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  1 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28154334
[Au] Autor:Sugimoto S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacognosy Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University.
[Ti] Título:The Chemical Constituents of Uninvestigated Plants in Hiroshima Prefecture.
[So] Source:Yakugaku Zasshi;137(2):215-220, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5231
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Ab] Resumo:Recently, the investigation of bioactive constituents from natural products has been performed extensively around the world, yet many plants remain to be studied, even now. The author is especially interested in saponins, which are included in various natural products and Kampo medicines. Based on these study aims, we isolated the chemical constituents of Dianthus japonicus and Clethra barbinervis. The aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus were isolated into nine new (1-9) and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins. The structural elucidation of their chemical constituents was examined by several spectroscopic methods. Two new C-glycosyl flavones, two glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amides and a maltol glucoside were also isolated from this plant. The isolated compounds were evaluated according to cytotoxic inhibition toward A549 cell lines. Compounds 7-9 showed moderate inhibitory activity. The isolation of a MeOH extract of Clethra barbinervis leaves led to three new triterpene glucosides, i.e. an ursane (ryobunin A, 22), a seco-ursane (ryobunin B, 23) and an oleanane-type glucoside (ryobunin C, 24), along with four known compounds.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clethraceae/química
Dianthus/química
Saponinas/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Células A549
Antibacterianos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos
Produtos Biológicos
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Flavonas/química
Flavonas/isolamento & purificação
Flavonas/farmacologia
Glucosídeos/química
Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação
Glucosídeos/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Japão
Saponinas/química
Saponinas/farmacologia
Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
ortoaminobenzoatos/química
ortoaminobenzoatos/isolamento & purificação
ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Biological Products); 0 (Flavones); 0 (Glucosides); 0 (Saponins); 0 (Triterpenes); 0 (ortho-Aminobenzoates); 0 (ursane); 0YS975XI6W (anthranilic acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1248/yakushi.16-00205


  2 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28030648
[Au] Autor:Yamaji K; Watanabe Y; Masuya H; Shigeto A; Yui H; Haruma T
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(12):e0169089, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this species' ability to tolerate the sites' severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clethraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Alimentos
Intoxicação por Metais Pesados
Metais Pesados/toxicidade
Mineração
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Envenenamento/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biodegradação Ambiental
Clethraceae/efeitos dos fármacos
Clethraceae/microbiologia
Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos
Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
Envenenamento/etiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161229
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0169089


  3 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26119806
[Au] Autor:Azuma AK; Tomioka R; Takenaka C
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate School of Bioagricultural Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of microelement contents in Clethra barbinervis as food for human and animals in contrasting geological areas.
[So] Source:Environ Geochem Health;38(2):437-48, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2983
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The young leaves of Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc, which is a deciduous tree species found in secondary forests widely in Japan, are used in spring as a local traditional food by local populations, and the bark of this plant is also preferred by sika deer, Cervus nippon. However, C. barbinervis has been known to accumulate heavy metals in its leaves. Then, we aimed to clarify the characteristics of microelement contents in C. barbinervis and to discuss the value of this species as food for humans and animals through the analysis of seasonal changes and distribution in various organs of C. barbinervis growing under two different geological conditions. We found that C. barbinervis is an accumulating and tolerant plant for Ni, Co and Mn. It accumulates Ni from serpentine soil containing Ni at high concentration, and Co and Mn from acidic soils based on crystalline schist. The seasonal variation in element concentrations in leaves indicates that the young leaves contain Cu at high concentration and that eating them in spring season may be advantageous to humans, due to the associated increase in Cu intake. The high concentrations of Cu and Zn in the bark of C. barbinervis might explain why deer prefer to eat the bark of this species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clethraceae/química
Alimentos
Geologia
Metais Pesados/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1611
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150630
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10653-015-9731-y


  4 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26370968
[Au] Autor:Yamaguchi T; Tomioka R; Takenaka C
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan. yamaguchi.tsuyoshi@j.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Título:Can Clethra barbinervis Distinguish Nickel and Cobalt in Uptake and Translocation?
[So] Source:Int J Mol Sci;16(9):21378-91, 2015 Sep 07.
[Is] ISSN:1422-0067
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. accumulates Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) at high concentrations., We hypothesized that C. barbinervis cannot distinguish between Ni and Co because of the similar chemical properties of these two elements. To confirm this hypothesis and understand the role of these elements in C. barbinervis, we conducted a hydroponic split-root experiment using Ni and Co solutions. We found that the bioconcentration factor (BCF; metal concentration of each tissue/metal concentrations of each treatment solution) of Ni and Co did not significantly differ in the roots, but the BCF for Co was higher than that for Ni in the leaves. The leaves of C. barbinervis accumulated Ni or Co at high concentrations. We also found the simultaneous accumulation of Ni and Co by the multiple heavy metal treatments (Ni and Co) at high concentrations similar to those for the single treatments (Ni or Co). Elevated sulfur concentrations occurred in the roots and leaves of Co-treated seedlings but not in Ni. This result indicates that S was related to Co accumulation in the leaves. These results suggest that C. barbinervis distinguishes between Ni and Co during transport and accumulation in the leaves but not during root uptake.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clethraceae/metabolismo
Cobalto/metabolismo
Níquel/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Transporte Biológico
Biomassa
Clethraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fotossíntese
Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
3G0H8C9362 (Cobalt); 7OV03QG267 (Nickel)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151027
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151027
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3390/ijms160921378


