasites recovered after tick transmission resulted in surface expression of HAP2 exclusively in sexual stage induced parasites. In addition, hap2-KO parasites were not able to develop such sexual stages as defined both by morphology and by expression of the B. bovis sexual marker genes 6-Cys A and B. Together, the data strongly suggests that tick midgut stage differential expression of hap2 is associated with the development of B. bovis sexual forms. Overall these studies are consistent with a role of HAP2 in tick stages of the parasite and suggest that HAP2 is a potential candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against bovine babesiosis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia
Babesia bovis/genética
Babesia bovis/fisiologia
Genes de Protozoários
Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
Rhipicephalus/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Babesia bovis/efeitos dos fármacos
Babesia bovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Bovinos/parasitologia
Eritrócitos/parasitologia
Feminino
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
Reprodução/genética
Xanturenatos/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Peptide Elongation Factor 1); 0 (Protozoan Proteins); 0 (Xanthurenates); 58LAB1BG8J (xanthurenic acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171007
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005965


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[PMID]:28760358
[Au] Autor:Gandhi PR; Jayaseelan C; Mary RR; Mathivanan D; Suseem SR
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Nanobiotechnology, Department of Zoology, Auxilium College (Autonomous), Gandhi Nagar, 632 006, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India.
[Ti] Título:Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.
[So] Source:Exp Parasitol;181:47-56, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2449
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C H ) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acaricidas/farmacologia
Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos
Momordica charantia/química
Pediculus/efeitos dos fármacos
Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos
Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação
Animais
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos
Bioensaio
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Culex/efeitos dos fármacos
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Feminino
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Seres Humanos
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Folhas de Planta/química
Espectrometria por Raios X
Óxido de Zinco/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Acaricides); 0 (Plant Extracts); SOI2LOH54Z (Zinc Oxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170802
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28735872
[Au] Autor:Cardoso THS; Lu S; Gonzalez BRG; Torquato RJS; Tanaka AS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade de Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua 3 de Maio 100, 04044-020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Characterization of a novel cystatin type 2 from Rhipicephalus microplus midgut.
[So] Source:Biochimie;140:117-121, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1638-6183
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an exclusive bovine ectoparasite responsible for the transmission of pathogens that decrease meat, leather and milk productions. Cattle vaccination is an alternative to control tick infestations, but the discovery of potential antigens is still a challenge for researchers. Recently, our group performed a midgut transcriptome of engorged R. microplus tick, and out of 800 ESTs sequences one cystatin-coding sequence was identified and named Rmcystatin-4. In order to understand the physiological role of Rmcystatin-4, the aim of this work was the expression, purification and functional characterization of a novel type 2 cystatin from the tick R. microplus. Rmcystatin-4 gene expression was identified mostly in tick midgut suggesting its possible role in blood digestion control. Our data showed that rRmcystatin-4 was successfully expressed in active form using Pichia pastoris system and the purified inhibitor presented high selectivity to BmCl-1 (Ki = 0.046 nM). Moreover, rRmcystatin-4 was able to impaired BmCl-1 activity towards bovine hemoglobin.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proteínas de Artrópodes
Intestinos/metabolismo
Rhipicephalus
Cistatinas Salivares
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Proteínas de Artrópodes/biossíntese
Proteínas de Artrópodes/química
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética
Proteínas de Artrópodes/isolamento & purificação
Bovinos
Expressão Gênica
Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
Proteínas Recombinantes/química
Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
Rhipicephalus/química
Rhipicephalus/genética
Rhipicephalus/metabolismo
Cistatinas Salivares/biossíntese
Cistatinas Salivares/química
Cistatinas Salivares/genética
Cistatinas Salivares/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Arthropod Proteins); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 0 (Salivary Cystatins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28671735
[Au] Autor:Diyes GCP; Apanaskevich DA; Rajakaruna RS
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
[Ti] Título:Lifecycle of Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides under laboratory conditions.
[So] Source:Med Vet Entomol;31(3):327-332, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2915
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino, 1897 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host hard tick widely distributed in Sri Lanka. The lifecycle of the R. haemaphysaloides population in Sri Lanka was studied under laboratory conditions using fully engorged females collected from dogs. Larvae, nymphs and adults were reared on New Zealand rabbits. Engorged females weighed a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 470.1 ± 106.5 mg and laid a mean ± SD of 4067.4 ± 3136.2 eggs within 16.1 ± 3.7 days. The mean ± SD preoviposition period was 6.5 ± 1.1 days. The mean ± SD reproductive efficiency index was 8.5 ± 4.1, and was higher in heavier females (Pearson correlation, r = 0.8; P = 0.001). The incubation period of eggs was shorter at higher temperatures. The majority (86.9%) of larvae successfully moulted after a mean ± SD premoulting period of 7.9 ± 0.7 days following a parasitic period of 3.2 ± 0.5 days. Unfed larvae survived a mean ± SD of 103.4 ± 19.8 days. Nymphs completed the bloodmeal after 3.7 ± 0.9 days, weighed 5.7 ± 1.7 mg and demonstrated a premoulting period of 15.1 ± 1.9 days. Unfed nymphs survived a mean ± SD of 45.8 ± 3.8 days. Heavier nymphs moulted into females, whereas lighter nymphs moulted into males (two-sample t-test, P < 0.001). The bodyweight of adult females increased more than 100-fold after feeding. The lifecycle of R. haemaphysaloides was successfully completed on rabbits within a mean of 91.3 days (range: 69-117 days) under laboratory conditions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Rhipicephalus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Alimentar
Feminino
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Masculino
Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Coelhos
Sri Lanka
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170704
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mve.12238


