Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : B01.650.940.800.575.912.250.157.811 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:28620771
[Au] Autor:Fei M; Harvey JA; Yin Y; Gols R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae ) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance.
[So] Source:J Chem Ecol;43(6):617-629, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1573-1561
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Borboletas/fisiologia
Mostardeira/metabolismo
Oviposição
Sinapis/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal
Borboletas/química
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
Feminino
Flores/química
Flores/metabolismo
Glucosinolatos/química
Glucosinolatos/metabolismo
Herbivoria
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Mostardeira/química
Folhas de Planta/química
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Sinapis/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucosinolates)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170801
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170801
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170617
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10886-017-0853-9


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[PMID]:28107464
[Au] Autor:Kulkarni SS; Dosdall LM; Spence JR; Willenborg CJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Seed Detection and Discrimination by Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Are Associated with Olfactory Cues.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(1):e0170593, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coleópteros/fisiologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Olfato/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brassica rapa
Sinais (Psicologia)
Discriminação (Psicologia)/fisiologia
Sementes
Sinapis
Thlaspi
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170593


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[PMID]:27742213
[Au] Autor:Klingaman CA; Wagner MJ; Brown JR; Klecker JB; Pauley EH; Noldner CJ; Mays JR
[Ad] Endereço:Augustana University, Department of Chemistry, 2001 S. Summit Ave., Sioux Falls, SD 57197, USA.
[Ti] Título:HPLC-based kinetics assay facilitates analysis of systems with multiple reaction products and thermal enzyme denaturation.
[So] Source:Anal Biochem;516:37-47, 2017 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0309
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites abundant in Brassica vegetables that are substrates for the enzyme myrosinase, a thioglucoside hydrolase. Enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of glucosinolates forms several organic products, including isothiocyanates (ITCs) that have been explored for their beneficial effects in humans. Myrosinase has been shown to be tolerant of non-natural glucosinolates, such as 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, and can facilitate their conversion to non-natural ITCs, some of which are leads for drug development. An HPLC-based method capable of analyzing this transformation for non-natural systems has been described. This current study describes (1) the Michaelis-Menten characterization of 2,2-diphenyethyl glucosinolate and (2) a parallel evaluation of this analogue and the natural analogue glucotropaeolin to evaluate effects of pH and temperature on rates of hydrolysis and product(s) formed. Methods described in this study provide the ability to simultaneously and independently analyze the kinetics of multiple reaction components. An unintended outcome of this work was the development of a modified Lambert W(x) which includes a parameter to account for the thermal denaturation of enzyme. The results of this study demonstrate that the action of Sinapis alba myrosinase on natural and non-natural glucosinolates is consistent under the explored range of experimental conditions and in relation to previous accounts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Glucosinolatos/química
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química
Temperatura Alta
Proteínas de Plantas/química
Desnaturação Proteica
Sinapis/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Cinética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucosinolates); 0 (Plant Proteins); EC 3.2.1.- (Glycoside Hydrolases); EC 3.2.1.147 (thioglucosidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170821
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170821
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161106
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27419261
[Au] Autor:Urbaniak M; Zielinski M; Wyrwicka A
[Ad] Endereço:a European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology, Polish Academy of Sciences , Lodz , Poland.
[Ti] Título:The influence of the Cucurbitaceae on mitigating the phytotoxicity and PCDD/PCDF content of soil amended with sewage sludge.
[So] Source:Int J Phytoremediation;19(3):207-213, 2017 Mar 04.
