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Pesquisa : B01.650.940.800.575.912.250.192.500 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:28446195
[Au] Autor:Jayasinghe CD; Gunasekera DS; De Silva N; Jayawardena KKM; Udagama PV
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Zoology & Environment Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Colombo, Colombo, 3, Sri Lanka.
[Ti] Título:Mature leaf concentrate of Sri Lankan wild type Carica papaya Linn. modulates nonfunctional and functional immune responses of rats.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):230, 2017 Apr 26.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. METHODS: Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0.18, 0.36 and 0.72 ml/100g body weight) of the MLCC once daily for 3 consecutive days. Selected nonfunctional (enumeration of immune cells and cytokine levels) and functional (cell proliferation and phagocytic activity) immunological parameters, and acute toxic effects were determined using standard methods. Effect of the MLCC (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml) on ex vivo proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMC) and splenocytes (SC), and in vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and their corresponding cytokine responses were evaluated. The phytochemical profile of the MLCC was established using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LS-MS) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: Counts of rat platelets, total leukocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte sub populations, and BMCs were significantly augmented by oral gavage of the MLCC (p < 0.05). The highest MLCC dose tested herein significantly reduced pro inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF α) levels of rats (p < 0.05). The in vivo phagocytic index of rat PMs significantly increased by oral gavage of all three doses of the MLCC (p < 0.05). In vitro phagocytic activity of rat PMs were enhanced by the MLCC and triggered a Th1 biased cytokine response. The MLCC at low concentrations elicited ex vivo proliferation of BMC (31.25 µg/ml) and SC (31.25 and 62.5 µg/ml) respectively. Conversely, high concentrations (500 and 1000 µg/ml) exhibited cytotoxicity of both BMC and SC with significant modulation of cytokines. Chemical profile of the MLCC revealed the presence of several immunomodulatory compounds. The oral gavage of the MLCC was found to be safe in terms of both hepatic and renal toxicities. CONCLUSION: The present study established that the mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of Carica papaya Sri Lankan wild type cultivar is orally active, safe and effectively modulates nonfunctional and functional immunological parameters of rats that unequivocally corroborate the traditional medical claims.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica
Citocinas/metabolismo
Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos
Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas
Plaquetas/metabolismo
Células da Medula Óssea
Feminino
Sistema Imunitário/citologia
Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo
Inflamação/metabolismo
Interleucina-6/metabolismo
Leucócitos/metabolismo
Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos
Macrófagos/metabolismo
Masculino
Fagócitos/metabolismo
Folhas de Planta
Ratos Wistar
Baço/citologia
Sri Lanka
Células Th1/metabolismo
Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cytokines); 0 (Immunologic Factors); 0 (Interleukin-6); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170731
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170731
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1742-z


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Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria
Texto completo SciELO Brasil
[PMID]:28380118
[Au] Autor:Moraes D; Levenhagen MA; Costa-Cruz JM; Costa AP; Rodrigues RM
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Federal de Goiás, Laboratório de Parasitologia, Jataí, Goiás, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.
[So] Source:Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo;59:e7, 2017 Apr 03.
[Is] ISSN:1678-9946
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica/química
Látex/farmacologia
Papaína/farmacologia
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Strongyloides/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Látex/isolamento & purificação
Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos
Papaína/isolamento & purificação
Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Latex); 0 (Plant Extracts); EC 3.4.22.2 (Papain)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170601
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170601
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170406
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28380069
[Au] Autor:Piñero JC; Souder SK; Vargas RI
[Ad] Endereço:Cooperative Research and Extension, Lincoln University, Jefferson City, Missouri, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Vision-mediated exploitation of a novel host plant by a tephritid fruit fly.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0174636, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Shortly after its introduction into the Hawaiian Islands around 1895, the polyphagous, invasive fruit fly Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was provided the opportunity to expand its host range to include a novel host, papaya (Carica papaya). It has been documented that female B. cucurbitae rely strongly on vision to locate host fruit. Given that the papaya fruit is visually conspicuous in the papaya agro-ecosystem, we hypothesized that female B. cucurbitae used vision as the main sensory modality to find and exploit the novel host fruit. Using a comparative approach that involved a series of studies under natural and semi-natural conditions in Hawaii, we assessed the ability of female B. cucurbitae to locate and oviposit in papaya fruit using the sensory modalities of olfaction and vision alone and also in combination. The results of these studies demonstrate that, under a variety of conditions, volatiles emitted by the novel host do not positively stimulate the behavior of the herbivore. Rather, vision seems to be the main mechanism driving the exploitation of the novel host. Volatiles emitted by the novel host papaya fruit did not contribute in any way to the visual response of females. Our findings highlight the remarkable role of vision in the host-location process of B. cucurbitae and provide empirical evidence for this sensory modality as a potential mechanism involved in host range expansion.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica
Tephritidae/fisiologia
Visão Ocular/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Feminino
Hawaii
Espécies Introduzidas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170406
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174636