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[PMID]:28591859
[Au] Autor:Nelson SL; Durden LA; Reuter JD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 354 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0354.
[Ti] Título:Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Coparasitize White-Tailed Deer on St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.
[So] Source:J Med Entomol;54(5):1440-1443, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2928
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Ticks parasitizing introduced white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), on St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, were recorded during and after drought conditions. Tick infestation prevalences were 22% at the start of the drought (July 2015), 66% at the height of the drought (March 2016), and 35% after the drought had ended (July 2016; n = 67 deer). Samples of ticks from 22 tranquilized deer in July 2016 revealed the presence of two species, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), and the tropical horse tick, Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens Neumann. Both tick species have considerable veterinary importance, especially for cattle and horses, respectively, as nuisance biters and also as vectors of parasitic piroplasms or of Anaplasma marginale Theiler. All 22 deer examined were infested by R. microplus, whereas 14 (64%) of the samples also included specimens of D. nitens. Because of the large numbers of ticks recorded, wild deer on St. John could develop associated health problems (pruritis, alopecia, anemia, low weight gain, tick-borne pathogens and parasites) and could also serve as a source of these ticks for cattle and horses.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cervos
Dermacentor/fisiologia
Rhipicephalus/fisiologia
Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Secas
Espécies Introduzidas
Prevalência
Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
Ilhas Virgens Americanas/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170608
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jme/tjx112


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[PMID]:28391450
[Au] Autor:Pereira SG; de Araújo SA; Guilhon GMSP; Santos LS; Junior LMC
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Federal do Maranhão - Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais - Campus IV, MA 230, km 04, bairro Boa Vista, Chapadinha, Maranhão, CEP 65500-000, Brazil. sinval@ufma.br.
[Ti] Título:In vitro acaricidal activity of Crescentia cujete L. fruit pulp against Rhipicephalus microplus.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;116(5):1487-1493, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) is an important constraint on livestock production, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Synthetic acaricides are the primary method of control this thick. Resistance of R. microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need of new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control it. The objective of this work was to conduct a chemical investigation of Crescentia cujete L. fruit pulp and to evaluate the acaricide effect on R. microplus larvae of extracts, fractions, and isolated substances from this species. Crescentia cujete is a Bignoniaceae and it is characteristic of tropical climates. Its most distinctive feature is its fruit, which is spherical and gourd-like, with a hard woody shell and gelatinous pulp. The fruit pulp of C. cujete was extracted with ethanol by maceration yielding an extract and a residue. The extract was partitioned giving an ethyl acetate phase (EAF) that was fractionated by chromatographic procedures yielding cinnamic acid and benzoic acid. The remained botanic material from the ethanol extraction was further and successively extracted with ethyl ether and methanol under reflux. The acaricide effect of all extracts and fractions was evaluated against R. microplus using the larval packet test. The best result was observed for the EAF that caused 100% of mortality when a 10% solution was used and with LC of 5.9%. Cinnamic acid was also tested showing 63.0% of mortality with LC of 6.6% at the same concentrations and time of the experiment. The data obtained in this study provides information related to the chemical nature and the acaricide activity of the C. cujete epicarp that has not been previously reported. This study shows that the ethyl acetate phase of the ethanol extract of C. cujete fruit pulp is a potential alternative control for R. microplus and its activity is in part associated to cinnamic acid, its major compound.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acaricidas/química
Acaricidas/farmacologia
Bignoniaceae/química
Frutas/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Resistência a Medicamentos
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Acaricides); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171007
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171007
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170410
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-017-5425-y