[Is] ISSN:1549-7879
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The study evaluates the impact of sewage sludge on OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and vegetable soil phytotoxicity, measured using three test species: Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum, and total and TEQ PCDD/PCDF (toxic equivalency polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans) soil concentration, measured using HRGC/HRMS - High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. It also evaluates the effect of zucchini and cucumber cultivation during 5-weeks period on mitigating these parameters. The application of 3, 9 and 18 t/ha of sewage sludge gradually increases the phytotoxicity of both OECD and vegetable soil. In the case of OECD soil, the highest roots growth inhibitions were observed for S. alba (73%, 86% and 87%, respectively) and the lowest for S. saccharatum (7%, 59% and 70%), while in vegetable soil inhibitions were averagely 25% lower. Sludge application also led to a 38% (3 t/ha), 169% (9 t/ha) and 506% (18 t/ha) increase in PCDD/PCDF concentration, and the TEQs were augmented by 15%, 159% and 251%. Both soil phytotoxicity and total and TEQ PCDD/PCDF concentrations were diminished as a result of zucchini and cucumber cultivation. The maximum reduction of soil phytotoxicity (83%) was observed as an effect of cucumber cultivation, while zucchini was 11% less effective. Zucchini, in turn, was more efficient in PCDD/PCDF removal (37% reduction), followed by cucumber (24%). Such differences were not observed in the case of TEQ reductions (68% and 66% for zucchini and cucumber cultivation, respectively).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cucumis sativus/metabolismo
Cucurbita/metabolismo
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/metabolismo
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo
Esgotos/análise
Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biodegradação Ambiental
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/toxicidade
Lepidium sativum/efeitos dos fármacos
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade
Sinapis/efeitos dos fármacos
Solo/química
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
Sorghum/efeitos dos fármacos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated); 0 (Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins); 0 (Sewage); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160716
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15226514.2016.1207606


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[PMID]:27690424
[Au] Autor:Ortner E; Granvogl M; Schieberle P
[Ad] Endereço:Lehrstuhl für Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universität München , Lise-Meitner-Straße 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Elucidation of Thermally Induced Changes in Key Odorants of White Mustard Seeds (Sinapis alba L.) and Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) Using Molecular Sensory Science.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;64(43):8179-8190, 2016 Nov 02.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Heat-processing of Brassica seeds led to the formation of a characteristic pleasant popcorn-like and coffee-like aroma impression compared to the mainly pea-like aroma of the corresponding raw seeds. To analyze this phenomenon on a molecular basis, raw and roasted white mustard seeds and rapeseeds were analyzed using the sensomics approach. Application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) and identification experiments to raw and roasted (140 °C, 30 min) mustard seeds revealed 36 odorants (all identified for the first time) and 47 odorants (41 newly identified), respectively. Twenty-seven odorants in raw and 43 odorants in roasted (140 °C, 60 min) rapeseeds were found, which were all described for the first time. Among the set of volatiles, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (earthy, pea-like) and 4-ethenyl-2-methoxyphenol (clove-like, smoky) showed high FD factors in both raw seeds. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel-like), 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (earthy), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage-like), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) were present at high flavor dilution (FD) factors in both roasted Brassica seeds. Odorants, differing in cAEDA or showing high FD factors in at least one of the seeds, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), followed by the calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) using odor thresholds determined in refined sunflower oil. Eighteen aroma compounds in raw and 28 in roasted mustard seeds as well as 14 in raw and 25 in roasted rapeseeds revealed OAVs ≥1. All four aroma recombinates, prepared by mixing the odorants showing OAVs ≥1 in their naturally occurring concentrations, showed a very good similarity with the original seeds and, thus, proved the successful characterization of the respective key odorants.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Brassica napus/química
Odorantes/análise
Sementes/química
Sinapis/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Culinária
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Seres Humanos
Olfatometria/métodos
Técnica de Diluição de Radioisótopos
Limiar Sensorial
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170621
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170621
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161004
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27684593
[Au] Autor:Hechmi N; Bosso L; El-Bassi L; Scelza R; Testa A; Jedidi N; Rao MA
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Wastewater Treatment, Water Researches and Technologies Centre (CERTE), Technopole Borj Cedria BP 273, Soliman, 8020, Tunisia; National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, 43, Avenue Charles Nicolle, 1082, Tunis-Mahrajène, Tunisia.
