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[PMID]:28232044
[Au] Autor:Mircean M; Ionica AM; Mircean V; Györke A; Codea AR; Tabaran FA; Taulescu M; Dumitrache MO
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Internal Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Calea Manastur 3-5, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Cluj, Romania.
[Ti] Título:Clinical and pathological effects of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in a dog with a natural co-infection.
[So] Source:Parasitol Int;66(3):331-334, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1873-0329
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Canine dirofilarioses are mosquito-borne zoonotic diseases with a continuous expansion of their geographical distribution, as a consequence of different climatic and ecological factors. Dirofilaria immitis, the aetiological agent of heartworm disease, has gained a major veterinary interest, mainly due to its severe clinical implication. In the last decades, D. repens, despite of being regarded as a less pathogenic species, regained attention due to its recognized zoonotic potential. Romania has been traditionally regarded as a non-endemic country, but recent epidemiological surveys are highlighting the presence of both D. repens and D. immitis. The present case report describes the clinical and pathological features of a natural co-infection with D. repens and D. immitis in 5year old male Boxer from north-western Romania. Based on clinical and laboratory investigations, a diagnosis of kidney failure and chronical cystitis was established. The parasites were identified by morphology and confirmed by PCR and sequencing. To the best of our knowledge this is the first worldwide report of the ectopic presence of D. repens adults in the pelvic cavity and mesentery by natural infection and first report of the ocular localization of this parasite for Romania. The clinical and paraclinical findings suggest the implication of D. repens microfilariae in the aetiology of histopathological lesions. Further investigations are needed in order to establish the actual pathogenic potential of D. repens, a frequently neglected parasite.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coinfecção/veterinária
Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/diagnóstico
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Coinfecção/parasitologia
Dirofilaria immitis/genética
Dirofilaria repens/genética
Dirofilaria repens/patogenicidade
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico
Cães
Ecocardiografia
Masculino
Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Insuficiência Renal/parasitologia
Romênia/epidemiologia
Zoonoses/parasitologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170510
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170510
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170225
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28219407
[Au] Autor:Silaghi C; Beck R; Capelli G; Montarsi F; Mathis A
[Ad] Endereço:National Centre for Vector Entomology, Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. cornelia.silaghi@uzh.ch.
[Ti] Título:Development of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Aedes japonicus and Aedes geniculatus.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;10(1):94, 2017 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D. immitis and D. repens under standardised experimental laboratory conditions in mosquitoes. METHODS: For this purpose, both a laboratory strain and field-collected individuals of the invasive mosquito species Ae. japonicus and, for comparative purposes, a laboratory strain of Aedes geniculatus, a rare indigenous species sharing habitats with Ae. japonicus, and of the tropical species Aedes aegypti were used. Anticoagulated microfilariaemic blood was fed at a density of 3000 mf/ml to mosquitoes with a hemotek system. Blood-fed mosquitoes were incubated at 27 °C and 85% relative humidity, and specimens were dissected under the microscope at pre-set time points to observe developmental stages of both Dirofilaria species. Additionally, real-time PCRs were carried out in some microscopically negative samples to determine the infection rates. RESULTS: In field-collected Ae. japonicus infectious L3 larvae of both D. immitis and D. repens developed, rendering this mosquito species an efficient vector for both filarial species. Additionally, Ae. geniculatus was shown to be an equally efficient vector for both filarial species. Aedes japonicus mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were refractory to D. immitis but susceptible to D. repens, whereas Ae. aegypti was refractory to both filarial species. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, Aedes japonicus was for the first time shown to be an efficient vector for both D. immitis and D. repens, indicating that this invasive and locally highly abundant species may contribute to a transmission of filarial worms. The data emphasize the necessity to perform vector competence studies with local mosquito populations as basis for risk assessments. We further demonstrated that detection of filarial DNA in a mosquito species alone does not allow to draw reliable conclusions with regard to its vector competence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aedes/parasitologia
Dirofilaria immitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Dirofilaria repens/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aedes/fisiologia
Animais
Dirofilaria immitis/genética
Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria immitis/fisiologia
Dirofilaria repens/genética
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria repens/fisiologia
Dirofilariose/transmissão
Doenças do Cão/transmissão
Cães
Comportamento Alimentar
Insetos Vetores/fisiologia
Larva/genética
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Larva/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170515
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170515
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-017-2015-x


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[PMID]:28215858
[Au] Autor:Tahir D; Bittar F; Barré-Cardi H; Sow D; Dahmani M; Mediannikov O; Raoult D; Davoust B; Parola P
[Ad] Endereço:Research Unit of Emerging Infectious and Tropical Diseases (URMITE) UMR CNRS 7278 IRD 198 INSERM U1015 Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
[Ti] Título:Molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens by new real-time TaqMan PCR assay in dogs and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Corsica (France).