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[PMID]:28388639
[Au] Autor:Rodríguez-Hidalgo R; Pérez-Otáñez X; Garcés-Carrera S; Vanwambeke SO; Madder M; Benítez-Ortiz W
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Investigación en Salud Pública y Zoonosis / Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
[Ti] Título:The current status of resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz of the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Ecuador.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0174652, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world where livestock is a principal activity with great veterinary and economic importance. In Ecuador, this hematophagous ectoparasite has been observed between 0 and 2600 masl. One of the main tick control measures is the use of acaricides, which have been indiscriminately used worldwide and in Ecuador. In this country, no studies on acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus have been published. The current study aims to characterise the level of resistance of R. microplus against three main acaricides commonly used in Ecuador i.e. amitraz, alpha-cypermethrin and ivermectin to determine the level and pattern of dose-responses for R. microplus in 12 field populations (farms). The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using three different bioassays: adult immersion test (AIT), larval package test (LPT) and larval immersion test (LIT), as recommended by the FAO. The predictive dose-responses were analysed by binomial logistics regression of the larval survival rate (resistance). In general, we found resistance of 67% for amitraz; 50% for alpha-cypermethrin and from 25 to 42% for ivermectin in the twelve field populations analysed. Resistance levels were studied in larval and adult bioassays, respectively, which were slightly modified for this study. For larval bioassays based on corrected mortality i.e. high (above 51%), medium (21-50%) and low (11-20%) resistance, percentages less than 10% were considered as susceptible. For the adult test, two resistance levels were used i.e. high (more than 76%) and medium (51 to 75%) resistance. Percentages lower than 50% were considered as susceptible. In this context, for larval bioassays, amitraz showed 21%, 38% and 8% for high, medium and low resistance, respectively. Alpha-cypermethrin presented 8%, 4 and 38% for high, medium and low resistance, respectively. Ivermectin presented 8%, 25% and 8% for high, medium and low resistance, respectively. For adult tests with amitraz 50% and 17% of the field populations showed average and high resistance, with evidences of average resistance to alpha-cypermethrin in 50% of the samples and average resistance against ivermectin in 25% of the farms. No statistical difference amongst the three bioassays was found and acaricide resistance was confirmed by logistic regression analysis; hence resistance (dose-responses) in each field populations differed, depending on the choice of the acaricide, frequent usage, frequency of treatment and farm management. The effective estimated dose needed to eliminate 99% of ticks is higher than dose recommended by the manufacturer. In conclusion, amitraz showed the highest resistance followed by ivermectin and alpha-cypermethrin and reveals differences on resistance in each individual field population. This information is important in order to establish the monitoring of resistance on each farm individually, contributing to the rational use of acaricides included in an integrated control program for R. microplus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Resistência a Inseticidas
Ivermectina/farmacologia
Piretrinas/farmacologia
Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos
Toluidinas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Equador
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Pyrethrins); 0 (Toluidines); 1TR49121NP (cypermethrin); 33IAH5017S (amitraz); 70288-86-7 (Ivermectin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170408
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174652



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