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[PMID]:28252169
[Au] Autor:Poltronieri TP; Silveira SF; Vivas M; Santa Catarina R; Cortes DF; Azevedo AO; Pereira MG
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratório de Entomologia e Fitopatologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brasil tathianne_pastana@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Selecting black-spot resistant papaya genotypes derived from backcrossing and hybrids.
[So] Source:Genet Mol Res;16(1), 2017 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1676-5680
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Papaya crop is important to Brazilian agribusiness. However, the expansion of papaya cultivation in the country is affected by the absence of commercial cultivars presenting good disease resistance. The black-spot caused by the fungus Asperisporium caricae is the most damaging foliar disease affecting Brazilian papaya crops. The use of genetically resistant cultivars is a promising strategy to reduce the dependence of papaya crops on fungicides. A field split-plot experiment was carried out in the municipality of Linhares, Espírito Santo State, and included 20 hybrids derived from the cross between 14 superior lines and four elite genotypes ('SS72/12', 'SEKATI', 'JS/12' and '41/7'), two commercial cultivars ('Golden' and 'Tainung 01'), and the superior line '36/7', which were evaluated for resistance to black-spot in the fruits and leaves. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with six repetitions of three plants per plot. The incidence and severity of black spot in the fruits and leaves were evaluated at three different times in the 2015-2016 crop season. Lines 4, 9, 21, and the parent SEKATI were notable for their capacity to reduce disease severity in the leaves and fruits. Lines 1, 2, 9, 16, and 19, and the parents 'SEKATI' and 'SS-72/12' had reduced disease incidence in their fruits. The most resistant hybrids 'SS-72/12 X 4', 'SS-72/12 X 6', 'SEKATI X 1', 'SEKATI X 2', 'SEKATI X 6', 'SEKATI X 9', and 'SEKATI X 20' presented negative heterosis values for improved black-spot resistance. The current study allowed the selection of black-spot resistant genotypes and hybrids, which presented a significantly reduced disease index in the field.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica/genética
Produtos Agrícolas/genética
Resistência à Doença/genética
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos
Doenças das Plantas/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ascomicetos/fisiologia
Brasil
Carica/microbiologia
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia
Frutas/genética
Frutas/microbiologia
Genótipo
Vigor Híbrido/genética
Hibridização Genética
Endogamia
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Folhas de Planta/genética
Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170317
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170317
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4238/gmr16019401


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[PMID]:28231288
[Au] Autor:Jue D; Sang X; Shu B; Liu L; Wang Y; Jia Z; Zou Y; Shi S
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Biology (Ministry of Agriculture), South Subtropical Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Zhanjiang, China.
[Ti] Título:Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0171357, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica/genética
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
Proteínas de Plantas/genética
Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Aminoácidos
Carica/química
Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Genes de Plantas
Filogenia
Proteínas de Plantas/análise
Alinhamento de Sequência
Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Proteins); EC 2.3.2.23 (Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170816
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170816
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170224
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0171357


  6 / 718 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28229228
[Au] Autor:Ouattara A; Tiendrébéogo F; Lefeuvre P; Hoareau M; Claverie S; Traoré EV; Barro N; Traoré O; Varsani A; Lett JM
[Ad] Endereço:INERA, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou, 01, Burkina Faso.
[Ti] Título:New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on diseased papaya and tomato plants in Burkina Faso.
[So] Source:Arch Virol;162(6):1791-1794, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1432-8798
[Cp] País de publicação:Austria
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This is the first description of full genome sequences of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae) identified in papaya and tomato plants sampled in Burkina Faso. The CpCDV full genome sequences from papaya and tomato share the highest pairwise sequence identity (84% and 93.5%) with Sudanese isolates of the CpCDV-K and CpCDV-M strains, respectively. Based on the strain demarcation threshold (>94% identity) for mastreviruses, we propose two new strains, CpCDV-Q and CpCDV-R, identified in papaya and tomato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences belong to a distinct clade of the highly diverse population of CpCDVs. Evidence of inter-strain recombination provided more support for the important role of recombination in CpCDV evolution. The discovery of CpCDV on papaya, a previously unsuspected host, raises many questions about the natural and potential host range of this dicot-infecting mastrevirus species that is reported to be emerging worldwide.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica/virologia
Cicer/virologia
Geminiviridae/isolamento & purificação
Doenças das Plantas/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sequência de Bases
Burkina Faso
Geminiviridae/classificação
Geminiviridae/genética
Genoma Viral
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Filogenia
RNA Viral/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (RNA, Viral)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170630
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170630
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170224
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00705-017-3262-z