[So] Source:Vet Parasitol;235:1-7, 2017 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2550
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are filarioid nematodes of animals and humans, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Domestic and wild canids are a major natural host and reservoir for these parasites. In this study, we designed a duplex real-time PCR protocol targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, detecting both D. immitis and D. repens using two primer pairs and two Dirofilaria-specific hydrolysable probes. The sensitivity and specificity of the primers and probes were tested in both experimental and naturally infected samples. The detection limits of this assay were evaluated using plasmid DNA from D. immitis and D. repens. No cross-reaction was observed when testing this system against DNA from other filarial nematodes. The detection limit of the real-time PCR system was one copy per reaction mixture containing 5µl of template DNA. Field application of the new duplex real-time assay was conducted in Corsica. The prevalence rate of D. immitis was 21.3% (20/94) in dogs. In a locality where most dogs with Dirofilaria spp. infection were found, D. immitis and D. repens were detected in 5% (20/389) and 1.5% (6/389) of the Aedes albopictus population, respectively. These results suggest that this sensitive assay is a powerful tool for monitoring dirofilariosis in endemic or high risk areas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Culicidae/parasitologia
Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aedes/parasitologia
Animais
Primers do DNA/genética
DNA de Helmintos/genética
Dirofilaria immitis/genética
Dirofilaria repens/genética
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
Cães
Feminino
França/epidemiologia
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA Primers); 0 (DNA, Helminth)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28000235
[Au] Autor:Muller KE; Schwartzman JD; Seidel GD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pathology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
[Ti] Título:Subcutaneous dirofilariasis: a masquerade of a palisaded granulomatous dermatitis.
[So] Source:J Cutan Pathol;44(4):373-375, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0560
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dirofilaria species are roundworms responsible for "heartworm" in canines. On occasion, humans are an accidental host, resulting in pulmonary (Dirofilaria immitis) or extrapulmonary (Dirofilaria repens) manifestations. Of the extrapulmonary sites of involvement, subcutaneous involvement is particularly common. We report a case of a 49-year-old female who presented with an erythematous nodule on her shin, which closely resembled necrobiosis lipoidica on histopathologic examination. On closer examination, there were foci of necrosis that harbored segments of the nematode, diagnostic of dirofiliarisis. We present this case to highlight the histopathologic similarities and differences between palisaded necrobiotic conditions and this potentially underrecognized entity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dermatite
Dirofilaria repens
Dirofilariose
Dermatopatias Parasitárias
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Dermatite/parasitologia
Dermatite/patologia
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Dirofilariose/patologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Dermatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
Dermatopatias Parasitárias/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170630
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170630
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cup.12874


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[PMID]:27935633
[Au] Autor:Manzocchi S; Lendner M; Piseddu E; Sebastiani V; Morabito S; Daugschies A; Pantchev N
[Ad] Endereço:Novara Day Lab - IDEXX Laboratories Italia srl, Granozzo con Monticello, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Nodular presentation of Dirofilaria repens infection in a cat mimicking a fibrosarcoma.