  5 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:23649201
[Au] Autor:Sugimoto S; Matsunami K; Otsuka H
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Structures of ryobunins A-C from the leaves of Clethra barbinervis.
[So] Source:Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo);61(5):581-6, 2013.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5223
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:From a MeOH extract of the leaves of Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc., ryobunins A-C, three new triterpene glucosides, i.e. one ursane, one seco-ursane and one oleanane-type glucoside, along with four known compounds were isolated. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral evidence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clethraceae/química
Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação
Saponinas/isolamento & purificação
Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Glucosídeos/química
Estrutura Molecular
Extratos Vegetais/química
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Folhas de Planta/química
Saponinas/química
Estereoisomerismo
Triterpenos/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Glucosides); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Saponins); 0 (Triterpenes)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1401
[Cu] Atualização por classe:130507
[Lr] Data última revisão:
130507
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:130508
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:23207679
[Au] Autor:Murata T; Suzuki A; Mafune N; Sato E; Miyase T; Yoshizaki F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacognosy, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Sendai 981-8558, Japan. murata-t@tohoku-pharm.ac.jp
[Ti] Título:Triterpene saponins from Clethra barbinervis and their hyaluronidase inhibitory activities.
[So] Source:Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo);61(2):134-43, 2013.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5223
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:An extract of Clethra barbinervis with an inhibitory effect on hyaluronidase activity was fractionated guided by the results of an assay. From the active fractions, seven new triterpene saponins (1-4, 6-8) and a new lignan glycoside (14) were isolated together with 14 known compounds (5, 9-13, 15-22). Some of the saponins (2, 3, 9) were revealed as hyaluronidase inhibitors similar to epicatechin (17).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clethraceae/química
Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores
Saponinas/química
Triterpenos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
Conformação Molecular
Ligação Proteica
Saponinas/isolamento & purificação
Saponinas/metabolismo
Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
Triterpenos/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Saponins); 0 (Triterpenes); EC 3.2.1.35 (Hyaluronoglucosaminidase)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1308
[Cu] Atualização por classe:130201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
130201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:121205
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:22442339
[Au] Autor:Schönenberger J; von Balthazar M; Takahashi M; Xiao X; Crane PR; Herendeen PS
[Ad] Endereço:Department for Structural and Functional Botany, Faculty Centre of Biodiversity, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, Austria. juerg.schoenenberger@univie.ac.at
[Ti] Título:Glandulocalyx upatoiensis, a fossil flower of Ericales (Actinidiaceae/Clethraceae) from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) of Georgia, USA.
[So] Source:Ann Bot;109(5):921-36, 2012 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8290
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ericales are a major group of extant asterid angiosperms that are well represented in the Late Cretaceous fossil record, mainly by flowers, fruits and seeds. Exceptionally well preserved fossil flowers, here described as Glandulocalyx upatoiensis gen. & sp. nov., from the Santonian of Georgia, USA, yield new detailed evidence of floral structure in one of these early members of Ericales and provide a secure basis for comparison with extant taxa. METHODS: The floral structure of several fossil specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy of microtome thin sections and synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). For direct comparisons with flowers of extant Ericales, selected floral features of Actinidiaceae and Clethraceae were studied with SEM. KEY RESULTS: Flowers of G. upatoiensis have five sepals with quincuncial aestivation, five free petals with quincuncial aestivation, 20-28 stamens arranged in a single series, extrorse anther orientation in the bud, ventral anther attachment and a tricarpellate, syncarpous ovary with three free styles and numerous small ovules on axile, protruding-diffuse and pendant placentae. The calyx is characterized by a conspicuous indumentum of large, densely arranged, multicellular and possibly glandular trichomes. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison with extant taxa provides clear evidence for a relationship with core Ericales comprised of the extant families Actinidiaceae, Roridulaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Clethraceae, Cyrillaceae and Ericaceae. Within this group, the most marked similarities are with extant Actinidiaceae and, to a lesser degree, with Clethraceae. More detailed analyses of the relationships of Glandulocalyx and other Ericales from the Late Cretaceous will require an improved understanding of the morphological features that diagnose particular extant groups defined on the basis of molecular data.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Actinidiaceae/anatomia & histologia
Evolução Biológica
Clethraceae/anatomia & histologia
Flores/anatomia & histologia
Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Actinidiaceae/genética
Clethraceae/genética
Flores/genética
Flores/ultraestrutura
Fósseis
Frutas/anatomia & histologia
Frutas/genética
Georgia
Magnoliopsida/genética
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
Filogenia
Sementes/anatomia & histologia
Sementes/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1407
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:120324
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/aob/mcs009