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[PMID]:28194565
[Au] Autor:Fragoso G; Hernández M; Cervantes-Torres J; Ramírez-Aquino R; Chapula H; Villalobos N; Segura-Velázquez R; Figueroa A; Flores I; Jiménez H; Adalid L; Rosas G; Galvez L; Pezzat E; Monreal-Escalante E; Rosales-Mendoza S; Vazquez LG; Sciutto E
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, CP 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.
[Ti] Título:Transgenic papaya: a useful platform for oral vaccines.
[So] Source:Planta;245(5):1037-1048, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2048
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:MAIN CONCLUSION: Transgenic papaya callus lines expressing the components of the S3Pvac vaccine constitute a stable platform to produce an oral vaccine against cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium or T. crassiceps. The development of effective delivery systems to cope with the reduced immunogenicity of new subunit vaccines is a priority in vaccinology. Herein, experimental evidence supporting a papaya-based platform to produce needle-free, recombinant, highly immunogenic vaccines is shown. Papaya (Carica papaya) callus lines were previously engineered by particle bombardment to express the three protective peptides of the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine (KETc7, KETc12, KETc1). Calli were propagated in vitro, and a stable integration and expression of the target genes has been maintained, as confirmed by PCR, qRT-PCR, and HPLC. These results point papaya calli as a suitable platform for long-term transgenic expression of the vaccine peptides. The previously demonstrated protective immunogenic efficacy of S3Pvac-papaya orally administered to mice is herein confirmed in a wider dose-range and formulated with different delivery vehicles, adequate for oral vaccination. This protection is accompanied by an increase in anti-S3Pvac antibody titers and a delayed hypersensitivity response against the vaccine. A significant increase in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte proliferation was induced in vitro by each vaccine peptide in mice immunized with the lowest dose of S3Pvac papaya (0.56 ng of the three peptides in 0.1 µg of papaya callus total protein per mouse). In pigs, the obliged intermediate host for Taenia solium, S3Pvac papaya was also immunogenic when orally administered in a two-log dose range. Vaccinated pigs significantly increased anti-vaccine antibodies and mononuclear cell proliferation. Overall, the oral immunogenicity of this stable S3Pvac-papaya vaccine in mice and pigs, not requiring additional adjuvants, supports the interest in papaya callus as a useful platform for plant-based vaccines.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia
Carica/metabolismo
Cisticercose/veterinária
Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
Taenia solium/imunologia
Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Oral
Animais
Antígenos de Helmintos/administração & dosagem
Carica/genética
Carica/imunologia
Cisticercose/parasitologia
Cisticercose/prevenção & controle
Feminino
Imunização
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Suínos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Vaccines, Synthetic)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171005
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171005
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00425-017-2658-z