[So] Source:Vet Clin Pathol;46(1):158-163, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1939-165X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A cat with multiple subcutaneous nodules suggesting a soft tissue sarcoma by physical and computed tomographic examination was diagnosed as being affected by subcutaneous filariosis based on cytologic and ultrasonographic assessments. Nodules were surgically removed and extracted nematodes were identified by PCR as Dirofilaria repens. Furthermore, DNA of Dipetalonema dracunculoides (syn. Acantocheilonema dracunculoides) was detected by PCR, with no evidence of circulating microfilariae. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this represents the first report describing adults of D repens in multiple subcutaneous nodules in a cat. Cytopathologic examination allowed characterization of the parasitic nature of the nodules. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the possible nodular presentation of D repens in cats and should include D repens in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous neoformations in the cat.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/diagnóstico por imagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia
Doenças do Gato/patologia
Gatos
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Dirofilariose/patologia
Feminino
Fibrossarcoma/diagnóstico
Fibrossarcoma/patologia
Fibrossarcoma/veterinária
Microfilárias
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/vcp.12433


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[PMID]:26830465
[Au] Autor:Marcos R; Pereira C; Maia JP; Santos M; Luzzago C; Lauzi S; Genchi C; Faustino A; Puente-Payo P
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto,Porto,Portugal.
[Ti] Título:The occurrence of the filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens in canine hosts from Maio Island, Cape Verde.
[So] Source:J Helminthol;91(1):87-90, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2697
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The prevalence of canine Dirofilaria infection in Maio Island (Cape Verde) was analysed by serology, morphological and molecular identification of the parasite species. Blood and sera were collected from 150 dogs and 80 cats aged over 6 months from various localities of the island. DNA was extracted from blood and samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using microfilaria-specific primers. No Dirofilaria immitis was found in dogs while D. repens microfilariae were found in 5.3% of dogs and 6% were positive by PCR. The species identity was confirmed by sequencing of PCR products, which showed almost 100% homology with D. repens European sequences published in GenBank. No difference in Dirofilaria infection was observed between males and females or in dogs with different weights. However, older dogs and those from the western part of Maio Island were more frequently infected. No Dirofilaria was found in cats. This study represents the first evidence of D. repens in Cape Verde (West Africa) and highlights the need for implementing control measures and for a better surveillance of dirofilariosis in Africa.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Sangue/parasitologia
Cabo Verde/epidemiologia
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia
Gatos
DNA de Helmintos/genética
DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria repens/genética
Cães
Ilhas/epidemiologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Prevalência
Análise de Sequência de DNA
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Helminth)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0022149X16000067


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[PMID]:27912786
[Au] Autor:ȘuleÈ™co T; von Thien H; ToderaÈ™ L; ToderaÈ™ I; Lühken R; Tannich E
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova.
[Ti] Título:Circulation of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in Moldova.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;9(1):627, 2016 Dec 03.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, a significant spread of dirofilariasis has been observed in eastern and central Europe. However, data on the circulation of Dirofilaria spp. in Moldova were absent although direct neighbor states reported high incidence rates of human dirofilariasis. METHODS: Daily mean temperature data were used to calculate Dirofilaria spp. development units, which were used to estimate the potential for complete extrinsic development in the mosquitoes (= sum of potential Dirofilaria spp. transmission days). In addition, 4,481 adult female mosquitoes were collected from 25 trapping sites. From 2010 to 2015, sampling was conducted with Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps, indoor resting mosquito collections as well as human landing catches in urban, rural and natural areas. Mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of D. repens and D. immitis DNA using a duplex real-time PCR assay targeting nucleotide differences within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (D. repens) and 16S rRNA gene fragment (D. immitis). RESULTS: The average of the yearly sum of potential Dirofilaria spp. transmission days between 2010 and 2015 ranged from 90 to 140 days with an increasing gradient from the North to the South of Moldova. Positive mosquito pools for D. repens were found countrywide at 13 of the 25 trapping sites and in 17 of the 22 screened mosquito taxa (26.51% of all 347 tested pools), while D. immitis was detected only at 4 of the trapping sites (Center and South) in 4 different mosquito species (8.65% of all 347 tested pools). Highest infection rates (EIR) per 100 specimens for both Dirofilaria species were found in An. maculipennis (s.l.) (D. repens: EIR = 4.91; D. immitis: EIR = 2.01), whereas the most frequent mosquito taxon Cx. pipiens (s.l.)/torrentium had significantly lower infections rates (D. repens: EIR = 0.88; D. immitis: EIR = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: The temperature conditions in Moldova are suitable for transmission of Dirofilaria spp. within the entire country, which is supported by a wide distribution of Dirofilaria spp.-positive mosquitoes with high infection rates. The low number of reported human cases most likely does not reflect the current epidemiological situation of dirofilariasis in Moldova.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Culicidae/parasitologia
Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
DNA de Helmintos/química
DNA de Helmintos/genética
DNA Ribossômico/química
DNA Ribossômico/genética
Dirofilaria immitis/classificação
Dirofilaria immitis/genética
Dirofilaria repens/classificação
Dirofilaria repens/genética
Seres Humanos
Moldávia/epidemiologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
Filogenia
Prevalência
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Temperatura Ambiente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Helminth); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161204
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27755776
[Au] Autor:Mazaki-Tovi M; Reich M; Karnieli A; Kuzi S; Aroch I
[Ad] Endereço:Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.