  8 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:18567311
[Au] Autor:Roohparvar R; Taher MA; Mohadesi A
[Ad] Endereço:Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 76175-133, Kerman, Iran.
[Ti] Título:Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.
[So] Source:J AOAC Int;91(3):637-45, 2008 May-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1060-3271
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cobre/análise
Níquel/análise
Plantas/química
Espectrofotometria/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adsorção
Compostos Azo
Compostos Cromogênicos
Clethraceae/química
Clethraceae/toxicidade
Cobre/normas
Cobre/toxicidade
Formazans
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise
Níquel/normas
Níquel/toxicidade
Plantas/toxicidade
Padrões de Referência
Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
Espectrofotometria/normas
Zeolitas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Azo Compounds); 0 (Chromogenic Compounds); 0 (Formazans); 12173-10-3 (clinoptilolite); 1318-02-1 (Zeolites); 721EU9HRUT (2-carboxy-2'-hydroxy-5'-sulfoformazylbenzene); 789U1901C5 (Copper); 7OV03QG267 (Nickel)
[Em] Mês de entrada:0808
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:080624
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:15007710
[Au] Autor:Kubota M; McGonigle TP; Hyakumachi M
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1193, Gifu , Japan. hyakumac@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp
[Ti] Título:Co-occurrence of Arum- and Paris-type morphologies of arbuscular mycorrhizae in cucumber and tomato.
[So] Source:Mycorrhiza;15(2):73-7, 2005 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0940-6360
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Clethra barbinervis (Ericales) grown in field-collected soil known from previous studies to generate Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizae in C. barbinervis. Spores of Paraglomus, Acaulospora, Glomus, and Gigaspora were found in the soil. Formation of hyphal coils and arbusculate coils of Paris-type mycorrhizae and of arbuscules of Arum-type mycorrhizae in roots raised in this soil in the growth chamber were compared with the detection of DNA of AM fungi from the same root systems using Glomales-specific primers. Only Paris-type mycorrhizae with extensive arbusculate coils developed in C. barbinervis, but cucumber and tomato developed both Paris- and Arum-types in the same root systems. Glomaceae and Archaeosporaceae and/or Paraglomaceae were detected strongly in the DNA from both cucumber and tomato roots, in which Arum-type mycorrhizae were observed. In contrast, DNA of Glomaceae was detected more sparingly in C. barbinervis, in which Paris-type mycorrhizae dominated. Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae were strongly detected in the DNA from both C. barbinervis and tomato, whereas they were more weakly detected in cucumber. These results indicate that the morphology of colonization is strongly influenced by the selection of fungi to colonize the host plant from among those in the soil environment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cucumis/microbiologia
Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia
Micorrizas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Clethraceae/microbiologia
Fungos/fisiologia
Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:0701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:040310
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 10 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:15516516
[Au] Autor:Turgeon R; Medville R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. ert2@cornell.edu
[Ti] Título:Phloem loading. A reevaluation of the relationship between plasmodesmatal frequencies and loading strategies.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol;136(3):3795-803, 2004 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:0032-0889
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The incidence of plasmodesmata in the minor vein phloem of leaves varies widely between species. On this basis, two pathways of phloem loading have been proposed: symplastic where frequencies are high, and apoplastic where they are low. However, putative symplastic-loading species fall into at least two categories. In one, the plants translocate raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs). In the other, the primary sugar in the phloem sap is sucrose (Suc). While a thermodynamically feasible mechanism of symplastic loading has been postulated for species that transport RFOs, no such mechanism is known for Suc transporters. We used p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid inhibition of apoplastic loading to distinguish between the two pathways in three species that have abundant minor vein plasmodesmata and are therefore putative symplastic loaders. Clethra barbinervis and Liquidambar styraciflua transport Suc, while Catalpa speciosa transports RFOs. The results indicate that, contrary to the hypothesis that all species with abundant minor vein plasmodesmata load symplastically, C. barbinervis and L. styraciflua load from the apoplast. C. speciosa, being an RFO transporter, loads from the symplast, as expected. Data from these three species, and from the literature, also indicate that plants with abundant plasmodesmata in the minor vein phloem have abundant plasmodesmata between mesophyll cells. Thus, plasmodesmatal frequencies in the minor veins may be a reflection of overall frequencies in the lamina and may have limited relevance to phloem loading. We suggest that symplastic loading is restricted to plants that translocate oligosaccharides larger than Suc, such as RFOs, and that other plants, no matter how many plasmodesmata they have in the minor vein phloem, load via the apoplast.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bignoniaceae/metabolismo
Clethraceae/metabolismo
Liquidambar/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bignoniaceae/citologia
Bignoniaceae/ultraestrutura
Transporte Biológico Ativo/fisiologia
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos
Clethraceae/citologia
Clethraceae/ultraestrutura
Liquidambar/citologia
Liquidambar/ultraestrutura
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Plasmodesmos/fisiologia
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:0501
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:041102
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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