  8 / 718 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28157616
[Au] Autor:Olu-Owolabi BI; Alabi AH; Diagboya PN; Unuabonah EI; Düring RA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[Ti] Título:Adsorptive removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in aqueous solution using calcined kaolinite-biomass composites.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;192:94-99, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Synergistically combined low-cost composites may be effective for the potential treatment of effluents containing organic pollutants. Hence, preparation of Carica-papaya-modified-kaolinite (CPK) and pine-cone-modified-kaolinite (PCK) composites via calcination of pure kaolinite (KAC), Carica-papaya and pine-cone seeds is demonstrated. The composites' specific surface areas were reduced by more than 57% but no structural modification in KAC lattice d-spacing, indicating impregnation of calcined biomass on clay surfaces and pores. However, composites' cation exchange capacities were enhanced over 4-fold, indicating higher potential for adsorption. Adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on composites and KAC showed that CPK and PCK attained equilibrium relatively faster (30 min) compared to KAC (60 min). Modeling studies showed that 2,4,6-trichlorophenol removal mechanisms involved electrostatic interactions on sites of similar energy. Modification enhanced adsorption by 52 and 250% in PCK and CPK, respectively, and adsorption increased with temperature.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica
Clorofenóis/química
Caulim/química
Pinus
Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adsorção
Biomassa
Cinética
Sementes
Temperatura Ambiente
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chlorophenols); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 24H4NWX5CO (Kaolin); MHS8C5BAUZ (2,4,6-trichlorophenol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170428
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170428
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 718 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28134060
[Au] Autor:Phiri AM; DE Pomerai DI; Buttle DJ; Behnke JM
[Ad] Endereço:School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham,Nottingham NG7 2RD,UK.
[Ti] Título:A novel assay for the detection of anthelmintic activity mediated by cuticular damage to nematodes: validation on Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to cysteine proteinases.
[So] Source:Parasitology;144(5):583-593, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1469-8161
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) from Carica papaya kill parasitic and free-living nematodes in vitro by hydrolysis of the worm cuticle, a mechanism that is different to all commercially available synthetic anthelmintics. We have developed a cheap and effective, rapid-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans-based assay for screening plant CP extracts for anthelmintic activity targeting cuticular integrity. The assay exploits colorimetric methodology for assessment of cuticular damage, and is based on the ability of viable cells to incorporate and bind Neutral red dye within lysosomes and to release the dye when damaged. Living worms are pre-stained with the dye, exposed to CPs and then leakage of the dye through the damaged cuticle is quantified by spectrophotometry. In contrast to motility assays and semi-subjective interpretation of microscopical images, this colorimetric assay is independent of observer bias. Our assay was applied to a series of C. elegans bus mutant strains with leaky cuticles and to cystatin knockout mutants. At ambient temperature and over 0.5-24 h, both bus mutants and the cystatin knockouts were highly susceptible to CPs, whereas wild-type Bristol N2 worms were essentially unstained by Neutral red and unaffected by CPs, providing validation for the utility of this assay.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos
Carica/enzimologia
Cisteína Proteases/farmacologia
Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética
Caenorhabditis elegans/ultraestrutura
Cistatinas/genética
Cisteína Proteases/isolamento & purificação
Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase
Indicadores e Reagentes
Mutação
Vermelho Neutro
Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anthelmintics); 0 (Cystatins); 0 (Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors); 0 (Indicators and Reagents); 0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Protozoan Proteins); 261QK3SSBH (Neutral Red); EC 3.4.- (Cysteine Proteases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170927
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170927
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0031182016002353


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[PMID]:28082282
[Au] Autor:Wu M; Lewis J; Moore RC
[Ad] Endereço:Miami University, Department of Biology, 212 Pearson Hall, Oxford, Ohio 45056 USA.
[Ti] Título:A wild origin of the loss-of-function lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-b) allele in cultivated, red-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya).
[So] Source:Am J Bot;104(1):116-126, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2197
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The red flesh of some papaya cultivars is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the coding region of the chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene (CYC-b). We performed an evolutionary genetic analysis of the CYC-b locus in wild and cultivated papaya to uncover the origin of this loss-of-function allele in cultivated papaya. METHODS: We analyzed the levels and patterns of genetic diversity at the CYC-b locus and six loci in a 100-kb region flanking CYC-b and compared these to genetic diversity levels at neutral autosomal loci. The evolutionary relationships of CYC-b haplotypes were assessed using haplotype network analysis of the CYC-b locus and the 100-kb CYC-b region. KEY RESULTS: Genetic diversity at the recessive CYC-b allele (y) was much lower relative to the dominant Y allele found in yellow-fleshed wild and cultivated papaya due to a strong selective sweep. Haplotype network analyses suggest the y allele most likely arose in the wild and was introduced into domesticated varieties after the first papaya domestication event. The shared haplotype structure between some wild, feral, and cultivated haplotypes around the y allele supports subsequent escape of this allele from red cultivars back into wild populations through feral intermediates. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports a protracted domestication process of papaya through the introgression of wild-derived traits and gene flow from cultivars to wild populations. Evidence of gene flow from cultivars to wild populations through feral intermediates has implications for the introduction of transgenic papaya into Central American countries.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carica/genética
Evolução Molecular
Variação Genética
Liases Intramoleculares/genética
Proteínas de Plantas/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alelos
Carica/classificação
Carica/enzimologia
América Central
Fluxo Gênico
Frequência do Gene
Genética Populacional
Haplótipos
Liases Intramoleculares/classificação
Modelos Genéticos
Mutação
Fenótipo
Filogenia
Proteínas de Plantas/classificação
Plastídeos/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Plant Proteins); EC 5.5.- (Intramolecular Lyases); EC 5.5.- (lycopene cyclase-isomerase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170815
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170815
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170114
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3732/ajb.1600301



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