[Ti] Título:Marked subcutaneous mast cell and eosinophilic infiltration associated with the presence of multiple Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in 4 dogs.
[So] Source:Vet Clin Pathol;45(4):703-709, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1939-165X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dirofilaria repens is a parasitic nematode in the subcutaneous tissue of carnivores, including dogs and cats, transmitted by mosquitoes. Human beings may be accidental hosts. Infection of a dog with D repens was first reported in Palestine in 1934, and 2 additional cases were reported in dogs in Israel to date. This report describes D repens infection in 4 dogs in Israel that presented with subcutaneous masses, which were cytologically characterized by marked mast cell and eosinophil infiltration. In 3 cases, multiple microfilariae were present in the lesions; rare microfilariae were present in the 4 case. In all 4 dogs, PCR of fine-needle aspirates from the lesions were positive for D repens. The mast cells observed in all lesions were uniform and highly granulated, and with the presence of the microfilariae, a mast cell tumor was considered less likely. This report suggests that D repens infection-associated subcutaneous lesions, characterized cytologically by massive mast cell and eosinophil infiltration, should be considered a differential diagnosis for mast cell tumor, especially in geographic locations endemic for this nematode. Notably, all 4 dogs were infected with D repens despite a routine prophylactic doramectin therapy administered every 3 months, probably due to the relatively long time interval between treatments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/diagnóstico
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico
Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Dirofilariose/patologia
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
Cães
Eosinófilos/patologia
Feminino
Inflamação/veterinária
Israel
Masculino
Mastócitos/parasitologia
Mastócitos/patologia
Microfilárias
Dermatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico
Dermatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
Tela Subcutânea/parasitologia
Tela Subcutânea/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170809
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170809
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161019
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/vcp.12410


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[PMID]:27727270
[Au] Autor:Yilmaz E; Fritzenwanker M; Pantchev N; Lendner M; Wongkamchai S; Otranto D; Kroidl I; Dennebaum M; Le TH; Anh Le T; Ramünke S; Schaper R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna G; Poppert S; Krücken J
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Zoonotic Canine Filarial Parasites Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens and Candidatus Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) Honkongensis Provide Evidence for Presence of Cryptic Species.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;10(10):e0005028, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cutaneous dirofilariosis is a canine mosquito-borne zoonosis that can cause larva migrans disease in humans. Dirofilaria repens is considered an emerging pathogen occurring with high prevalence in Mediterranean areas and many parts of tropical Asia. In Hong Kong, a second species, Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis, has been reported. The present study aimed to compare mitochondrial genomes from these parasites and to obtain population genetic information. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Complete mitochondrial genomes were obtained by PCR and Sanger sequencing or ILLUMINA sequencing for four worms. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences identified three as D. repens (all from Europe) and one as C. D. hongkongensis (from India). Mitochondrial genomes have the same organization as in other spirurid nematodes but a higher preference for thymine in the coding strand. Phylogenetic analysis was in contradiction to current taxonomy of the Onchocercidae but in agreement with a recent multi-locus phylogenetic analysis using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. D. repens and C. D. hongkongensis sequences clustered together and were the common sister group to Dirofilaria immitis. Analysis of a 2.5 kb mitochondrial genome fragment from macrofilaria or canine blood samples from Europe (42), Thailand (2), India (1) and Vietnam (1) revealed only small genetic differences in the D. repens samples including all European and the Vietnam sample. The Indian C. D. hongkongensis and the two Thai samples formed separate clusters and differences were comparatively large. CONCLUSION: Genetic differences between Dirofilaria spp. causing cutaneous disease can be considerable whereas D. repens itself was genetically quite homogenous. C. D. hongkongensis was identified for the first time from the Indian subcontinent. The full mitochondrial genome sequence strengthens the hypothesis that it represents an independent species and the Thai samples might represent another cryptic species, Candidatus Dirofilaria sp. 'Thailand II', or a quite divergent population of C. D. hongkongensis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dirofilaria repens/genética