[Ti] Título:Depletion of pentachlorophenol in soil microcosms with Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii as detoxification agents.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;165:547-554, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a toxic compound which is widely used as a wood preservative product and general biocide. It is persistent in the environment and has been classified as a persistent organic pollutant to be reclaimed in many countries. Fungal bioremediation is an emerging approach to rehabilitating areas fouled by recalcitrant xenobiotics. In the present study, we isolated two fungal strains from an artificially PCP-contaminated soil during a long-term bioremediation study and evaluated their potential as bioremediation agents in depletion and detoxification of PCP in soil microcosms. The two fungal strains were identified as: Byssochlamys nivea (Westling, 1909) and Scopulariopsis brumptii (Salvanet-Duval, 1935). PCP removal and toxicity were examined during 28 days of incubation. Bioaugmented microcosms revealed a 60% and 62% PCP removal by B. nivea and S. brumptii, respectively. Co-inoculation of B. nivea and S. brumptii showed a synergetic effect on PCP removal resulting in 95% and 80% PCP decrease when initial concentrations were 12.5 and 25 mg kg , respectively. Detoxification in bioaugmented soil and the efficient role of fungi in the rehabilitation of PCP contaminated soil were experimentally proven by toxicity assays. A decrease in inhibition of bioluminescence of Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 and an increase of germination index of mustard (Brassica alba) seeds were observed in the decontaminated soils.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Byssochlamys/metabolismo
Pentaclorofenol/metabolismo
Scopulariopsis/metabolismo
Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biodegradação Ambiental
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos
Luminescência
Pentaclorofenol/toxicidade
Sinapis/efeitos dos fármacos
Sinapis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Microbiologia do Solo
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil Pollutants); D9BSU0SE4T (Pentachlorophenol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171008
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171008
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160930
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27665682
[Au] Autor:Pedras MS; Park MR
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9, Canada. Electronic address: s.pedras@usask.ca.
[Ti] Título:The biosynthesis of brassicicolin A in the phytopathogen Alternaria brassicicola.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;132:26-32, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire is a phytopathogenic fungus that together with A. brassicae causes Alternaria black spot disease in Brassica species. Brassicicolin A is the major host-selective phytotoxin produced in cultures of A. brassicicola. Biosynthetic studies to establish the metabolic precursors of brassicicolin A were carried out with isotopically labeled compounds. Incorporation of D-[ C ]glucose, L-[ N]valine, or L-[ H ]valine into brassicicolin A was established using H, C, N NMR and INADEQUATE spectroscopy and HPLC-ESI-MS spectrometry. Based on analyses of the spectroscopic data, the labeling patterns of brassicicolin A isolated from cultures incubated with the labeled precursors are found to be consistent with both the glycolytic and the valine pathways. That is, the carbons of mannitol and acetyl units and the isocyanide carbon atoms are derived from D-[ C ]glucose whereas the hydroxyisopentanoyl and isocyanoisopentanoyl units are derived from L-valine, including the nitrogen atoms of both isocyanide groups.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alternaria/metabolismo
Mostardeira/microbiologia
Nitrilos/metabolismo
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
Glucose/metabolismo
Glicolatos/metabolismo
Nitrilos/química
Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
Sinapis
Valina/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glycolates); 0 (Nitriles); 0 (brassicicolin A); 0WT12SX38S (glycolic acid); HG18B9YRS7 (Valine); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160927
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27590049
[Au] Autor:Mazur R; Sadowska M; Kowalewska L; Abratowska A; Kalaji HM; Mostowska A; Garstka M; Krasnodebska-Ostrega B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Metabolic Regulation, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096, Warsaw, Poland. rmazur@biol.uw.edu.pl.
[Ti] Título:Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity.
[So] Source:BMC Plant Biol;16(1):191, 2016 Sep 02.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2229
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. RESULTS: We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 µg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 µg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 µg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the photosynthetic complexes were responsible for disappearance of the chloroplast grana. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the presented results we postulate two phases of thallium toxicity on photosynthesis: the non-destructive phase at early stages of toxicant accumulation and the destructive phase that is restricted to the discolored leaf areas containing high toxicant content. There was no distinct border between the two phases of thallium toxicity in leaves and the degree of toxicity was proportional to the migration rate of the toxicant outside the vascular bundles. The three-fold (nearly linear) increase of Tl(I) concentration was observed in damaged tissue and the damage appears to be associated with the presence of the oxidized form of thallium - Tl(III).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sinapis/efeitos dos fármacos
Sinapis/metabolismo
Tálio/toxicidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Intoxicação por Metais Pesados
Metais Pesados/toxicidade
Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Proteínas de Plantas/genética
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
Envenenamento
Sinapis/genética
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Soil Pollutants); AD84R52XLF (Thallium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160904
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12870-016-0883-4


  9 / 163 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27577694
[Au] Autor:Sora D; Kron P; Husband BC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Bioscience Complex, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Genetic and environmental determinants of unreduced gamete production in Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis and their hybrids.