Dirofilaria/genética
Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Genoma Mitocondrial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ásia/epidemiologia
Culicidae/parasitologia
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
Cães
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética
Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Índia/epidemiologia
Filogenia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Tailândia/epidemiologia
Vietnã/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
EC 1.9.3.1 (Electron Transport Complex IV)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170523
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170523
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161012
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005028


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[PMID]:27646111
[Au] Autor:Diakou A; Kapantaidakis E; Tamvakis A; Giannakis V; Strus N
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece. diakou@vet.auth.gr.
[Ti] Título:Dirofilaria infections in dogs in different areas of Greece.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;9(1):508, 2016 Sep 20.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are enzootic in Greece. In the light of evidence of dirofilariosis spreading to new areas around the world, the aim of the present study was to update and enrich the current knowledge on the prevalence of Dirofilaria infections in dogs in Greece, to assess the risk factors of heartworm infection, and to initiate the drawing of the epizootiological map of canine dirofilariosis, investigating Dirofilaria infections in five locations along the north-south axis of the country, i.e. municipalities of Thessaloniki, Larissa, Achaia, Attica and Heraklion, associated with the five largest urban centres of Greece. METHODS: Blood samples collected from 750 dogs in total, were examined by the modified Knott's method and by serology. A questionnaire including information about each examined dog was filled in and statistical analysis of the results was performed using the Chi-square test and a Binary Multiple Univariate Generalized Linear Model. RESULTS: In total, 31 (4.1 %) out of 750 examined animals were found positive for D. immitis by any of the tests applied (Knott's method and serological examination). Moreover, microfilariae of D. repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum were detected by the Knott's method in 17 (2.3 %) and 10 (1.3 %) of the animals, respectively. At the municipality level, the prevalence of infection was 14, 7, 5.3, 0.7 and 0 % for D. immitis, 1, 2, 8.7, 0.3 and 0 % for D. repens, and 0, 3, 2.7, 0.7 and 1 % for A. reconditum in Thessaloniki, Larissa, Achaia, Attica and Heraklion, respectively. In addition, in three dogs (one each in Thessaloniki, Achaia and Attica) mixed D. immitis - D. repens infections were detected by the Knott's method. The area of the country, dog's usage and age were determined as risk factors for heartworm infection. CONCLUSIONS: Northern areas of Greece have higher Dirofilaria prevalence and the prevalence in a western province (Achaia) is recorded for the first time. The mosquito population dynamics recorded in the past is likely to play an important role in the distribution of Dirofilaria infections in Greece, and needs further investigation. Similarly, the role of wild reservoirs of filarial parasites in different areas needs to be clarified. Promotion by veterinarians of preventive treatment and compliance by pet owners is essential in all parts of Greece, regardless of the recorded prevalence of infection.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Culicidae/parasitologia
Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acanthocheilonema/isolamento & purificação
Animais
Coinfecção/epidemiologia
Coinfecção/parasitologia
Coinfecção/veterinária
Dirofilariose/sangue
Dirofilariose/parasitologia
Reservatórios de Doenças
Doenças do Cão/sangue
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
Cães
Feminino
Grécia/epidemiologia
Masculino
Prevalência
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160921
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-016-1797-6



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