[So] Source:Heredity (Edinb);117(6):440-448, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2540
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Unreduced gametes, sperm or egg cells with the somatic chromosome number, are an important mechanism of polyploid formation and gene flow between heteroploid plants. The meiotic processes leading to unreduced gamete formation are well documented, but the relative influence of environmental and genetic factors on the frequency of unreduced gametes remain largely untested. Furthermore, direct estimates of unreduced gametes based on DNA content are technically challenging and, hence, uncommon. Here, we use flow cytometry to measure the contribution of genetic (hybridization) and environmental (nutrient limitation, wounding) changes to unreduced male gamete production in Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis and two hybrid lines. Treatments were applied to greenhouse grown plants in a random factorial design, with pollen sampled at two time intervals. Overall, the frequency of unreduced gametes averaged 0.59% (range 0.06-2.17%), plus a single outlier with 27%. Backcrossed hybrids had 39 to 75% higher unreduced gamete production than parental genotypes, averaged across all treatments, although the statistical significance of these differences depended on sampling period and wounding treatment. Unreduced gamete frequencies were higher for the second sampling period than the first. There were no direct effects of wounding or nutrient regime. Our results indicate that both genetic and environmental factors can induce increased unreduced gametes, highlighting the potential importance of environmental heterogeneity and genetic composition of populations in driving polyploid evolution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Brassica napus/genética
Hibridização Genética
Ploidias
Pólen/fisiologia
Sinapis/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Evolução Biológica
Brassica napus/fisiologia
Cruzamentos Genéticos
Genótipo
Pólen/genética
Sinapis/fisiologia
Estresse Fisiológico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170626
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170626
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/hdy.2016.69


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[PMID]:27557966
[Au] Autor:Matheyarasu R; Seshadri B; Bolan NS; Naidu R
[Ad] Endereço:Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095, Australia. matry020@mymail.unisa.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Assessment of nitrogen losses through nitrous oxide from abattoir wastewater-irrigated soils.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;23(22):22633-22646, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The land disposal of waste and wastewater is a major source of N O emission. This is due to the presence of high concentrations of nitrogen (N) and carbon in the waste. Abattoir wastewater contains 186 mg/L of N and 30.4 mg/L of P. The equivalent of 3 kg of abattoir wastewater-irrigated soil was sieved and taken in a 4-L plastic container. Abattoir wastewater was used for irrigating the plants at the rates of 50 and 100 % field capacity (FC). Four crop species were used with no crop serving as a control. Nitrous oxide emission was monitored using a closed chamber technique. The chamber was placed inside the plastic container, and N O emission was measured for 7 days after the planting. A syringe and pre-evacuated vial were used for collecting the gas samples; a fresh and clean syringe was used each time to avoid cross-contamination. The collected gas samples were injected into a gas chromatography device immediately after each sampling to analyse the concentration of N O from different treatments. The overall N O emission was compared for all the crops under two different abattoir wastewater treatment rates (50 and 100 % FC). Under 100 % FC (wastewater irrigation), among the four species grown in the abattoir wastewater-irrigated soil, Medicago sativa (23 mg/pot), Sinapis alba (21 mg/pot), Zea mays (20 mg/pot) and Helianthus annuus (20 mg/pot) showed higher N O emission compared to the 50 % treatments-M. sativa (17 mg/pot), S. alba (17 mg/pot), Z. mays (18 mg/pot) and H. annuus (18 mg/pot). Similarly, pots with plants have shown 15 % less emission than the pots without plants. Similar trends of N O emission flux were observed between the irrigation period (4-week period) for 50 % FC and 100 % FC. Under the 100 % FC loading rate treatments, the highest N O emission was in the following order: week 1 > week 4 > week 3 > week 2. On the other hand, under the 50 % FC loading rate treatments, the highest N O emission was recorded in the first few weeks and in the following order: week 1 > week 2 > week 3 > week > 4. Since N O is a greenhouse gas with high global warming potential, its emission from wastewater irrigation is likely to impact global climate change. Therefore, it is important to examine the effects of abattoir wastewater irrigation on soil for N O emission potential.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Nitrogênio/análise
Óxido Nitroso/análise
Solo/química
Águas Residuais/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Matadouros
Irrigação Agrícola
Dióxido de Carbono/análise
Mudança Climática
Helianthus/química
Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Medicago sativa/química
Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Sinapis/química
Sinapis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Zea mays/química
Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil); 0 (Waste Water); 142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide); K50XQU1029 (Nitrous Oxide); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160826
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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